Study Habits Argumentative Essay Example
Study Habits Argumentative Essay Example

Study Habits Argumentative Essay Example

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  • Pages: 11 (2781 words)
  • Published: April 10, 2017
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General Objectives: The students will gain in depth knowledge about various methods of effective learning and practice it during their study time. Specific Objectives: At the end of the seminar the students will be able to, 1) Define learning and study habits 2) Explain the concept of Study skills 3) Describe the Process of study 4) Enlist the Types of learning 5) Develop Effective Study Habits 6) Elaborate methods & tips to Improve Memory 7) Interpret the Survey Report ) Understand the research study Contents: 1) Introduction 2) Specific and General Objectives 3) Definition of learning 4) Meaning of study habits 5) Concept of Study skills 6) Process of study 7) Types of learning * Classical Conditioning * Operant Conditioning * Cognitive Learning * Social Learning 8) Development of Effective Study Habits 9) Methods &imp; tips to Improve Memory 10) Survey Report 11) Research study 12) Conclusion 1


3) Bibliography Development Of Effective Study Habit Introduction: Learning is central to all our behaviour.Each learner is unique individual with different abilities, interests, ways of thinking and responding thus these characterstics have a significant influence on ones learning style. It is being realized that students use different learning strategies.

They have different methods of reading, interpreting and coding the information. Sometimes these strategies are useful, but some students develop pathological learning strategies. To study effectively the students should be aware of learning process. Definition: Learning is not just memorizing a lot of unrelated informations.It means understanding concepts and principles, the relationship between ideas and the ability to analyse a situation to synthesize various bits of informations or evaluate an event and arrive at judgement A famous Sanskrit shlorka

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states “A quarter of our learning comes from our teachers, own intellect and talent provides a quarter. A quarter from the peers and friends and remaining comes only with time”.

Meaning of effective study habits /operational definition. Effective: producing an intended result. Study: Time and efforts spent in reading etc. to gain knowledge.Habits: something that a person does often. What are study skills: An efficient learner must learn how to store new information and retrieve it in moments of need especially when doing assignments or taking an examination.

Process of study: The process of study involves four operations: PERCEPTION: A good student should be able to first perceive what is relevant to his or her needs and select only those areas which are important. You can not study everything available in every book you can lay your hands on. Once decided on areas which are important, you have to read and understand r comprehend the marterial that you have selected. COMPREHENSION: No learning can take place without comprehensions.

Comprehension is thus imperative in the process of learning. However mere comprehension is not enough. RETENSION AND RETRIEVAL: The students understand now, may also forget easily later. Hence Students have to make special efforts to retain what they have comprehended.

TYPES OF LEARNING: Certain condition must be there for learning to take place. There are a number of theoretical explanations about the process of learning.These are classical conditioning & operant conditioning which emphasize stimulus-response (S-R) relationships and explain learning as an associative process . Other psychologist argues that all types of learning cannot be explained by simple forms of S-R relationships . cognitive theories give importance to

perception and understanding.

However, we are social beings and we learn a number of tasks in social context so another group of theorist give social learning model. So as per various theorist types of learning are. 1) Classical Conditioning 2) Operant Conditioning ) Cognitive Learning 4) Social Learning 1) Classical Conditioning: This is the simplest form of conditioning, described by Pavlov, a Russian psychologist. Conditioning is a term used to describe the process by which the neutral stimulus gains the power to elicit a specific conditioned response. This is explained through the experiments done by Pavlov.

He associated the presentation of food to the dog with another stimulus as sound of the bell. After giving some trials in which bell preceded the presentation of food, the dog started salivating at the sound of the bell.The acquisition of a conditioned responses gradual and becomes stronger with repeated trials. 2) Operant Conditioning: Operant conditioning is another approach to the study of associative learning. The term coined by B.

F. Skinner means that the likelihood of behaviour depends on the significance of the event immediately following it to person showing the behaviour. if the Event following the behavior is positively reinforcing or rewarding, than it will reoccur. If it is not reinforced or is punished then it is less likely to recur and eventually stops completely a process known as ‘extinction’.

It is a powerful method for teaching new behaviour patterns both to humans and animals. The basics of operant conditioning are reinforcement and punishment. In children the most common form of positive reinforcement is social; children are likely to repeat behaviour which gives pleasure. i) Reinforcement: When a

behaviour occurs and is followed by a reinforcement, it is more likely to occur again in future. Nature Of Reinforces: Reinforcement are broadly classified it no two types: 1) Primary or material rewards, snacks sweets, food ) Secondary or social rewards such as praise, smile. 3) Positive reinforcement: events or consequences which strengths behaviour when they are presented are called positive reinforces.

4) Negative reinforcement: The response causes the termination of painful event. ii) Punishment: when we wish to eliminate an un adaptive behaviour, punishment tend to decrease the likelihood of occurrence of such responses. Any unpleasant consequences of behaviour which makes that behavior less likely to reoccur can be seen as punishing.Physical punishment by parents is the most frequently used, but many children do not respond to it by a reduction in their undesirable behaviour. Probably the attention they get when they are punished has a positive reinforcing rewarding effect, and this results overriding negative experiences of physical pain.

In other words punishment decrease the frequency of a response, stops the behaviour leading to it. This method if used consistently and systematically have been found very effective in modifying behavioral problem in children. ) Cognitive Learning: In learning more complex forms of learning, perception and knowledge or cognitive places play an important role. Cognitive theorist states that learning cannot be satisfactorily explained in terms of stimulus response associations. They propose that a learner forms a cognitive structure in memory which organizes informations into relationship and, meaning.

Without any reinforcement, new associations are perceived among events, simply as a result of having experienced this event. Links are made stimuli so that stimulus associations are learned.

Types Of Cognitive Learning:Insight Learning: Kohler, a germen psychologist on the basis of his experiments on chimpanzees, emphasized that while working on a problem one grasp the inner relationships through insight, not through mere trial and error but by perceiving the relationships essential to solutions. In his typical experiment a chimpanzee in bars was given two unequal size of sticks and the fruit was kept outside the bars, which could not be reached by one stick alone.

After several trials the animal all of a sudden joined the two sticks together to make it a single long stick and with that could reach the fruit.Insight often used in problem solving puzzles and riddles and to emphasize the solution in sudden situations. Sign Learning: Tolman believe that some learning is sign learning. We develop a sort of cognitive map or structure instead of learning a sequence of the task. Sign learning is an acquired expectation that one stimulus will be followed by another in a particular context.

What we learn is a set of expectations or a cognitive map of the environment rather than specific responses. Latent Learning: refers to any learning that is not evidenced by behaviour at the time of the learning.It occurs without any reinforcement for particular responses and seems to involve changes in the way in which information is processed. For eg. management of emergency situations.

4) Social Learning: there are many forms of learning which cannot be explained through conditioning. We also learn through observations. Social learning theorist stressed upon observational learning or modeling in which a person acquires a response to specific situations by watching others (Bandura 1969). Imitation is

one the important method based on this theory, which could be applied in learning of many.For eg.

many of our skills like giving an injection, making bed or dressing of a wound are learnt by simply observing the seniors performing those skills. Even maladaptive behaviour like aggression are learnt through imitation. Development Of Effective Study Habits: Learning effectively is a skill in itself. There seems little doubt that good study skills contribute to academic success. Some of the students have difficulties with their studies vanishing not just from lack of application or psychological problems but from specific problems with the way they study and learn.

Here are some methods by which the students can learn more effectively 1) Setting Definite Goal: In any learning students should have clear goal in view, as with a goal in mind one works towards a definite and sure purpose. It also enhances students motivation. Intentions to learn ensures better learning. 2) Knowlegde Of Results Or Psychological Feedback: One must also have conscious assurance that He/She is making progress towards his achievement.

Frequent and regular review of the amount of progress being made towards the goal act as a strong motive to romote continuing effort on the part of the learner. Building small rewards also reinforces into a work schedule. Taking rest in between studies enhances learning, as mental fatigue prolongs the study process. Like a five minute break after every hour of study. In this way we can study more effectively getting away with mental fatigue. 3) Distribution Of Practice Period: A number of experiments have demonstrated that a shorter practice periods are more economical than longer periods and when

distributed over several days yields better returns than when they are concentrated into a single sitting.

) Whole Verses Part Method: Whether the entire topic should be learned all the way through in each trial or by breaking it into small portions and learning in turns? The former is known as whole method and later as part method. With easy units, whole method should be adopted. If material is difficult in relation to the learners ability smaller units should be learnt but they should still be as large wholes as learner can manage efficiently. 5) Logical Learning: this means that instead of learning by heart, note memorization student should try to graps meaning and idea of the text.Logical learning calls for an arrangement and assimilation with ideas in mind.

6) Avoiding Anxiety/Creating Stress Free Environment: The learner level of anxiety interfere with good performance. Mild degree of anxiety can be useful aid to learning but undue worry anxiety and nervousness may have an inhibiting and interfering effect. 7) Improving Memory: a. Mnemonics: It is to associate link between whatever you want to recall with something already established in your memory bank eg. Colours of rainbow are associated with name “ROYG-BIV” i. e Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and violet.

. Method of Loci: In this the students visualize a scene and fit the items to be remembered in that scene eg. Classical conditioning. c. Rhyming: Like the method of Loci, number of and letter peg system is to established. In number system, students forms an image with each number, for letter system mnemonic pegs can be established.

d. Making a Story: The important thing

for good memory is students motivation and ability to organize material. One strategy in remembering things well is to organize or arrange the input so that it fits into existing long term memory. e.

Chunking: It is the systematic way of encoding information. Eg if want to remember of long digit eg 19891609065, you can break the numbers into chunks, the first four digits could be remembered as the year you passed your school or any other significant thing that happened in that year. Next four digit for some one’s birth day. The next three digits for any address code. Tips To Improve Memory: 1) Plan your study content and make a time schedule and stick to this schedule firmly. 2) Make the notes of important points as all the details of information cannot be remembered.

3) Revise written notes. ) Use imagery to visualize the material you are learning and give auditory stimulation by reading loud. 5) Multi channel stimulation would improve your memory. RESEARCH STUDY Article from Nightingale Nursing Times- vol. 6, July 2010 section of problem based learning “Problem based learning, for nursing students’ new teaching and learning approach “ Step I: Presenting the specific problem to the student Step II: Students are divided into groups with facilitator Step III: Small group discussion about the problems, define the problem. Students will identify what is already known; link the problem with prior knowledge.

Step IV: Allow independent study, students can utilize the library resources, database and web reference. Step V: Problem based tutorials and sharing of information Step VI: Students discussions on solutions to the problems Step VII: Review of their experience with the problem

Step VIII: Review of facilitator Step IX: End of the session Conclusion: Introduction of the problem based learning into the curriculum would bring better change among the learners and they will learn about the learning process. It can be implemented into the certain sessions of the subject andn will improve their communications and problem solving ability. ) Article: Study Habits and Test-Taking TipsArticle from:Dermatology Nursing Article date: December 1, 1999 :Many of us become highly anxious when faced with nursing school, college, or certification examinations. There are many strategies for reducing the amount of anxiety we experience when faced with a test or memory challenge. Nothing can substitute for being prepared for the examination situation, but there are some study habits that, once developed, can better prepare you for the exam situation.

What to Do Before a Test * Attend all classes or a review course. * Complete all required reading. Organize study time by planning daily, weekly, and major review sessions. * Form a study group by looking for five to six other conscientious students.

Post a message on a prominent bulletin board. Activities for a study group include creating practice tests, comparing notes, etc. * Create study tools such as content maps, flash cards, annotated texts, etc. Predict test questions and test yourself.

Recite information aloud. Ask for specific information about the test either from the professor or the application for certification. * Begin studying for your first test on the very first day of class.There's no substitute for having the information, and the longer you work with it, the more you'll retain.

* Don't try to cram the night before a test. Research

shows that little of the "crammed" information is really retained the next day. (Thorough review is a lot better! ) Have a plan (see Figure 1). Figure 1. Example of a Test Review Plan One Week Prior to Exam * Gather all materials together.

* Lecture notes * Textbook marking * Old exams * Homework * Set goals for each portion. Each Day * Review previous material, * Study a new portion. Day Before Exam * Compose and master study guide. * Take practice exam.

Instructors Give Clues Instructors often will repeat important points several times, write them on the board, or give handouts. * Most instructors will use certain gestures for important points. * Make note of questions put to the class, reading assignments covered in class, etc. * Save all graded material of any kind for your review. * Brainstorm test questions with other students. * Look out for these magic words: "This material will be on the test" or, "This is important -- you need to know this! " * Always study your objectives.

Most test questions come directly from the objectives in the syllabus, as well as any extra material given in class.Study Environment * A good study environment should be quiet and free of distractions. * It's a good idea to have a desk, which is devoted entirely to studying. You will find that you get into the habit of beginning to study as soon as you sit down.

* Turn off the television and radio. Have the answering machine, a family member, or roommate take phone messages. * Have everything you need, such as writing material and books, close

at hand. * Be sure you have sufficient workspace. Remove everything from your study area that is not related … Conclusion earning is fundamental to the development and modification of behaviour , thus this knowledge of learning process can be applied to many clinical situations and also in academic work.

Bibliography -Michael Wallace, study skills, Cambridge-cambridge University -W. N. Dandekar, psychological foundation of education,3rd edition,pg-no. 89-207 journals: -The Nightingale nursing times. Web.

search : -www. google. com. - implications for nursing education.

htm References: -B. sankaranarayan, B. sindhu,learning & teaching in nursing,2nd edition.

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