Textbook Glossary Flashcard

absolute zero
the temperature -273.15(degrees) celsius, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale.
accuracy
the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured.
acid- base indicator
a compound whose color is sensitive to pH.
acid-ionization constant
the term k a.
actinide
one of the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 (thorium, Th) through 103 (lawrencium, Lr)
activated complex
a transitional structure that results from an effective collision and that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming.
activation energy
the minimum energy required to transform the reactants into an activated complex.
activity series
a list of elements organized according to the ease with which the elements undergo certain chemical reactions
actual yield
the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction
addition polymer
a polymer formed by chain addition reactions between monomers that contain a double bond
addition reaction
a reaction in which an atom or molecule is added to an unsaturated molecule and increases the saturation of the molecule
alcohol
an organic compund that contains one or more hydroxyl groups
aldehyde
an organic compound in which a carbonyl group is attached to a carbon-atom chain
alkali metal
one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table(lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)
alkaline
a solution in which a base has completely dissociated in water to yield aqueous OH- ions
alkaline- earth metal
one of the elements of Group 2 of the periodic table( beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium)
alkane
a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds
alkene
a hydrocarbon that contains double covalent bonds
alkyl group
a group of atoms that is formed when one hydrogen atom is removed from an alkane molecule
alkyl halide
an organic compound in which one or more halogen atoms- fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine- are substituted for one or more hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon
alkyne
a hydrocarbon with triple covalent bonds
alpha particle
two protons and two neutrons bound together and emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
amine
an organic compound that can be considered to be a derivative of ammonia, NH3
amorphous solid
a solid in which the partivles are arranged randomly
amphoteric
any species that can react as either an acid or a base
angular momentum quantum number
the quantum number that indicated the shape of the orbital
anion
a negative ion
anode
the electrode where oxidation takes place
aromatic hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon with six-membered carbon rings and delocalized electrons
Arrhenius acid
a chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+, in aqueous solution
Arrhenius base
a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH-, in aqueous solution
artificial transmutation
bombarrdment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles
atmosphere of pressure
exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
atomic mass unit
a unit of mass that is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom, or 1.660 540 * 10-27 kg
atomic mass unit
a unit of mass that is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom, or 1.660 540 * 10-27 kg
atomic radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
Aufbau principle
an electron occupies the lowest- energy orbital that can receive it
autooxidation
a process in which a substance acts s both an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element
Avogadro’s law
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
Avogadros’ number
6.022 1367 * 10(23); the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance
band of stability
the stable nuclei cluster over a range of neutron- proton ratios
barometer
a device used to measure atmospheric pressure
benzene
the primary aromatic hydrocarbon
beta particle
an electron emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
binary acid
an acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more-electronegative elements
binary compound
a compound composed of two different elements
binding energy per nucleon
the binding energy of the nucleus divided by the number of nucleons it contains
boiling
the conversion of a liquid as well as at its surface; occurs when the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
boiling point
the temperature at which the quilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
boiling-point elevation
the difference between the boiling point of a pure solvent, directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
bond energy
the energy require d to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
bond length
the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms
Boyle’s law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas varied inversely with pressure at constant temperature
Bronsted-Lowry acid
a molecule or ion that is a proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction
the transfer of protons from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)
Bronsted-Lowry base
a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor
buffered solution
a solution that can resist changes in pH
calorimeter
a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change
capillary action
the attraction of the surfac eof a liquid to the surface of a solid
carboxylic acid
an organic compound that contains the carboxyl functional group
catalysis
the action of a catalyst
catalyst
a substance that changes the rate if a chemical reaction without itself being permanently consumed
catenation
the covalent binding of an element to itself to form chains or rings
cathode
the electrode where reduction takes place
cation
a positive ion
chain reaction
a reaction in which the material that starts the reaction is also one of the products and can start another reaction
change of state
a physical change of a substance from one state to another
change of state
a physical change of a substance from one state to another
Charles’s law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas at constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature
chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
chemical bond
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
chemical change
a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
chemical equation
a representation, with symbols and formulas, of the identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction
chemical equilibrium
a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of its reverse reaction and the concentrations of its products and reactants remain unchanged
chemical-equilibrium expression
the equation for the equilibrium constant, K
chemical formula
a formula that indicated the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
chemical kinetics
the area of chemitry that is concerned with reaction rates and reaction mechanisms
chemical property
the ability of a substance to undergo a change that transforms it into a different substance
chemical reaction
a reaction in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
chemistry
the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes
coefficient
a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical reaction
colligative properties
properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
collision theory
the set of assumptions regarding collisions and reactions
colloid
a mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures known as colloid dipersions
combined gas law
the relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas
combustion reaction
a reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat
common ion effect
the phenomenon in which the addition of an ion common
composition reaction
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
composition stoichiometry
calculations involving the mass relationship of elements in compounds
compound
a substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
concentration
a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
condensation
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
condensation polymer
a polymer formed by condensation reactions
condensation reaction
a reaction in which two molecules or parts of the same molecule combine
conjugate acid
the species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton
conjugate base
the species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton
control rod
a neutron-absorbing rod that helps control a nuclear reaction by limiting the number of free neutrons
conversation factor
a ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
copolymer
a polymer made from two different monomers
covalent bonding
a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms
critical mass
the minimum amount of nuclide that providess the number of neutros needed to sustain a chain reaction
critical point
indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance
critical pressure
the lowest pressure at which a substance can exit as a liquid at the critical temperature
critical temperature
the temperature above which a subtance cannot exist in the liquid state
crystal
a substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometrix, repeating pattern
crystal structure
the total three- dimensional arrangement of particles of a crystal
crytalline solid
a solid consisting of crystals
cycloalkane
an alkane in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure
Dalton’s law of partial pressure
the total pressure of a mixture of gaes is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
daughter nuclide
a nuclide produced by the decay of a parent nuclide
decay series
a series of radioactive nuclides producded by successive radioactive decay until a stable nuclide is reached
decompostition reaction
a reaction in which a single compound produces two or more simpler substances
delocalized electron
an electron hared by more than two atoms
density
the ratio of ma to volume or mas divided by volume
deposition
the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
derived unit
a unit that is a combination of SI base units
diamond
a colorless, crystalline, solid form of carbon
diatomic molecule
a molecule containing only two atoms
diffusion
spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion
dipole
equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
dipole-dipole force
a force of attraction between polar molecules
diprotic acid
an acid that can donate two protons per molecule
direct proportion
two quantities that give a constant value when one is divided by the other
displacement reaction
a reaction in which one element replaced a ssimilar element in a compound
dissociation
the separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
double bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
double-replacement reaction
a reaction in which the ions of two compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds
ductility
the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire
effervescence
the rapid escape of a gas from the liquid in which it is dissolved
effusion
a process by which gas particles under pressure pass trhough a tiny opening
elastic collision
a collision between gas particles under pressure pass through a tiny opening
electrochemical cell
a system of electrodess and electrolytes in which either chemical reaction produce electrical energy or an electric current produces chemical change
elctrochemitry
the branch of chemitry that deals with electricity related applications of oxidation reduction reactions
electrode
a conductor ued to establish electrical contact with a non metallic part of a circuit, such as an electrolyte
electrode potential
the difference in npotential between an electrode and its solution
electrolysis
the process in which an electric currrent is ued to produce an oxidation-reduction reaction; also the decomposition of a substance by an electric current
electrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
electrolytic cell
an electrochemical cell in which electrical energy is required to produce a redox reaction and bring about a chemical change
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
electromagnetic spectrum
all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
electron affinity
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
electron capture
the process in which an inner orbital electron is captured by the nucleus of its own atom
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
electron-dot notation
an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an towm of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element’s symbol
electronegativity
measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
electroplating
an electrolytic process in which a metal ion is reduced and olid metal is deposited on a surface
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
elimination reaction
a reaction in which a imple molecule, such as water or ammonis, is removed from adjacent carbon atoms of a larger molecule
empirical formula
the symbols for the element comvined in a compound with suvscriiipts showing the smaller whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound
end point
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
enthalpy
the heat ocntent of a system at constant pressure
enthalpy change
the amount of heat absorbed or lost by a ssustem during a process at constant pressure
entropy
a measure of the degree of randomness of the particles, such as molecules, in a system
equilibrium
a dynamis condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
equilibrium constant
the ratio of the mathematical product of the centration of substances formed at quilibrium to the mathematical product of the concentration of the reacting substances. Each concentration is raised to a power equal to the coefficient of that substance in the chemical equation
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by a vapor in quilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature
equivalence point
the point at which the two solutions used in a titration are present in chemically equivalent amounts
ester
an organic compound with a carboxylic acid group in which the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl group
ether
an organic compound in which two hydrocarbon groups are bonded to the same atom of oxygen
evaporation
the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state
excess reactant
the substance that is not used up completely in a reaction
excited state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
extensive property
a property that depends on the amount of matter that is present
family
a vertical column of the periodic table
film badge
a device that uses exposure of film to measure the approximate radiation exposure of people working with radiations
fluid
a substance than can flow and therefore takes the shape of its container, a liquid or a gas
formula equation
a representation of reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols or formulas
formula mass
the sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula, unit or ion
formula unit
the simplest cpllection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established
fractional distillation
distillation in which componenet of a mixture are separated on the basis of boiling point, by condensation of vapor in a fractionating column
free energy
the combined enthalpy-entropy function of a system
free-energy change
the difference between the change in enthalpy, (delta H, and the product of the Kelvin temperature and the entropy change, which is defined as T delta S, at a constant pressure and temperature
freezing
the physical change of a liquid to a solid by the removal of heat
freezing point
the temperature at which a solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm(101.3 kPa) presure
freezing-point depression
the difference between the freezing points of a pure solvent and a olution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent; is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second
fullerence
a dark-colored solid made of spherically networked carbon atom cages
functional group
an atom or group of atoms that is responsible for the specific properties of an organic compound
gamma ray
a high-energy electromagnetic wave emitted from a nucleus as it changes from an excited state to a ground energy state
gas
the state of matter in which a subtance has neither definite volume nor definite shape
gas laws
simple mathematical relationships between the volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity
Gay-Lussac’s law
the pressure of a fixed mass of ga at constant voume varies directly eith the Kelvin temperature
Gay-Lusac’s law of ocmbining volumes and gases
at constant remperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers
Geiger-Muller counter
an instrument that detects radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation
geometric isomers
isomers in which the order of atom bonding is the same but the arrangement of atoms in space is different
Graham’s law of effusion
the rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the squaure roots of their molar masses
graphite
a soft, black, crystalline from of carbon that is a fair conductor of electricity
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
group
a vertical column of the periodic table
half-cell
a single electrode immersed in a solution of its ions
half-life
the time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay
half-reaction
the part of a reaction involving oxidation or reduction alone
halogen
one of the elements of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)
heat
the sum total of the kinetic energies of the particles in a sample of matter
heat energy
the sum total of the kinetic energies of the particles in a sample of matter
heat of combustion
heat released by the complete combustion of one mole of a substance
heat of reaction
the quantity of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction
heat of solution
the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a pecific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent
heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
henry’s law
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
hess’s law
the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process
heterogeneous catalyst
a catalyst whose phase is different from that of the reactants
heterogeneous reaction
a reaction involving reactants in two different phases
highest occupied energy level
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
homogeneous reaction
a reaction whose reactants and products exist in a single phase
homologous series
a series in which asjecent members differ by a constant unit
hund’s rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electron sin a singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
hybrid orbitals
orbitals of equial energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
hybridization
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
hydration
a slution process with water as the solvent
hydrocarbon
the simlest organic compound, composed of only carbon and hydrogen
hydrogen bonding
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
hydrolysis
a reaction between water molecules and ions of a dissolved salt
hydronium ion
the H3O+ ion
hypothesis
a testable statement
ideal gas
an imaginary gas that perfectly fills all the assumptions of the kinetic- molecular theory
ideal gas constant
the constant R, 0.082 057 84 L atm/mol*K
ideal gas law
the mathematical relationhip of pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas
immiscible
liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other
inner-shell electron
an electron that is not in the highest occupied energy level
intensive property
a property that does not depend on the amount of matter present
intermediate
a species that appears in some stps of a reaction but not in the net equation
intermolecular force
the force of attraction between molecules
inverse proportion
two quantities that have a constant mathematical product
ion
an atom orgroup of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge
ionic bonding
the chemical bond resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
ionic compound
a compound composed of positice and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of poitive and negative charges are equal
ionization
the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of an ion
ionization energy
the energy required to remove one electron form a neutal atom of an element
isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures
isotopes
atoms of the same elecemt that have different masses
joule
the SI unit of heat energy as well as all other forms of energy
ketone
an organic compound in which a carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom within the chain
kinetic- molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
kinetic- molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
lanthanide
one of the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 58 (cerium, Ce) to 71 (lutetium,Lu)
kinetic- molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
kinetic- molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
lattice energy
the energy released when on emole of an ionic crustalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical or physical reactions
law of multiple proportions
a chemical compound contain the same element in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the compound
le chatelier’s principle
when a system at equilibrium is disturbed by application of a stress, it attains a new equilibrium position that minimizes the stress
Lewis acid
an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
Lewis acid-base reaction
the formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor
Lewis base
an aton, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond
Lewis structure
a formula in whichi atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell elctrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
limiting reactant
the reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine- and the amount of product that can form- in a chemical reaction
liquid
the state of matter in which the substance has a definite volume but an indefinite shape
London dispersion force
an intermolecular attraction resulting from the constant motion of electrons ans the creation of instateneous dipoles
London dispersion force
an intermolecular attraction resulting from the constant motion of electrons ans the creation of instateneous dipoles
lone pair
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
magic numbers
the numbers of nucleons that represent completed nuclear energy levels-2,8,20,28,50,82, and 126
magnetic quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
main-group element
an element in the s-block or p-block
malleability
the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
mass
a measure of the amount of matter
mass defect
the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, nutreons, and electrons
mass number
the total number of protons and electrons in the nucleus of an isotope
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
melting
the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of heat
melting point
the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
metal
an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
metallic bonding
chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
metalloid
an element that has osme characteritics of metals and some characteritics of nonmetals
millimeters of mercury
a common unit of pressure
miscible
liquid solutes and solvents that are able to dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
mixture
a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains it sown identity in any proportion
model
an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related
moderator
a material used op to sloow down the fast neutrons produced by fusion
molal boiling-point constant
the boiling-point elevation of a solvent in a 1-molal solution of a non-volatile, nonelectrolyte solute
molal freezing-point constant
the freezing-point depression of the solvent in a 1-molal solution of a non-volatile, nonelectrolyte solute
molality
the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
molal heat of formation
the heat released or absorbed when one mole of a compound is formed by the combination of its elements
molal heat of fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of solid at its melting point
molal heat of vaporization
the amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point
molar mass
the mass of one mole of a pure subtance
molarity
the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
mole
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon
mole ratio
a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
molecular compound
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula
a formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
molecular polarity
the uneven ditribution of molecular charge
molecule
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
monatomic ion
an ion formed from a sigle atom
monomer
a small unit that joins with other to make a polymer
monoprotic acid
an acid that can donate only one proton (hydrogen ion) per molecule
multiple bond
a double or triple bond
natural gas
a fossil fuel composed primarily of alkanes containing one to four carbon atoms
net ionic equation
an equation that includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in aqueous solution
neutralization
the reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules
newton
the SI unit for force; the force that will increae the speed of a one kilogram ma by one meter per second each second it is applied
noble gas
a Group 18 element(helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon)
noble-gas configuration
an outer main energy level fullly occupied, in mot cases, by eight electrons
nomenclature
a naming system
nonelectrolyte
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current
nonmetal
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
nonpolar-covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bodned atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
nonvolatile substance
a substance that has little tendency to become a gas under existing conditions
nuclear binding energy
the energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons
nuclear fission
a process in which a heavy nucleus splite into more stable nuclei or intermediate mass
nuclear force
a short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, or neutron-neutron force that holds the nuclear particles together
nuclear fusion
the combining of light mass nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
nuclear power plant
a facility that uses heat from nuclear reactor to produce electrical energy
nuclear radiation
the particles or electromagna=etic radiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
nuclear reactor
a device that uses controlled-fission chain reactions to produce energy or radioactive nuclides
nuclear shell model
nucleons exist in different energy levels, or shells, in the nucleus
nucleon
a proton or neutron
nuclide
the general term for any isotope of any element(77); another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutron in its nucleus
octane rating
a measure of a fuel’s burning efficiency and its antiknock properties
octet rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
orbital
a three- dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
organic compound
a covlently bonded compound containing carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides
osmosis
the movement of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from the side of lower solute concentration to the side of higher solute concentration
osmotic pressure
the external pressure that mut be applied to stop osmosis
oxidation
a reaction in which the atoms or ions of an element experience an increase in oxidation state
oxidation number
a number assigned to an atom in a molecular compound or molecular ion that indicates the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms
oxidation-reduction reaction
any chemical process in which elements undergo changes in oxidation number
oxidation state
a number assigned to an atom in a molecular compound or ion that indicates the general distribution of electrons among the bonded atoms
oxidized
having experienced an increase in oxidation number
oxidizing agent
a substance that has the potential to cause another substance to be oxidized
oxyacid
an acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a non-metal
oxyanion
a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen
pH
the negative of the common logarithm of the hydronium ion concentration of a solution
pH meter
a device used to determine the pH of a solution by measuring the voltage between the two electrodes that are placed in the solution
pOH
the negative of the common logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution
parent nuclide
the neaviest nuclide of each decay series
partial pressure
the pressure of each gas in a mixture
pascal
the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
percent error
a value calculated by subtacting the experimental value from the accepted value, dividing from the difference of the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100
percent yield
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100
percent composition
the percentage by mass of each element in a compound
period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
periodic law
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers
periodic table
an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar preperties fall in the same column, or group
petroleum
a complex mixture of different hydrocarnons that varies greatly in composition
phase
any part of a system that has unifrom composition and properties
phase diagram
a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
photoelectric effect
the emission of electons from a metal when light shines on the metal
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries a quantum of energy
physical change
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in identity of the substance
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
polar
having an uneven distribution of charge
polar-covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
polyatomic ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
polymer
a large molecule made of many small units joined to each other through organic reactions
polyprotic acid
an acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule
positron
a particle that has the same mass as an electron but that has a positive charge, and is emitted from the nucleus during some kinds of radioactive decay
precipitate
a solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution and that separates from the solution
precision
the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
pressure
the force per unit area on a surface
primary standard
a highly purified solid compound ued to check the concentration of a known solution in a titration
principal quantum number
the quantum number that indicated the main energy level occupied by the electron
product
a substance that is forned by a chemical change
pure substance
a substance that has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in that every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition
quantity
something that has magnitude, size, or amount
quantum
the minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
quantum number
a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
quantum theory
a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
radioactive dating
the process by which the approximate age of an object is determined based on the maount of certain radioactive nuclides present
radioactive decay
the spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter and more stable nucleus, accompained by emission of particles, electromagnetic radiation, or both
radioactive nuclide
an unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay
radioactive nuclide
an unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay
radioactive tracer
a radioactive atom that is incorporated into a substance so that movement of the substance can be followed by a radiationo detector
rate-determining step
the slowest rate step for a chemical reaction
rate law
an equation that reacts in a chemical change
reaction mechanism
the step-by-step sequence of reactions by which the overall chemical change occurs
reaction rate
the change in concentration of reactants per unit time as a reaction proceeds
reaction stoichiomety
calculations involving the mass relationships between reactant and products in a chemical reaction
real gas
a gas that does not behave completelt according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
redoz reaction
any chemical process in which the elements undergo changes in oxidation number
reduced
having experienced a decreade in oxidation state
reducing agent
a substance that has potential to cause another subtance to be reduced
reduction
a reaction in which the oxidation state of an element decreases
reduction potential
the measurement of the tendency for a half-reaction to occur as a resuction half-reaction in an electrochemical cell
rem
the quantity of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissue as is done by 1 roentgen of high-voltage X rays
resonance
the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
resonance
the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
reversible reaction
a chemical reaction in which th eproducts re-from the origional reactants
roentgen
a unit used to measure nuclear radiation; equal to the amount of radiation that produces 2*10(9) ion pairs when it passes through 1 cm(3) of dry air
salt
an ionic compound composed of a cation and the anion from an acid(215); an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
saturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon in which each carbon atom in the molecule forms four single covalent bonds with other atoms
saturated solution
a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
scientific method
a logical approach to solving problems by obsercing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
scientific notation
numbers written in the form M*10(n) where the factor M is a number greater than or qual to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number
scintillation counter
an instrument that converts scintillating light to an electic signal for detercting radiation
secondary amine
an organic compound in which two hydrogen atoms of an ammonia molecule have been replaced by alkyl groups
self-ionization of water
a process in which two water molecules produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton
semipermeable membrane
a membrane that allows the movement of some particles while blocking the movement of others
shielding
radiation-absorbing material that is used to decrease radiation exposure from nuclear reactors, especially gamma rays
SI
the measurement system accepted worldwide
significant figure
any digit in a measurement that is known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated
single bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
single-replacement reaction
a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound
solid
the state of matter in which the substance has definite volume and definite shape
solubility
the amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
solubility product constant
the product of the molar concentrations of ions of a substance in a saturated solution, each raised to the power that is the coefficient of that ion in the chemical equation
soluble
capable of being dissolved
solute
the substance dissolved in a solution
solution
a homogeneos mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
solution equilibrium
the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
solvated
a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
solvent
the dissolving medium in a solution
specific heat
the amount of heat energy requires to raise the temperature of one gram of substance by one celsius degree or one kelvin (1 K)
spectator ion
an ion that does not take part in a chemical reaction and is found in solution both before and after the reaction
spin quantum number
the quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
standard electrode potential
a half cell potential measured relative toa potential of zero for the standard hydrogen electrode
standard molar volume of a gas
the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP, 22.414 10 L
standard solution
a solution that contains a precisely known concentration of a solute
standard temperature and pressure
the agreed-upon standard conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0 degrees celsius
strong acid
an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution
strong electrolyte
any compound of which all or almost all of the dissolved compound ezists as ions in aqueous solution
structural formula
a formula that indicated the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also show the bonding arrangement and bonds but not the unshared electron pairs of the atoms in a molecule
structural isomers
isomers in which the atoms ar ebonded together in different orders
sublimation
the change of state from a solid directly to a gas
substitution reaction
a reaction in which one or more atoms replace another atom or group of atoms in a molecule
supercooled liquid
a substnace that retains certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which it appears to be solid
supersaturated solution
a solution that ocntains more dissolved solute than a aturated solution ocntains under the same conditions
surface tension
a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing urface area to the smallest possible size
synthesis reaction
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
system
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
tertiary amine
an organic compound in which all three hydrogen atoms of an ammonia molecule have been replaced by alkyl groups
theoretical yield
the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a gicen amount of reactant
theory
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenonema
thermochemical equation
an equation that includes the quantity of heat released or absorbed during the reaction a written
themochemistry
the study of the changes in heat energy that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes
thermoplastic polymer
a polymer that melts when heated and can be reshaped many times
thermosetting polymer
a polymer that does not melt when heated but keeps its origional shape
tiltration
the controlled addition and measurement of the maount of a solution of known concentration required to react completely with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration
transition element
one of the d-block elements that is a metal, with typical metallic properties
transition interval
the pH range over which an indicator changes color
transmutation
a change in the identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons
transuranium element
an element with more than 92 protons in its nucleus
triple bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
triple point
the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of a substance can coexist at equilibrium
triprotic acid
an acid able to donate three protons per molecule
unit cell
the smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three dimensional pattern to the entire lattice
unsaturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon in which not all carbon have four single covalent bonds
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a aturated solution under the existing conditions
unshared pair
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
valence electron
an electron that is aveilable to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
vaporization
the proces by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
volatile liquid
a liquid that evaporates readily
voltaic cell
an electrochemical cell in which the redox reaction occurs naturally and produces electrical energy
volume
the amount of space occupied by an object
VSEPR theory
repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes there sets to be oriented as far apart as possible
vulcanization
a corss-linking process between adjacent polyioprene molecules that occurs when the molecules are heated with sulfur atoms
wavelength
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
weak acid
an acid that is a weak electrolyte
weak electrolyte
a compound of which a relatively small amount of the dissolved compound ezists as ions in an aqueous solution
weight
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
word equation
an equation in which the reactants and productss in a chemical reaction are represented by words

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