The Impacts Of Decentralization In Indonesia Tourism Essay Example
The Impacts Of Decentralization In Indonesia Tourism Essay Example

The Impacts Of Decentralization In Indonesia Tourism Essay Example

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  • Pages: 16 (4240 words)
  • Published: October 12, 2017
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South East Asia is a contributing part for the growing and development of democracy. It can be seen from its rapid growing in the last decennaries. What has been go oning in several South East Asiatic states such as Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia are few little illustrations of contemplation of political kineticss confronting by democracy in this part.

It is undeniable that any autocratic and centralist governmental systems are can non convey people into a better life. The system has been proven to be failed in many developing states including Indonesia. Decentralization has become an imperative affair in the democracy procedure of a state. In fact, those states with a strong autocratic governmental system presently have been seeking so difficult to plan their political administration heading for a decentalisation footing so that they seems to be democratic states.

Indonesia under Soeh


artos New Order epoch had besides did the same manner ; a decentalisation system was besides introduced within its centralist governmental system, nevertheless, it was an imitation of a pseudo-decentralization meant merely to cover up the existent autocratic system prevailed so that Indonesia seemed to be a democratic state at that minute.

Since the reform started in 1998 marked by the autumn of Soeharto government, Indonesia has been developed cardinal alterations in many facets of life such as economic system, societal, cultural and political relations. The execution of decentalisation as a replacement of centralisation system constitutes an grounds of a stronger democracy system in Indonesia, and as an consequence of major political alteration in Indonesia. The execution of decentalisation was based on Indonesia Law No. 22 of the twelvemonth 1999 which subsequently amended by the Law No. 32

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of the twelvemonth 2004. There are many experts on political scientific discipline stated that by implementing decentalisation system, Indonesia has been included into `` Big-Bang Theory '' ( citing a term of Astronomic Theory ) . Decentralization to be said as `` Big-Bang '' because it brings an extraordinary impact on system of administration in Indonesia along with any extremist displacements refering authorization and duty from cardinal authorities down to local authorities both metropolis and regency authoritiess as independent countries. Other than that, `` Big-bang '' decentalisation has stimulated the being of new territories all over Indonesia, good known as catchment country / territorial reform. It besides brings an institutional alteration deduction that is dividing/reforming one territory into two or three new territories, nevertheless, decentalisation besides enables fusion of two to go one ; but this has non take topographic point in Indonesia yet. The execution of catchment country itself refers to Government Regulation No 19 of the twelvemonth 2000 which subsequently amended by Government Regulation No 48 of twelvemonth 2007. The phenomenon was the outgrowth of new parts either its states or districts/cities in all over Indonesia.

Based on Government ordinance No 78 of twelvemonth 2007, the demands of organizing new territory/districts can be divided into the undermentioned three:

Technical Requirements: including specific factor of factor class: administrative capableness, handiness to public service, economical capableness and echt credence potency, societal cultural, socio-politics, territorial breadth and geographical status, security/defense and other factors that enable the execution of regional liberty.

Administrative Requirements: including blessing of pertinent Regency/City Regional House of People 's Representatives and Regent/Mayor, blessing of Province Regional House of People 's Representatives and Governor, and besides recommendation

of curate of Department of Internal Affairs.

Physical Requirements: including the handiness of offices/facilities substructure for the authorities of new territory 's capital metropolis, and the capital metropolis of host territory if the territory reformed is the capital metropolis of the host territory ; this includes country boundary line.

If we observe carefully, Govt. Regulation no 78 of twelvemonth 2007 is still similar to antecedently regulation that more oriented on quantitative consideration with less/no attending on capacity in assorted affair in order to organize new territories. It has to be admitted that up to show, it is still non clear whether people/local constituency is genuinely a contemplation of public desire on attempts to organize new territories.

Out of the above issue, on the other side, within decentalisation discourse, catchment country is regarded as one of of import facet of the execution of regional liberty. The intents of organizing new territory itself refer to the existed Act, which can be classified as followerss:

There is a desire to supply a better public service in a measureable/limited authorization country. The service attack through a new territory 's authorities is assumed to be able to supply a better service.

Accelerating economic growing of local people through betterment on model of economic growing of country with local possible base.

Absorbing more labour force into private sectors, authorities and power sharing in footings of political relations and administration ( Hermani, 2005 )

The intent of organizing new part, it certainly does give a really important consequence on public service bringing every bit good as people 's prosperity. However, the fact is on the reverse, where the Bureau of Statistic ( BPS ) information shows that poorness and

unemployment degree on every territory is still high despite of some lessening in some countries ( Rizal Sukma, 2009 ) . On the other manus, the degree of people 's satisfaction on public service is highly low and the corruptness is much more rampant in the degree of territory. It shows a disagreement between hopes and worlds of organizing new territories. The logic thought is that the more new territory, the closer authorities and people 's relationship which subsequently will bring forth a better services. The closer authorities and people 's relationship, the easier the development to be implemented with its expected marks so that people 's prosperity will be achieved.


The intents of this research are the undermentioned:

Basically, this research is aimed to happen a basic criterion about catchment country and/or country fusion and besides to happen the ground for the formation of new parts.


The research will be really of import for Indonesia that has been using decentalisation system every bit good as being a developing state in development procedure. The consequence of this procedure will be formulated as a proposal for Indonesian authorities refering the best alternate policy for organizing new district every bit good as implementing regional development.

Research Questions

There are three basic jobs to be analyzed related to the consequence of organizing new territory which summarized on the followers

Why there are so many new parts in a comparative short period of clip in Indonesia?

Why when catchment country has been implemented, public service bringing is even worse and public public assistance does non better?

Theoretical Model

Decentralization has become a large issue in assorted states at present and becomes a pick to convey their states into

betterment. Actually, there is no state in this universe whose authorities strictly using centralisation, even in a monarchist state. Decentralization and centralisation fundamentally can non be separated from each other in a state unless it is a city-like state ( polis, metropolis province ) such as Singapore. In fact, harmonizing to Flezer ( 1972 ) , if a state chooses decentalisation system merely, so the state and its state will be vanished, nevertheless, if it chooses centralisation merely so it will jeopardize the state 's ability to transporting out its map. What fascinating is that decentalisation is non merely the antonym of centralisation, yet it 's besides considered to be able to repair the failure of itself.

In the lexicon, decentalisation agencies conveying back administrative concentration from cardinal authorities into local/regional authorities. The political phenomenon within disposal and administration, decentalisation is interpreted as deputing authorization down to a lower territorial hierarchy degree.

In footings of economic system, decentalisation is considered to better the efficiency by inquiring for public to supply fasten service and merchandise needed by local people, decreasing the costs, increasing the end products and more efficaciously utilizing human resources. Politically, decentalisation is said to beef up duty, political ability and national integrating which brings authorities to be closer to its people. This will besides convey an deduction to a better service and make a freedom, equality and prosperity ( B.C. Smith, 1985 ) .

Theoretical frame work

Decentralization can be viewed into three positions that are broad democracy, economic reading and Marxist reading ( Smith, 1985, 18-45 ) . Harmonizing to broad democracy position, decentalisation realized by local authorities has two great advantages: foremost, giving a positive

part to the development of national economic system. Furthermore, Hussein ( 2000 ) stated that within economic system construct, there is a freedom to originate doing a determination based on people 's aspiration without direct control from cardinal authorities, hence its relation with democracy is really strong. Whereas, the 2nd advantages harmonizing to this position is that local authorities is able to give benefit to local people ; Hussein ( 2001 ) viewed that in this affair local authorities and its local liberty are non absorbed as a region/district or regional authorities but more to be local people. As for economic reading position, decentalisation is considered to be a really of import medium in bettering personal/individual prosperity through a public pick ( Stoker, 1991 ) . On the last position, Marxist reading, He viewed that decentalisation will merely make a status of capital accretion so that later on will convey an impact of the outgrowth of capitalists. Furthermore, Marxist besides viewed that decentalisation will merely be a protraction of cardinal authorities 's officers to keep the involvement of capital monopoly which moreover will be disappearing duty of businessperson group upon hapless territories. On Marxist 's point of position, it is merely centralisation that will be able to redistribute and convey justness.

Decentralization can be viewed in two bottom lines. First, decentalisation as deputation of authority/power from cardinal authorities down to regional authorities ; 2nd, decentalisation is viewed from the side of local authorities ( new part formation ) ( Smith, 1985 ) .

In footings of deputing authorization, there are assortment sorts of this decentalisation, Rondinelly et Al, ( Meenakshiundaram, 1999 ) divided decentalisation into four sorts:

de-concentration, deputation, degeneration and denationalization. De-concentration is interpreted as deputing a figure of administrative authorization or duty down to a lower degree. Delegation is a transportation of duty of certain map to an organisation outside of regular bureaucratism construction and indirectly controlled by cardinal authorities. Meanwhile, degeneration is interpreted as forming and beef uping sub-national authorities units with activities well being outside of control of cardinal authorities. Last, denationalization agencies giving all duty of governmental maps to an independent non-government organisation. The constructs of decentalisation like these are besides in line with one by Cohen and Peterson ( 1999 ) .

Decentralization as a procedure, It is a set of policy reforms aimed at reassigning duties, resources, or authorization from higher to lower degrees of authorities. It can be classified as belonging to one of three classs - administrative, financial, and political. First, Administrative decentalisation comprises the set of policies that transfer the disposal and bringing of societal services such as instruction, wellness, societal public assistance, or

lodging to stand in national authoritiess. The Second is Fiscal decentalisation refers to the set of policies designed to increase the grosss or financial liberty of sub national authoritiess. Fiscal decentalisation policies can presume different institutional signifiers. An addition of transportations from the cardinal authorities, the creative activity of new sub national revenue enhancements, and the deputation of revenue enhancement authorization that was antecedently national are all illustrations of financial decentalisation. Last Political decentalisation is the set of constitutional amendments and electoral reforms designed to open new-or activate bing but hibernating or ineffective-spaces for the representation of sub national political relations. Political decentalisation policies are besides designed to devolve electoral

capacities to stand in national histrions. ( Falleti, 2004 )

On the other side, decentalisation is classified as new part incorporating deduction to local authorities ; at this point, Hossein ( 2001 ) categorized it into three significances: foremost, local authorities that oftentimes assorted up with local authorization which refers to variety meats, that is council and city manager whose its functionaries recruitment based on election. The 2nd significance of local authorities refers to the map of regional authorities authorization. Last, it is meant to be autonomy part. The formation of autonomy part is the birth of liberty position based on aspiration and nonsubjective status of people of certain part as a portion of national part and as a unit of legal society who is in charge to command and pull off its ain domestic personal businesss based on self-initiative. Dutch east indies does n't follow federal system so that there is no province on its liberty execution, yet, harmonizing to Indonesian National Constitution, these liberty parts will be established as regency/city parts which, of class, have no sovereignty as it is on federal system.

Type of Research

The research uses qualitative attack ; the ground for this pick is based on the being construct of job related to Public Administration scientific discipline which is non merely uncovering the existent events that can be calculated but more than that, the consequence is hoped to be able to uncover concealed values. Based on a really natural research, the consequences of this research is hope to be able to give a natural description of the being phenomenon in the field. Hence, the qualitative attack is the most relevant 1 for

this research.

The research will be do by utilizing a instance survey that is a research method that view a phenomenon to be observed as a instance ; this was developed by Guba and Lincoln ( 1985 ) , Stake ( 2005 ) , and Algozzine ( 2006 ) . The method uses a comprehensive, integral, and in-depth research on the instance being observed utilizing assorted resources informations existed.

Refering the research will be done, the instance is the consequence of execution of decentalisation both on new regional reform phenomenon degree and besides on the facet of people 's prosperity during the decentalisation execution.

Location of Research

The location of this research will be in Indonesia particularly three states i.e. , East Java, Central of Sulawesi and Western Kalimantan. The basic considerations for the choice of locations are: foremost, Indonesia is one of the states in South East Asia whose been through a major alteration upon its democratisation procedure and has been using decentalisation system. Second, the picks are based on the fact that there is a gap/discrepancy between Java and non-Java in every sector. By taking the three different islands, it is hoped that they could supply informations that stand foring them good. Third, by taking the three states, it is hoped that they could clear up the imbalanced development of organizing new districts/regions between Java and non-Java. Fourth, by taking East Java, Central of Sulawesi and West Kalimantan states, it is hoped to be able to cut down the information prejudice obtained.

Data Collection

In order to garner the information of research, there are three activity procedures will be done by the research worker as follows:

a. Getting in procedure


this measure the research worker organize interactions among several parties, related officers and society members located in the research 's country. This resulted in a farther debut and version to the environmental status in the location. This will be done with hope that there will be a close relationship based on moralss and understandings so that it will decrease the societal spread by utilizing a polite words and normal behavior.

B. Getting Along Process

At this phase, the research worker will acquire along with local state of affairs being observed and constructing a personal relationship to keep acquaintance with the sources. By seting and following the prevailing regulations in the location, the research worker will seek to transport out the observation both straight and indirectly, discoursing some affairs and interchanging information so that there will be a discourse on the ethical degree that is previewed by the research worker 's sentiment through source 's information. The consequence of this discourse will be processed and interpreted, so it will be analyzed utilizing the method and proficient theory every bit good as self-opinion ( ethical ) ; therefore the complete information will be obtained harmonizing to the focal point of research.

c. Hankering the information

At this measure, the research worker uses the undermentioned informations garnering techniques:

Observation, that is a monitoring technique both straight and indirectly or officially and informally that are used to obtain informations in the location.

In-depth Interview. The interviews will be done openly and structured, and the inquiries will be concentrating on the jobs so that the information gathered will be a comprehensive and in-depth 1. The openness that is aimed to the information allowance will be able

to seek for honestness and objectiveness of the source in giving all the truth. To avoid the informational prejudice, the research worker will be utilizing entering instrument under the source 's license so that the informations and information will be captured wholly.

Archival Research. The technique will be done to roll up secondary informations taken from paperss, letters, commissariats, archives, and other back uping informations in the field.

4. Respondent

The choice of respondent is done purposively ( purposive sampling ) , in this instance, the research worker chooses the cardinal source. Furthermore, the choice develops to be a snow ball ( snow ball trying ) seting with the necessity and stableness of research worker in garnering informations. Equally shortly as the information sampling reaches a impregnation point as there is no other information found, the research worker will non seek for new information and the procedure of informations trying will be considered as finished ( adequate ) . Refering this, the figure of sample ( information ) could be few yet legion depending on: 1 ) the truth of informant choice, 2 ) . Complexity and assortment of societal phenomenon being observed.

5. Data Analysis

The technique used in this research is an analysis utilizing synergistic theoretical account developed by Milles and Huberman ( 1994 ) . The analysis has 4 major constituents:

Data decrease is a choice procedure, concentrating on simplification, abstracting and transmutation of natural informations obtained from written notes in the field. Therefore, the informations decrease is a signifier of analysis that sharpening, categorising, directing, extinguishing non-necessary informations and forming informations such that the decision can be drawn and verified. In a simple words, we can state

that by cut downing informations, we can simplify qualitative informations and transform it in assorted ways such as through a tight choice, drumhead and/or categorising them into a clearer form.

Data displaying is a 2nd of import secret plan of analysis activity. The research worker is restricting a 'presentation ' as an ordered information aggregation giving possibility of pulling a decision or carry oning an action. It will be easier for the research worker to see comprehensive images or certain diagrams by sing the information presentation.

The informations presented by utilizing table matrix, strategy, and diagrams/charts both in signifier of a negative texts or a set of sentences, and palingenesis of interviews designed to unite the ordered information in an incorporate and approachable signifier, so that the research worker can see what has been go oning and pull an appropriate decision.

Pulling a conclusion/verification. A competent research worker will manage a decision in an allowance, remain unfastened, and disbelieving ( Miles and Huberman, 1994 ) . The research worker will ever do a information decrease and informations presentation up to set uping a decision.

This means that based on informations available on field note ( a note taken in the field ) , the research worker arrange an apprehension of significance and full events through informations decrease which subsequently followed by informations set uping in signifier of a systematic narrative. The decrease and informations presentation are arranged at the clip the research worker obtain informations unit needed on the research. After the concluding information sampling, the research worker tries to pull a decision and or confirmation based on the field note. If the field note is non adequate or

unable to be collected, the research worker must seek for its completion from field informations in particular manner as a note. Before go forthing the field of research, the research worker has to accurately read about the informations decrease and informations presentation every bit good as early analysis. If it is non plenty to reply the studied jobs, so the research worker has to finish it foremost. Because of the flexibleness nature of this research, despite of utilizing angling research ( instance survey ) with activities focused on the arranged and/or formulated job and intents of research, yet, everything in this research have been determined already and the concluding consequences of informations trying will reflects on the existent status in the field. Therefore, the research follows a qualitative thought form with its empirical inductive feature ( Mulles and Huberman, 1994 )

6. Validity Measurement

Harmonizing to Lincoln and Guba ( 1985 ) and Moleong ( 2002 ) , scrutiny technique is needed to find the cogency of informations. The execution of this technique based on standard features used that are: credibleness, transferability, dependableness, and conformability.


Basically, the execution of credibleness standard substitutes non qualitative and internal cogency construct. This standard maps to make inquiry such that the degree of trust of the findings can be achieved every bit good as demoing trust degree of the consequences of happening through proofing it on dual fact being observed. A figure of ways to make that are the followerss:

Widening the engagement of the research worker on the informations trying procedure in the field of research. Refering the research worker as the chief instrument, the clip needed to affect in informations trying

will enable the possibility of increasing degree of trust of the information gathered. This demand gives us a hint that the informations sampling may non be to the full delegated to census takers as we usually seen on many quantitative research.

Continuously and genuinely put to deathing the observation so that the research worker holding a good apprehension of the societal phenomenon wholly and exhaustively merely wish it is. The observation technique can be said as a must in a qualitative research. This is caused by a figure of concealed or 'visible ' societal phenomenon which is difficult to be revealed by simply interview.

Transporting out 'triangulation ' both methods ( utilizing across informations trying method ) , informations beginning triangulation ( taking assorted appropriate informations resources ) and informations trying triangulation ( many researcher individually garnering informations ) . Using this triangulation technique enables to obtain fluctuation of the most complete information.

Involving coworkers ( who do non fall in the research ) to discourse, supply inputs and critics prior to the beginning of the research procedure up to agreements of the consequences ( peer debriefing ) . This is necessary to be done refering restriction of the research worker 's ability to get by with the complexness of societal phenomenon observed.


Transferability as an empirical job depending on contexts similarity between the transmitter and receiving system. Transporting out the transferability, the research worker seeks and collects empirical events in the same contexts. So that the research worker is responsible for supplying sufficient descriptive informations. The transferability of consequences normally related to the inquiry: how far can the consequence of research be applied and used in any other

state of affairs. For some realistic research worker, transferability depends on the user that is how far can the consequence be applied be used in certain contexts and state of affairs. The research worker can non vouch this 'external cogency ' , that is why the transferability be viewed merely as a possibility. If a user see there is something suited for the state of affairs he/she is covering with so it will possible for transferability, although it can be guessed that there is no same state of affairs, so that it still needs adjustment harmonizing to each state of affairs.


Dependability is conventionally known as dependability. Reliability is a demand for cogency. A valid information can be obtained merely by a dependable instrument. The chief instrument in a qualitative research is the research it self. This province can be optimized if the research worker combines dependableness and certainty standards. In this affair, the agencies used is audit trail to look into and follow a truth ( Moleong, 2002 ) , that is a common attempt done by fiscal comptroller. The affairs to be investigated are: procedure of research and degree of informations cogency every bit good as its reading.

Therefore, the research worker provides the undermentioned stuffs:

Raw informations, such as field notes during observation and interview, recorded consequences ( optional ) , paperss, etc which tabulated later and presented in signifier of field study

The consequences of informations analysis, work hypothesis, constructs, proportions, etc

The consequences of informations synthesis such as reading, decision, definition, interrelatedness informations, subjects, forms, in relation with literature and concluding studies.

Notes on informations procedure used such as methodological analysis, design, scheme, process, rational, attempts

to do the research be trusted, and besides means to make the audit trail.


The standard of conformability comes from the construct of objectiveness in a non qualitative research. If a non qualitative research emphasized on people, so the realistic research is willing so that the emphasize on scrutiny informations within certainty standard can be clarified as the undermentioned willingness:

Auditor ( comparator ) needs to do certain whether the consequences of the research is truly coming from the informations.

Auditor tries to do a determination whether the decision is logically drawn and coming from the informations

Auditor transporting out a research on research worker 's degree of thoroughness if there is a diminution

Auditor tries to analyze research worker 's activity in transporting out scrutiny of informations cogency ; whether if it 's done decently or non. If the consequence of informations cogency scrutiny shows that the consequence of research meets the above standard, so it can be said that the consequence of this research depends on the dependability of the research worker.

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