The Determinants Of Beliefs In Human Nature Essay Example
The Determinants Of Beliefs In Human Nature Essay Example

The Determinants Of Beliefs In Human Nature Essay Example

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This paper will examine personal beliefs about human nature.

The paper will start with the definition of some psychology terms. The paper will then set out to discuss personal beliefs and change. This includes if a person can change his or her behavior, or personality. The paper will examine my personal theoretical orientation and one theory will be chosen.

The paper will also examine the application of the theoretical orientation. Lastly, the paper will discuss biblical integration of personal theoretical orientation

Personal Beliefs About Human Nature

Deterministic vs. Free will

Determinism is the philosophical position which asserts that future events are in a way based on the events of the past. Determinism has various branches such as local determinism which asserts that all plans are either right or wrong (Headey & Wearing, 1989).

Theological determinism is


a theory that explains that God determines what we will do. The last is biological determinism which asserts that all human beings’ desires and beliefs are by genetics. Free will, on the other hand, is the ability of a person to make choices which are unconstrained from out of fate, situations or divine will.

Unconscious (Unaware vs. conscious (aware)

Unconscious mind according to Sigmund Freud is the processes in the mind which occur naturally or automatically and is not available to retrospection (Crick & Dodge, 1996).

The unconscious includes motivations, thought processes, interests, and memories. These conscious processes exist under the surface of conscious awareness. Consciousness on the hand is the quality or state of being aware of something within oneself or an external object. Conscious has been defined as subjectivity, the ability to feel or experience, sentience, the executive control syste

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of the mind and wakefulness.

Reactive vs. Proactive

Reactive means that an individual does not have the initiative.

The individual lets the events set the agenda. An individual that has reactive character traits lets their emotions be dictated by something else or someone; or by the outside environment and circumstance (Crick & Dodge, 1996). Most people are reactive where they let other things control their emotions and decisions. In contrast, proactive is where an individual is under grace when stressed. Proactive individuals take responsibility for their current circumstances. A huge paradigm shift is involved where an individual has to accept the circumstance.

Subjective vs. Objective

Subjective information is an individual’s opinion. This is mostly found in an editorial section or newspaper. Objective information is where the information reviews many points of view (Headey & Wearing, 1989).

Objective is mostly facts and unbiased unlike subjective information which is biased. Human nature tends to concentrate on subjective information rather than objective.

Negative human nature vs. positive human nature

In the current world, there are people who are greedy while others are generous.

In some instance, others are polite and humble, while the rest are arrogant and rude. These two different of group traits can be categorized as negative human nature and positive human nature. Negative human nature is where an individual has negative character traits, or most of his or her dealings are wrong. Positive human nature includes a person that is helpful to other individual, honest, loving and cares.

Helpless vs. Responsible

Being helpless is a situation that renders a person unable to defend oneself.

It includes acting without help or being uncontrollable. Helpless people are most prone to being taken

advantage of. It is part of human nature which can be developed through persistent exercise. Being responsible is where an individual is obligated to do a certain action or carry out a particular deed. Being responsible also means having care over someone or control.

Holistic vs. elementalistic

Being Elementalist is the tendency of an individual to postulate a separation into independent elements or entities of things such as space and time, and mind and body which can only be verbally separated. In contrast, a holistic view is where an individual is concerned with the wholesomeness of something. It Is Characterized by comprehension of a thing which is interconnected and explicable only by reference to the whole.

Personal beliefs about change

Personality refers to the differences in characteristic patterns of thinking of an individual, the behavior, and feelings. Personality has to do with behavior patterns such as emotions and cognition. The study of personality is based on two broad areas.

One is understanding the differences in a person especially characteristics such as irritability or sociability. The other part of the areas is understanding the different part of a person. Behavior change is when an individual change from having certain traits to another. The personality of a person determines the behavior of such an individual. However, changing a person’s behavior does not mean that the personality has been changed as well.

Changing ones’ personality is the most difficult thing for a person. The personality of a person starts to take root since infancy (Sorrentino & Higgins, 1986). This includes the environment that an individual was exposed to. Changing one’s personality takes a lot of time and effort.

Dedication is the

key to developing a different personality. However, it is highly unlikely that a person can succeed in changing his or her personality. In contrast, the behavior of a person can be changed. The behavior of a person is acquired by the environment or the people around such an individual.

Having new friends or visiting a new environment can also make an individual behavior change.

Factors that facilitate change


One of the factors that facilitate change in a person’s behavior is the environment (Sorrentino & Higgins, 1986). An individual who grows up with a bunch of rough people is likely to grow up into being rough. Conversely, if an individual grows up in a neighborhood that has nice people who help each other, such an individual behavior will change for the better. This can be proved by the character traits of people in certain areas. Harlem, for example, has a large number of black people.

The area is also known for its violence. An individual that lives in such an environment will grow to be violent if he or she cannot restrain oneself. Counselors are needed in such a place to ensure teenagers are given enough support to avoid such a path.

Quality of life/Living standards

A person whose quality of life is low tends to be moody and sad. For example, if a person who once employed in a prestigious company gets sacked and his income stops, such an individual will start to develop a different behavior.

The luxurious life that such a person once was used to will be gone and he will have to adapt to his new, unpredictable environment.

Lose of a loved one

The behavior of a person can also change if a person loses a loved one. Stress is bound to happen especially is such a person was necessary. Bad habits may develop which will further derail the chance of returning to the old self. These are only examples of factors that may change the behavior of a person.

There are many factors which can make a person different from his or her former self. Knowing exactly what and how to change behavior is enough for a change to occur. For example, when a person knows exactly what needs changing, action therapy can be used. Action therapy is where the main goal of the process is to change the inappropriate or disordered behavior directly. This is possible if an individual knows what the problems and where it arises. Insight therapy can as well be used where a person who needs change is helped to gain insight on their feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.

Insight action should be used with the affective process to get the optimal results. A rational process is where a change in behavior is fundamentally logical and deliberative. Understanding one’s behavior problem may call for a rational process to overcome the problem.

Personal Theoretical Orientation

Adlerian therapy is the theory that fits my beliefs and values about change and human nature. Adlerian therapy was first developed by Alfred Adler (Corey, 2015). The theory asserts that a person has control of his or her fate.

Through motivating other individuals, or having social interactions, an individual can achieve positivity. The theory positions that individuals have the capability of influencing other people. This can be determined by the interaction which they

have among friends and families. I value helping other individuals in the society. My belief is that, there is a point in someone’s life where you will need help.

Treating another fellow human being better is the only way in which we could cultivate a spirit of brotherhood. I also belief that people can change the life of other individuals for the better. Without such a spirit, or the drive to help other individual, we cannot control our fate in the world.

Background Influence on Theoretical preference

My life has been an uphill task.

I have managed to overcome the negativity and problems in life to this stage that I am currently. One of the past experience that has shaped my choice of theory preference is the kind of neighbors that I had. I lived close to two neighbors who had totally opposite characters. One thing that I realized was that despite their differences, both where good people. My family was not in a good shape and these two neighbors helped us through the problem.

We finally made the two reconcile their differences and up to this day, they are friends. This taught me that no matter the differences that people may harbor, there is nothing that cannot be fixed. My parents also were the type of people that gave back to the society. We used to visit orphanages on Sunday even though we had little to share for the family.

This kind of parenting made me want to be part of a group that can bring change to the society. The feeling of giving outweighed the feeling of receiving on almost all occasions. This has developed my behavior

to accommodate all people and try to help them in all occasions that they are down and need comfort. My parents influence for the two neighbors made me realize that people can make the life of others better by taking different steps. People hold the fate of other people in their hands and the only way is to show these individuals how to go about in their daily lives. Apart from my parents, the issue with environment has made me realize that a person has control over his or her fate.

Global warming is one of the problems of the 21st century. People in different parts of the world are however destroying those elements that could help with this scenario. On the contrary, they are aiding global warming. After understanding this problem, I realized that the fate of an individual is in his or her own hands. In addition, I am a Christian. The bible teaches us that we should help other people if we expect to be helped.

Jesus who had no connection with us human beings died for our sins. I always find this story intriguing and uplifting. As such, I have developed the character of helping people without ever knowing them. It feels good to know you helped a stranger.

All these issues that I have passed through in life in addition to my religious beliefs is the reason why I preferred this theory over the others.

Establishing a positive therapeutic relationship

In establishing a positive therapeutic relationship, some aspects need be taken into consideration. One of the aspects is appreciating the influence of culture (Corey, 2015). Most Americans are of mixed race.

The amount of

culture that is found in this country is immense. To establish a positive therapeutic relationship, I will have to appreciate the different cultures. This is the only way that I could fit in the society properly. Possession of an effective interpersonal skill is essential in a positive therapeutically relationship. One of the common ways in which people argue or do not understand each other is communication.

By having a good interpersonal communication, I will manage to express myself more confidently and comfortable. Being sincere in my work is also essential. This involve being open and honest about the things being discussed. Passion is another element that creates a positive feel or vibe between two or more people. In ensuring that I have a positive therapeutical relationship, I need to have passion for my work.

Conversely, I will have to maintain a healthy boundary with the other individuals to facilitate having a positive environment to help other people.

Establishing goals in relation to wellness and prevention

Establishing of goals is one of the important aspect in therapeutic relationship. One of the ways of establishing goals in relation to prevention and wellness is by being free with people (Corey, 2015). Being social is essential.

In this case, having a free mind is the best. As such, judgments will be minimized. The therapeutic relationship will grow slowly and both parties will gain the trust of each other. Another method is by respecting each other. This is done by formulating rules an regulations which will govern both sides.

In assessing the client’s needs, his or her background knowledge is essential. This will enable me to come up with some ideas about what really

bother such an individual. Talking to friends that are close is another method the information can be accessed.

Application of Theoretical Orientation; Crisis and consultation

Comparison of two models

The equilibrium model is one of crisis intervention models. This model is most appropriate for the early intervention of an individual (Headey & Wearing, 1989).

It is used when the person is disoriented, out of control, and unable to make appropriate decisions. People in crisis are always in an emotional or psychological disequilibrium. The second model is the cognitive model. This model is based on the notion that crisis in people are only rooted in faulty thinking about sits or the event that surround that crisis. The aim of this model is to make people believe what has happened. It also helps individuals become aware of the crisis, belief about the crisis and change their views.

The similarities in these models is based on its determination to help the person suffering. The first helps an individual overcome the problem while the second makes an individual understand that the crisis has happened. These two support are dissimilar in that, one is used to solve problems at an earlier stage while the other is used to make the person belief what has happened. My personal orientation is to help people; these two theories are essential in helping people cope with the crisis.

Role of psychological aid in regard to crisis counselling

One of the role of psychological first aid in relation to crisis counselling is addressing the difficulty in transition from the victim to a normal person again (Hill & Hill, 2001). Psychological first aid help reduce the shock that the

subject has suffered. It brings the subject to the current scenario and helps that person forget about the crisis that has just happened. Psychological aid is compatible with my personal counselling style in that, the first thing so that someone can move on is leaving the past.

For example, when a crisis has happened such a s the death of a person you love, the only way to overcome this grief is by forgetting what happened. This is the only way an individual can move forward.

Suicide prevention model

The CBT-SP is a suicide prevention model. CBT-SP stands for cognitive behavior therapy suicide prevention (Brown, et al. 2005) The model works by targeting therapies for suicidal people, depressed youths, and dialectical behavioral therapy. The model include session of about 12 to help these individuals rethink the problem with suicide.

The model complements my personal counselling orientation in that, it searches for those individuals that are critically in problems. It is better to control these when a person is still young. However, uncertainties do occur and this is the best method so far. For example, the model can be applied to adolescent youths who have a higher risk of suicidal tendencies. By taking them to therapy beforehand, such thoughts fade thereby saving someone’s life.

My philosophy is to help and this model ensures that I can help any individual.

Model for practicing consultation

Hellmann’s Folk Model, 1981

This model ensures that the consultation is entirely from the perspective of the patient. The model uses a series of questions such as “why me?” and “What happened.” The model uses empathy to address the questions of the patient. Empathy is arrived

at in the model by recognizing the distress of the patient. Statements such as “I can see how you are sad/frustrated/upset/frightened” and so on. This model fits into my orientation because my orientation sis based on helping people and learning about their problems.

My theoretical orientation will be able to exploit this method when carrying out consultation.

Biblical integration

The theoretical orientation that I have chosen blends with Christian values properly. One such example is how Christianity emphasizes help between different individuals. This may be strangers, friends or families.

Christian values also emphasizes o family ties. In my theoretical orientation, family interaction is among the key concepts. Ensuring that good communication skills exist between the family members means that every individual is well with one another. Christianity also needs a person to motivate another individual when doing a certain work. This orientation encompasses that field and it provides all the information required. As a counselor, I will integrate bible quotes to help people overcome challenges.

in the society. The bible has many verses which can be used to relate to the current events in the country. One professional ethics that should be considered is the principle of beneficence. This is whereby a person promotes the welfare and actions of others. Principles of moral reasoning need to be considered as well to compliment the orientation.


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    Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide attempts: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 294(5), 563-570.

  2. Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1996). Social information?processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression. Child development, 67(3), 993-1002.
  3. Headey, B.,

& Wearing, A.

(1989). Personality, life events, and subjective well-being: toward a dynamic equilibrium model. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 57(4), 731.

  • Hill, G., & Hill, G. (2001). A Level psychology through diagrams. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Sorrentino, R. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1986). Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Corey, G.

    (2015). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Boston, MA : Cengage Learning.

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