Test 4 MGMT 310

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Which of the following statements best describes power?
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It is the potential of one individual to influence the behavior of another individual
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Influence refers to the
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vehicle by which leaders exercise their power
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Which of the following individuals best represents a person with reward power?
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Maria, a team lead, motivates her team members by giving them incentives and promotions on improved performance.
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Thomas is an executive in a firm’s IT department. He has immense knowledge in IT and has come up with many technological innovations, which had helped the organization to perform its activities more efficiently. Moreover, he has the ability to solve all types of issues that arise on a daily basis with relative ease. As a result, the individuals in the organization developed great respect for him. Identify the kind of power demonstrated by Thomas.
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Expert power
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A type of interpersonal power that gives someone the ability to punish another for his or her behavior is referred to as _____ power
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coercive
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Which of the following individuals best represents a person with referent power?
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Vinita, an executive, has a great personality and everyone in the organization respects and admires her for her intelligence.
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Which of the following statements is true about hard and soft power?
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The best leaders combine elements of both hard and soft power.
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Which of the following statements about the components of positional power is true?
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Flexibility refers to the freedom to exercise judgment.
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According to Whetton and Cameron, power that comes from an individual’s formal place within an organization’s structure is known as _____ power.
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positional
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Which of the following is a component of personal power according to Whetton and Cameron?
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Expertise
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Mark, an employee, belongs to the marketing department in an organization. However, he often interacts with people in all other departments including top management, which helped him improve professionally and personally. By maintaining many informal networks within the organization, he manages to get his job done more effectively than others. From this description, it can be inferred that Mark demonstrates _____ power.
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relational
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A core network includes
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relationships that are characterized by close bonds and reciprocity
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Which of the following is required to sustain power?
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Emotional detachment
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Which of the following results in losing power?
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Inflated view of self
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Employees’ active resistance to power refers to
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failing to do what is asked.
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_____ involves completing tasks that have been assigned but without a sense of excitement or personal buy-in.
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Compliance
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Which of the following is the most preferred reaction to power?
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Commitment
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The process of sharing power with subordinates and pushing decision making and implementation to the lowest possible level, increasing the influence and autonomy of all employees is referred to as _____.
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empowerment
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Which of the following organizational factors will most likely lead to intense levels of conflicts?
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A competitive organizational culture
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According to Gulati and Sytch, dependence asymmetry exists when:
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a firm is more dependent on a business partner.
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Which of the following conditions in organizations tend to induce competition?
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Disagreements
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Which of the following is the first step in exercising power through influence?
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Choosing an influence style
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Of the three primary styles of influence, pushing involves
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asserting
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Which of the following styles of influence is helpful when the requestor and the other person share common goals?
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Attracting
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According to Robert Cialdini’s principle of scarcity:
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opportunities seem more valuable when it feels like a “once-in-a-lifetime situation”.
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_____ is the process of identifying issues and making choices from alternative courses of action.
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Decision making
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Which of the following is the first step in rational decision making?
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Defining a problem or opportunity
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Which of the following is the last step in rational decision making?
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Computing the optimal decision
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Mary, a team leader, found that few of her team members’ performance had been deteriorating. They had been coming late to work and had not been completing tasks on time. In order to improve her team’s performance, Mary identified three options to deal with these underperformers: firing them, training them, or transferring them to another team. After these three options are identified, what is the next step Mary should pursue in rational decision making?
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She should rate the options to see which one will improve her team’s performance
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Bounded rationality refers to
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making decisions within a set of constraints.
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The act of choosing a solution that is good enough is called _____.
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Satisficing
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Under _____, individuals have information about objectives, priorities, and potential courses of action, but they do not have all the information about the possible outcomes for each course of action.
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conditions of risk
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Under conditions of uncertainty:
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individuals have information related to an organization’s objectives and priorities.
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The factor that distinguishes conditions of risk from conditions of uncertainty is that in conditions of risk:
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individuals have information about the potential courses of action.
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John, a top executive, is in a situation where he has to quickly decide between two projects that came in simultaneously from two major clients. Since his team is not big enough to complete both projects at a time, he cannot accept both. He had a hunch and just like that accepted one of the clients’ project without any considerations. This scenario is an example of _____.
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intuitive decision making
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Rules of thumb or short-cuts that individuals use to save time when making complex decisions are known as _____.
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heuristics
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Peter is a senior manager in an organization that is currently laying off its employees. It is Peter’s responsibility to convey this message to the laid off employees. Harry is one among them with whom Peter had a conflict a year ago. Therefore, in an attempt to avoid any such conflicts again, Peter requested a human resources representative to convey the message instead. In this case, Peter uses the _____ heuristic.
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Availability
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The _____ heuristic contends that individuals tend to look for traits in another person or situation that correspond with previously formed stereotypes.
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representativeness
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The status quo bias is best described as:
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the tendency to favor the ‘here and now’ and to reject potential change.
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Which of the following terms refers to alternative presentations of the same information that can significantly alter a decision?
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Framing
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Vinita buys a stock assuming that she can make profit out of it. However, shortly thereafter the stock value drops and she loses a lot of money. Her financial planner thinks the stock value will drop further and advices her to sell the stock. However, she has lost so much money already and therefore she doesn’t want to sell. Instead she holds onto the stock in hopes to regain her loss. Instead she loses more. This phenomena is referred to as:
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escalation of commitment
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Which of the following statements best describes the appropriateness framework?
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The process of making decisions based on societal norms or expectations
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_____ decisions are made in response to recurring organizational problems that require individuals to follow established rules and procedures.
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Programmed
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Which of the following statements about nonprogrammed decisions is true?
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These are made in response to novel, poorly defined, or unstructured situations.
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The distinguishing factor between programmed and nonprogrammed decisions is that:
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programmed decisions require managers to rely on habit and rational analysis.
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A model of decision making that seeks to maximize economic or other outcomes using a rational choice process is known as the _____ model.
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classical
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Which of the following statements best describes the political model of decision making?
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A model of decision making that acknowledges that most organizational decisions involve many managers who have different goals and who have to share information to reach an agreement
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Which of the following models does not view a decision process as a sequence of steps that begins with a problem and ends with a solution?
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Garbage can model
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The deliberate, temporary relaxation of rules to explore many possible alternatives is called _____.
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playfulness
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Which of the following models should managers use while making tough calls?
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SCRIPTS model
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An emotional response that occurs when interests, perspectives, and behaviors of one individual or group explicitly differ from those of another individual or group is called _____.
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conflict
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Which of the following statements best describes negotiation?
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A process by which two parties attempt to reach agreement on an issue by offering and reviewing various courses of action
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Which of the following situations is the best example of an interpersonal conflict?
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Jane and Jack, executives of a firm’s finance department, had a conflict with their teammate, John, who failed to submit an important report on time.
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Which of the following situations is the best example of an intergroup conflict?
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An organization’s marketing team had a conflict with the production team due to the delay in the arrival of finished products.
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Which of the following theories proposes that group members of an in-group will seek to find negative aspects of an out-group to enhance their self-image?
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Social identity theory
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The realistic conflict theory proposes that:
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limited resources will lead to conflict between groups.
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Jane is Maria’s colleague and they often tend to argue with each other over minor issues. Both belong to the same team and Jane often insults Maria by passing rude comments for no reason and Maria in turn threatens Jane. This scenario is the best example of an _____ conflict.
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affective
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John and Joseph are the finance executives in an organization. They are presently working on a project together. John is task-oriented and he works hard to complete the project on time. However, Joseph takes his own time and tends to ignore the project deadline. As a result, John has a conflict with Joseph and warns him that he’ll complain about him to the head. This scenario is an example of _____ conflict.
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cognitive
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Which of the following statements about affective and cognitive conflicts is true?
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Tasks that are very complex tend to lead to cognitive conflict.
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Groupthink refers to:
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extreme consensus during a decision-making process.
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Which of the following is a symptom of groupthink?
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Pressures toward uniformity
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Conflict escalation occurs when:
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one person’s negative behaviors encourage another person’s negative behaviors.
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Conflict de-escalation occurs when:
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individuals who are in conflict perceive a common enemy.
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As a response to conflict, avoidance must be used when
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the issue is trivial.
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Which of the following responses to conflict must be adopted when a person is faced with a crisis situation?
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Forcing
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As a response to conflict, accommodating involves:
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trying not to upset the other person because maintaining a harmonious relationship is a top priority.
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Which of the following questions should be addressed first while diagnosing a disagreement?
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Is the disagreement related to facts, goals, methods, or values?
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Which of the following is the final step involved in diagnosing disagreement?
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Identifying the state to which the disagreement has evolved
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Which of the following statements is true of distributive negotiation?
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In these negotiations, what one person wins, the other person loses.
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Which of the following statements is true of the bargaining zone framework?
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The reservation point is the number below or above which the negotiator would prefer.
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Which of the following is a characteristic of an integrative negotiation?
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Creating value for both negotiators
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Which of the following is the first step involved in an effective negotiation process?
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Assessing one’s best alternative to a negotiated agreement
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The process by which a negotiator attempts to gain benefits or concessions for his or her position is called _____.
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claim value
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Which of the following statements is true of agreements that create value?
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They often result in higher-quality agreements.
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Which of the following statements about negotiating across cultures is true?
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People in low-context cultures prefer to communicate directly.
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A(n) _____ is defined as a group of two or more people with complementary skills who are committed to working together to achieve a specific objective.
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team
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Which of the following statements about teams and workgroups is true?
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Teams are better than work groups when the task is complex and sophisticated.
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The factor that differentiates work groups from teams is that work groups:
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involve individual accountability and clearly defined leadership.
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A task is considered complex when:
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it involves a lot of uncertainty about possible outcomes.
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The extent to which group members need to work with and rely on each other to produce the collective work of the group is referred to as _____.
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task interdependence
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Which of the following is a characteristic of teams?
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They have clear task objectives
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Which of the following statements is true of team composition?
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Effective teams include members with technical and interpersonal skills.
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Which of the following statements about team size is true?
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Team size should reflect the nature of the task.
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Tom, the head of human resources in an organization, is working on an important project for which he develops a team of five middle level managers one from each department-finance, IT, marketing, logistics, and the manufacturing department. The five managers will be reporting to Tom, who heads the team, and will coordinate among themselves to complete the project on time. This scenario shows that:
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Tom has formed a horizontal team.
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Which of the following is the best example of a vertical team?
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Kevin, a manager in the marketing department, had Jim and Jake, team members from the same department, reporting to him on the progress of an ongoing project.
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_____ teams are composed of a manager and his or her subordinates in the formal chain of command, usually in one functional department.
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Vertical
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Which of the following best describes collocated teams?
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Teams that use a significant amount of face-to-face communication to make operating decisions
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Which of the following is the best example of a self-directed team?
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Jane, Jack, and Maria, as members of a team, have the authority and responsibility to make decisions and to participate in processes that help the team succeed.
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Which of the following is the best example of a geographically distributed team?
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Sam, Ben, and Nick are team members working from three different locations on the same project, relying mainly on telephone calls and e-mails to interact with each other.
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Which of the following statements is true of diverse teams?
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Diverse team members tend to produce more creative and innovative solutions.
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Which of the following is the best example of a team in the storming stage of development?
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A team with members arguing with each other due to interpersonal issues arising from differences in the perspectives of each team member
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Which of the following teams is the best example of a team in the norming stage of development?
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A team with members sharing their personal opinion with others and group members being more open to one another’s ideas and suggestions
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Kevin is leading a team whose members came together and got to know about their tasks and responsibilities, and got an idea about each of their team member’s competencies.Which of the following should Kevin typically do during this stage of team development?
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Provide resources
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Which of the following should a team lead in the adjourning stage of team development do?
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Manage feelings of sadness
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Which of the following is one of the main components of a team process?
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Constructive conflict
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_____ refers to the extent to which individuals engage in the process of generating solutions and articulating their opinions and perspectives.
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Participation
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For teams to be considered effective:
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they must satisfy team members.
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Which of the following statements is true of the roles of effective team leaders?
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They tend to manage agreement and disagreement.
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The boundary manager determines:
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how a team works with others who have an interest in the team’s performance.
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Which of the following statements is true of managing geographically distributed teams?
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Managers should be skilled at managing a collocated team first.
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_____ refers to the desire, stimulus, or incentive to pursue a particular course of action.
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Motivation
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Which of the following in an intrinsic reward?
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Interesting task
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Which of the following is an extrinsic reward?
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Job security
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Which of the following statements about extrinsic and intrinsic rewards is true?
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Intrinsic rewards generally provide personal satisfaction.
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The study of the incentives and needs that motivate people to perform in a certain way are called _____ theories of motivation.
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content
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The _____ theory, proposed by Abraham Maslow, states that individuals have multiple needs that must be fulfilled in a specific order to ensure the greatest level of satisfaction.
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hierarchy of needs
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Which of the following statements about Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is true?
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Lower-order needs must be satisfied before higher-order needs can be addressed.
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Which of the following theories is a variant on Maslow’s hierarchy theory that involves three instead of five levels?
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Alderfer’s ERG theory
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The acronym ERG in Alderfer’s theory of motivation refers to:
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existence, relatedness, and growth.
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According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, hygiene factors:
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are potential dissatisfiers that, when fulfilled, do not cause people to become satisfied.
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The management in an organization wanted to reduce employee turnover by increasing their job satisfaction. Therefore, they provided employees with a safe work environment and a sense of job security. However, the turnover rate did not decrease even after implementing these changes. During exit interviews, the employees complained that they do not have any opportunities for achievement and personal recognition. From this scenario, according to Herzberg’s theory, it can be understood that:
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the organization falls short of motivators.
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Which of the following is one of the three needs of McClelland’s acquired needs theory?
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Need for power
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Edwin, a top manager in a bureaucratic organization, often engages in persuading employees while making decisions and focuses more on his team and provides extra coaching to employees. He also maintains a good reputation both inside and outside the organization. Based on McClelland’s acquired needs theory, it can be inferred that Edwin is an example of _____.
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a socialized power-oriented manager
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Adam, a team lead, while assessing the performance of his team members, came to know that their performance is deteriorating day-by-day. In order to motivate them, Adam adopted the four-drive theory of motivation and differentiated good performers from average and poor performers. Moreover, he designed the reward system such that it was tied clearly to performance. From this scenario, it can be inferred that Adam tried to fulfill the employees’ drive to:
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acquire.
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To fulfill employees’ drive to defend, managers should:
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increase transparency of all processes.
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Theories that explain why people behave in ways to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their overall level of satisfaction after they have attempted to fulfill their needs are called _____ theories of motivation.
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process
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Maria and Jose have worked together in the same office in the same position for quite some time. They have similar educational backgrounds and have been in the job for about the same period of time. Maria works extremely hard and often notices that Jose is taking long breaks and not putting in the same effort as she is. Thus, when she learns that Jose is paid $8000, more than what she earns, she gets very upset and decides to reduce her effort and take long breaks as well. Which of the following theories explains this behavior?
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Equity theory
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Which of the following statements about the goal-setting theory is true?
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Tight deadlines for goal completion lead to a more rapid work pace.
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Of the three variables of expectancy theory, valence includes:
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the evaluation of whether the available outcomes are attractive to the employee.
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Which of the following theories focuses on the process of using rewards or punishments to induce behaviors?
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Reinforcement theory
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Which of the following statements best describes the theory of operant conditioning?
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Both positive and negative reinforcement increase behavior while punishment and extinction decrease behavior
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Which of the following statements about the reinforcement theory is true?
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Ceasing to reward the behavior that was previously rewarded causes extinction.
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According to Douglas McGregor, managers who conform to Theory X:
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tend to believe that employees are principally motivated by extrinsic rewards, especially compensation.
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According to Douglas McGregor, managers who conform to Theory Y:
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focus on participatory rather than command-and-control styles of leadership.
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Which of the following is a characteristic of an organization’s climate with high employee engagement?
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Training and development
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Which of the following terms refers to the value that an individual can derive from his or her contacts?
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Social capital
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_____ refers to the activities associated with developing and managing relationships that are critical to a person’s ability to accomplish tasks and develop personally and professionally.
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Networking
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Which of the following networks are considered to be the best?
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Large diverse networks with strong and weak relationships
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Which of the following statements about interpersonal networks is true?
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Interpersonal networks are networks of relationships that develop across functions to accomplish tasks quickly.
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Which of the following networks best exemplifies an advice network?
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When it comes to solving technical issues, the employees in an organization often get suggestions from Victor who has more technical expertise.
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Which of the following networks is the best example of a communication network?
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In a restaurant, George welcomes the customers, Jake’s team takes the orders, and finally Jim’s team serves the customers and conducts financial transactions.
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Which of the following networks is the best example of a trust network?
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Pinky couldn’t work on her project due to some personal issues. She discussed her issues with Paul, her teammate, and he helped her finish the task on time.
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Which of the following statements about communication networks is true?
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Examining communication networks can be helpful in identifying some of the gaps in information flow.
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Which of the following networks allows employees to share sensitive information and support one another in a crisis?
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Trust networks
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Advice networks in organizations allows employees to:
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get help from others to solve problems and to receive information.
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Of the three conceptions of centrality, degree of centrality:
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represents the number of contacts to whom a person is connected in a social network.
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Which of the following is one of the conceptions of centrality?
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Closeness
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Which of the following conceptions of centrality represents potential control over information and over connections to others that anyone may want to reach?
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Betweenness
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The act of leveraging network position to connect people who are not otherwise connected to one another to generate and control information is called _____.
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brokerage
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Which of the following statements about redundant contacts is true?
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These contacts provide individuals with the same information.
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Non-redundant contacts:
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allow individuals to bridge structural holes.
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Individuals who connect their immediate work group with other parts of the company or with groups in other organizations are called _____.
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boundary spanners
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According to David Krackhardt, the components of strong ties are:
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interaction, affection, and time.
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Sam was unemployed and looking for a job. None of his close friends could help him as they themselves were unemployed. However, Sam got a good job through James, whom he met a few months ago during travelling. From this scenario, it can be inferred that:
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James belongs to Sam’s weak ties.
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Which of the following statements about the strength of ties is true?
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Unlike strong ties, weak ties provides individuals with exposure to novel information.
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Effective networks:
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include a proper balance between the breadth of contacts and the depth or strength of contacts.
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Which of the following, if true, is one of the six myths that exist about the best ways to build useful networks?
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I already know what is going on in my network.
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According to Brian Uzzi and Shannon Dunlap, which of the following is the first step in building a useful internal network?
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Mapping your network
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Dolly has arranged for a get-together in her house for which she invited all her friends. Most of her friends were meeting the others in the group for the first time. Moreover, they were from diverse backgrounds with differing interests and experiences. Though all were not known to each other, all were known to Dolly. From this description of Dolly, it can be inferred that Dolly is:
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good at forging better connections.
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Which of the following entities allows individuals to develop professional relationships outside work?
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Networking clubs

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