Taxonomy- #s 1-69

question

How many known species are there?
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13 billion
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What percent of all organisms that have ever lived is this?
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5%
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Are all organisms on Earth today identified?
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No, new organisms are still being found and identified
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classification
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the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities
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What is another term for classification?
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taxonomy
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What do you call scientists that study classification?
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taxonomists
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Classifying organisms makes naming organisms more what?
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accurate and uniform
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What does classifying prevent?
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misnomers
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misnomers
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inaccurate naming
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What are 2 examples of misnomers?
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starfish, jellyfish
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What language is used for scientific naming?
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Latin
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What other language is sometimes used for naming?
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Greek
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What language is universally used by scientists for naming?
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Latin
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Who was the first taxonomist?
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Aristotle (2,000 years ago)
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What 2 groups did Aristotle place organisms in?
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plants, animals
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How did Aristotle subdivide his two groups?
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habitat (land, sea, or air dwellers
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Who was the first to use Latin for scientific naming?
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John Ray
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What was the problem with Ray’s names?
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very long–descriptions telling everything
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What 18th century taxonomist developed the naming system still used today?
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Carolus Linnaeus
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Who is the \”father of taxonomy\”?
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Carolus Linnaeus
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How did Linnaeus group his organisms?
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structure
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What is Linnaeus’s naming system called?
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binomial nomenclature
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binomial nomenclature
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two name system (Genus and species)
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Besides Latin, what other language is sometimes used for scientific names?
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Greek
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How do scientific names appear in print?
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italicized
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What must be done to a scientific name when you are writing it?
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capitalize genus, NOT species, underline
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What is an example of a common name for an animal?
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American Robbin
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What is an example of a scientific name for an animal?
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Turdus migratorius
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Where can you find the rules for naming organisms?
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International Code for Binomial Nomenclature
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What must approve all scientific names?
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International Naming Congress (International Zoological Congress)
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Why do naming congresses have to approve names?
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prevents duplicated names
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taxon
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any particular group into which related organisms are placed
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What is plural for taxon?
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taxa
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What are the 8 taxon in order from broadest to most specific?
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1. Domain, 2. Kingdom, 3. Phylum/division, 4. Class, 5. Order, 6. Family, 7. Genus, 8. Species
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What is the newest and broadest taxon?
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Domain
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Instead of taxon phylum, what other taxon is used for plants at this level?
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division
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What is the most specific taxon?
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species
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What is a sentence to help remember the 8 most important taxonomic levels?
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Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup
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How many domains are there?
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3
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What are the 3 domains?
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Archaea, Eubacteria, Eukarya
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What are the main characteristics of Archaea and Eubacteria?
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unicellular, prokaryotes (no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles)
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What are the main characteristics of the Domain Eukarya?
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more complex, has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
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What Domain of organisms probably evolved first?
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Archaea
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Where do Archaea live?
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harsh enviroments (ex.-sewage, thermal or volcanic vents, hot springs or geysers that are acidic, very salty water)
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Where are eubacteria found?
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all habitats EXCEPT harsh ones
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What do some bacteria cause?
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disease
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What do many bacteria act as?
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decomposers and are important to the eviroment
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Where do some members of eubacteria live?
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the intestines of animals
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How many kingdoms is the Domain Eukarya divided into?
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4
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What are the 4 kingdoms of Eukarya?
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1. Protista, 2. Fungi, 3. Animalia, 4. Plantae
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What is in the group Protista?
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protozoans, algae
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What is in the group Fungi?
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mushroom, yeast
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What is in the group Animalia?
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multicellular animals
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What is in the group Plantae?
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multicellular plants
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Which 2 kingdoms contain all multicellular members?
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Plantae, Animalia
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Microscopic organisms found in pond water are most likely in the kingdom what?
answer

Protista
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What are the main characteristics of the Kingdom Protista?
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most are unicellular, some are multicellular, aquatic, most are autotrophic, others are heterotrphic
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What are the cell walls of fungi made of?
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chitin
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absorptive heterotrophic
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digest food outside their body and then absorb it
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What are all members of the kingdom Plantae?
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multicellular, autotrophic
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What do plants use as their energy to make food?
answer

sunlight
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What is the food process of plants called?
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photosynthesis
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What are plant cell walls made of?
answer

cellulose
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What type of heterotrophic organisms are fungi?
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absorptive
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ingestive heterotroph
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consume food and digest it inside their bodies
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What Genera is an exception to this?
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Homo
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Which Kingdom has the largest number of different kinds of organisms?
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insects; Animalia

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