Teaching Strategies

Explicit Instruction
The teacher provides the information and content to support the learning process.
Implicit Instruction
The focus is on the student as an active and involved learner who constructs knowledge by using previously learned information
Ability Grouping
Placement of students in educational activities according to performance and academic achievement levels.
Accommodations
An adjustment that enables a student to participate in educational activities.
Active student response
A measure of the engagement of the learner in tasks and activities.
Adaptation
A change made to the environment or curriculum.
Authentic Learning
Instruction using real-world projects and activities to allow students to discover and explore in a more relevant manner.
Chained Resopnse
The breaking down of a task into component parts so a student finishes the task by starting with the first step in the sequence and performing each component progressively until the task is completed.
Chaining
A technique in which student performance is reinforced so the student will continue to perform more complex tasks in the sequence.
Choral Responding
Oral resonse of students (in unison) to a question or problem presented by the teacher.
Chunking
A strategy that allows a student to remember and organize large amounts of information.
Cloze Procedure
The use of semantic and syntactic clues to aid in completing sentences.
Concept Generalization
The ability for student to demonstrate concept knowledge by applying the information to the other settings without prompts from teacher.
Content Enhancement
Techniques used to aid in the organization and delivery of curriculum such as guided notes, graphic organizers, mnemonics, and visual displays.
Contingent Teaching
A strategy for helping a student and eventually fading out the support as he gains mastery.
Cooperative Learning
Classroom is divided into groups to work together to complete a task or participate in an activity.
Cues and Prompts
Provides assistance to ensure adequate support of instruction
Diagnostic-prescriptive method
Individualizing instruction to develop strengths and remediate weaknesses.
Differentiated Instruction
To address the varying abilities, strengths, and needs of learners and their styles of learning by imposing a choice of learning activity, tasks that suit the learning styles, student groupings, authentic lessons, and problem based activities.
Direct Instruction
A systematic approach of teaching with specific goals, active learner engagement, and positive reinforcement for student performance (synonymous with explicit instructions)
Direct Measure
Checking on student achievement during a period for a specific opportunity to perform and recording the response.
Facilitated groups
Students engage in active learning with lessons designed and overseen by the teacher but managed by students.
Fluency building
A measure that encourages practice of skills to improve the accuracyy and rate of use.
Generalization
The ability to use skills learned across various settings
Graphic Organizer
A visual-spatial organization of information to help students understand presented concepts.
guided practice
providing opportunities to gain knowledge by offering cues, prompts, or added sequential information.
learning centers
Specific areas or activities that enhance the curricular content and allow independent or small group instruction.
learning strategy
An approach that teaches students how to learn and remember particular content.
mediated scaffolding
a procedure that provides cues and prompts, while gradually removing them so students can perform and respond independently.
mnemonics
a strategy that enhances memory through key words, acronyms, or acrostics.
modeling
a method that helps make connections between the material to be learned and the process to learn it by acting out sequences while students observe and then imitate the task.
modification
changing the content, material, or delivery of instruction
multiple intelligences
the nine areas of learning that are addressed in classroom instruction linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential.
naturalistic teaching
procedures that involve activities interesting to students with naturally occurring consequences.
peer tutoring
under the guidance of a teacher, a non-disabled student with competencies in a particular area works with a student with a disability who needs assistance to enhance an area of study.
precisioin teaching
an approach that identifies the skills to be taught and uses direct daily measure of the student’s performance to acquire the skills.
prompting
a technique in which a visual, auditory, or tactile cue is presented to facilitate the completion of a task or to perform a behavior.
remediation
a program technique to teach students to overcome an exceptionality through training and education
repetition
continual work on a specific skill or content concept to help build rote memory skills
response cards
a method that allows all students to answer simultaneously by using signs, cards, or items held up to demonstrate responses.
scaffolding
applying stages to learning content and tasks by first observing the student to see what she can do and then helping her understand the how and why until she can perform herself (direct instruction, tutoring, modeling, independence)
skill drill
repetition and practice of new skills until the learner performs without cues and prompts
strategic instruction
a planned, sequential instruction to show similarities and differences between acquired and new knowledge.
systematic feedback
providing positive reinforcement and confirmation to improve learning.
task analysis
A strategy in which the goals are broken into smaller steps and sequences while keeping the learner’s pace in focus.
time trial
a procedure that improves fluency of new skills through time limits
transfer of stimulus
providing instructional prompts to aid in correct responses.
Universal Design
the concept that everything in the environment, in learning and in products, should be accessible to everyone.
differentiated
Recommended for students who are gifted or talented is a ___________ curriculum that is responsive to the needs of these students, based on their individual strengths, and allows them opportunity to use their exceptional abilities.
Strategies for acceleration for GT students:
Self-paced instruction, compacting or telescoping the curriculum, mentoring programs, tiered lessons, summer programs, special focus courses, ability grouping, advanced placement courses, extracurricular programs and skipping grade levels.
explicit instruction and implicit instruction
Two distinct methods of providing instruction to diverse students and these are used for various student groups depending on the functioning level and the subject area
Study Skills Instruction
reading, listening, note taking, outlining, report writing, oral presentation, graphic aids, test taking, library use, time management, and behavior self-management
Students in secondary education settings, study skills instruction include:
maintaining a schedule, learning to ask questions, skimming for information, outlining a chapter, using mnemonics, and paraphrasing.
Students needing focused instruction on social skills are in the following exceptionalities:
autism, emotional disabilities, gifted-talented, hearing and vision impairments, learning disabilities, and mental retardation.
Self-management
The ability of the individual to maintain control of one’s self and to generalize skills learned across various settings.
Small group instruction
Type of instruction that helps students learn to generalize skills more quickly, allows for social interactions, permits more flexible involvement with the teacher, helps students learn from other peers.
functional skills
The independent living skills considered important for self-care, social circumstances, employment, vocational situations, and recreational activities.
Functional academics
focuses on basic educational concepts that may be useful in daily life, such as basic reading using survival sight words, basic math involving money and time, basic writing like name, address and phone number.
functional curriculum
emphasizes the skills necessary to perform adequately in the community and is most often used with students who have mental retardation, autism, and other moderate to severe conditions.
functional language
the skills used to make a basic need or desire known.
functional literacy
the level of communication and language that a person needs to live independently in the community.
Steps in the assessment process
Pre-referral, screening, referral, evaluation and identification, instructional program planning, placement, review and evaluation
paraprofessionals
The work under the supervision of a certified teacher, help the teacher by providing more direct services and additional instructional opportunities on a regular basis, and have a wide range of duties and responsibilities.
The traits a paraprofessional should have:
flexibility, dependability, motivation, tolerance, patience, cooperativeness, resourcefulness, and positiveness.
Special Education teacher role
to manage the IEP team, implement the IEP, provide accommodations to general education, and support the student and other teachers.
General education teacher role
Instruct students in the general education curriculum according to district standards and state requirements, while implementing accommodations, modifications, or adaptations for exceptional students.
Specific duties of a special education teacher:
conduct assessments, plan for specifically designed instructions, implement instruction & accommodations, monitor student progress, collaborate, consult and confer with team members, schedule and run IEP meetings, conduct transition assessments&create ITP
Train staff&students in advocacy, communicate w/parents, facilitate programs&activities, supervise paraprofessionals, manage behavior assessments&plans, participate in staff development&workshops, join prof.org.&attend conferences,keep current on research
Behavior Management Strategies
A designed program that integrates the needs of the individual student with the environment.
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Students in special education are provided behavior management tools according to their ______ and ______.
Strategies to help individualize behavior management techniques:
make environment safe&comfortable, involve students in creating rules, avoid power struggles&confrontations, implement&track behavior plans, develop expectations for appropriate behaviors, use immediate feedback&consistent reinforcements.
acting out behavior
Inappropriate behavior (aggressive or disruptive) considered more damaging and serious than other behaviors.
applied behavior analysis
method of behavior scrutiny to determine how and why a student responds to certain events, situations, or the environment and allows for a training component of rewards and reinforcements to help the student learn the target behavior.
alternative school placement
public school option that may be utilized when a student cant function in the traditional public school system due to uncontrollable behaviors or due to a disruption that caused a suspension or expulsion.
antecedent
stimulus used in behavior management and behavior modification that occurs prior to the behavior and establishes the reason for the behavior.
behavior intervention
strategies or actions used to extinguish, change, or redirect an inappropriate behavior, three types are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and aversive reinforcement.
behavior rating scales
an evaluation tool that lists specific observable behaviors to assess the severity, frequency, and types of exhibited behaviors completed by staff, parents, or student.
consequences
stimulus that follows a behavior action used in behavior management or behavior modifications to increase or decrease the behavior.
contingency contract
written agreement between the student and the teacher that outlines the expected performance and the consequences or reinforcers used.
discrete trial training
strategy in which the function or task is broken down into steps that are rewarded immediately in trial by trial basis.
manifestation determination
team review of the relationship between a student’s inappropriate behavior and the disability, required under IDEIA when a student violates a code of conduct.
negative reinforcement
used in behavior modification in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior in order to avoid a negative consequence.
perseveration
when a behavior continues repeatedly beyond the typical endpoint and the student demonstrates difficulty switching tasks.
positive reinforcement
used in behavior modification in which the student is motivated to use a desired behavior because of the reward to be obtained.
response generalization
application of a learned behavior or skill to another setting.
target behavior
the behavior for intervention, most often to be extinguished or changed, although it may be a positive behavior that should be used in other school activities.
12 disability categories suggested in federal law for students 6-21 years of age
autism, deaf-blindness, emotional disturbance/behavior disorder, hearing impairment, mental retardation, multiple disabilities, orthopedic impairment, OHI, SLD, SLI, TBI, visual impairment.
Language
the systematic use of sounds, signs, or written symbols for the purpose of communication or expression.
Receptive language
Ability to understand and comprehend information that is presented.
Expressive language
Ability to communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas through words, gestures, sign systems, assistive devices, and so on.
Articulation
using movements of the mouth area to make speech sounds.
Pragmatics
Knowledge of successful and appropriate language use, such as in conversation.
Semantics
The meaning that language communicates; it governs vocabulary development.
Syntax
A system of combining words into sentences with rules that govern how words work together in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
The purpose of IDEIA is identified in 4 key statements
ensure kids w/disabilities guarantee a FAPE;assist states in establish early interv.srvs 4infants&toddlers w/disabilities; ensure educators&parents have the tools to improve ed. 4all kids w/disabilities;assess the effective of ed.4kids w/disabilities.
6 major principles of IDEIA
0 reject; protection in the evaluation process; FAPE; LRE; Due process procedures (procedural safeguards); Parent & student participation (shared decision making)
When IDEA-1997 was reauthorized to IDEIA-2004, all major provisions and components were still in tact but some changes were added that include the following
Paperwork reduction; short term objectives & benchmarks eliminated from IEP’s; Implementation of comprehensive & multiyear (3yrs) IEP’s; focus on highly qualified teachers to align IDEA with NCLB
IDEIA Part B focuses on the following:
students w/dis 3-21;ed.programs in public school settings;educators, staff&other school professionals providing srvcs;yrly evals&an annual review of students program; participation in transition srvcs from partC;IEP that describes the ind. students needs.
IDEIA Part C focuses on the following:
students w/dis. birth-3 yrs; family&child srvcs in natural environ (home);srvc or case manager to coordinate srvcs; evals 2x per yr w/reg reviews; participation in the transition srvcs to part B; IFSP to describe the childs&families needs.
Gifted and Talented students
Though they are still a form of Special Education but are no longer included in the federal special education laws. Separate laws, funding & requirements are established. They require mod&accom to the gen ed. curriculum, as well as for inst. activities.
Inclusion
A philosophy that surmises students with exceptional needs should be placed in classrooms along with students who are non-disabled so they receive the general education curriculum instruction with supportive services.
Collaborative teaming
Team members working together to enhance the educational programs to exceptional students, since they all contribute expertise to implement and support an appropriate program.
Coordination
One part of the collaborative teaming that includes cmcn&coop. so student srvs are ensured delivery.Professionals may not directly share their expertise, information, or ideas with one another, but they do provide updates on the progress of the student.
Consultation
Part of collaborative teaming in which professionals work with one another by directly cmcn and sharing expertise to improve services to students. Teachers and other professionals share strategies and methods to help the student access the ed. program.
Co-teaching
Part of collaborative teaming used effectively for inclusion settings.2 or more teachers work together to plan activities, deliver inst., & assess students, additional supports are provided to all students in the classroom thereby improving achievement.
Multidisciplinary team, interdisciplinary team, transdiciplinary team
3 team models in schools that are critical to the effectiveness and implementation of the special education process
Multidisciplinary team
prof w/defined roles, working ind of 1 another. may promote fragmentation of student programs.They conduct separate assess, deliver srvcs ind of others, work w/families apart from of other prof.may exhibit lack of cmcn or understanding of students needs.
Interdisciplinary team
Members conduct ind assess,work to promote cmcn&collab. More formal cmcn efforts by meet 2gether 2 share info&develop interv.&strategies 2 enhance student ed. success. Members implement their portion of program while remain in contact w/other members.
Transdisciplinary team
Team model demonstrates coord&invol;difficult 2achieve this status due 2schedules&#s of prof.Delivers srvs in an integrated approach across disciplines, to include assess, share info, program devel&implement interv, while include fmly at all stages.RECOM
FAPE
one of the major principles of IDEA – states all children with disabilities, regardless of the type or severity of their disability, shall receive a free appropriate public education provided at public’s expense – IEP must be developed to meet each child’s unique needs
Continuum of services
Regular classroom (full day) Regular classroom with consultation, Regular classroom with supplementary instruction and services, Resource room, Separate classroom, Separate school, Residential school, Homebound or hospital
Non-discriminatory Assessment
Diana vs. State Board of Education, Larry P.vs Riles, and Lau vs. Nichols all addressed the issue of non-discriminatory assessment. The assessment must be multi disciplinary and cannot discriminate. Children must be assessed in all areas of suspected disability.
6 items for diagnosis of Mental Retardation
1. Child performs at 2.0 standard deviations below the norm. 2. IQ is 70-55 mild 55-40 moderate 40-25 severe 25 and below profound 3. Adaptive behavior is consistent with academic ability. 4. Reduced cognitive ability and adaptive behavior adversely affect educational performance. 5. Exclusion clause, the defect is not caused by visual, auditory or motor defects, behavior or emotions disturbance or a language or learning disability. Determination of continued need for Special Education or related services.
Criteria for Learning Disability Diagnosis
1. Basic psychological processing deficit in one or more areas.(reading skills,reading comprehension, written expression, math calculation, math reasoning, listening comprehension or oral expression) 2. Behavioral characteristics identified in deficit area (s) 3. Behavioral characteristics identified by one of these procedures; behavioral observation, structured clinical task or others 4. LD adversely affects school functioning 5. Discrepancy between achievement and ability or conclusion that discrepancy is present 6. LD not caused y visual, auditory or motor deficit, BD, ED environmental, economic or cultural differences. 7. Determination of need for SE or related services.
steps in Special Education Process
1. Screening 2. Alternative Intervention Strategies 3 referral & screening review 4. Develop IEP to include areas to evaluate, at least 1 observation in area of concern, complete within 30 days of referral, notice of evaluation or reevaluation 5. Notice & Consent for Evaluation 6. Evaluation, diagnosis of disability, establish current level of functioning, completed within 45 days of parents consent for evaluation,if no disability recommend continuation of AIS, if disability found, continue with IEP process. 7. Develop IEP must be within 45 days of initial diagnostic staffing 8. LRE considerations 9. Notice of consent for placement before SE services begin. If parents deny, initiate due process
accommodations can teachers make for students with disabilities
breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing; giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests; letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities; letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech. Learn about the different testing modifications that can really help a student with LD show what he or she has learned. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies. These help all students but are particularly helpful to those with LD. Work with the student’s parents to create an IEP tailored to meet the student’s needs. Establish a positive working relationship with the student’s parents. Through regular communication, exchange information about the student’s progress at school.
Section 504 of rehabilitation act
Declared a person cannot be excluded on the basis of a handicap alone from any program or activity receiving federal funds
Formative assessment
Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students’ understanding and inform and guide teaching
Behaviorism
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
Cognitivism
A theory of learning. The idea is that learning is a conscious, rational process. People learn by making models, maps and frameworks in their mind. ~ is the opposite of behaviorism.
Ecological learning
Lorenz’s theory -imprinting -adaptive & survival behaviors -survival of the fittest
Measurable goal
a goal in which we know how long and exactly when we have completed it