study guide zone

pulmonary valve stenosis causes:
congenital
endocarditis
rheumatic fever

pulmonary valve stenosis sx:
fainting
SOB
palpitations
cyanosis
poor weight gain

pulmonary valve stenosis tests:
cardiac cath
ECG
chest X-ray
echocardiogram
valvuloplasty

pulmonary valve stenosis treatment:
prostaglandins
diuretics
anti-arrhythmias
blood thinners

ARDS causes:
low oxygen levels caused by a build up of fluid in the lungs and inflammation of lung tissue
trauma
chemical inhalation
pneumonia
septic shock

ARDS symptoms:
low BP
rapid breathing
SOB
cyanosis

ARDS tests:
ABG
CBC
cultures
chest x-ray
echocardiogram
auscultation

ARDS treatment:
mechanical ventilation
treat the underlying condition

ARDS monitor patient for:
pulmonary fibrosis
multiple system organ failure
ventilator associated pneumonia
acidosis
respiratory failure

respiratory acidosis
build up of carbon dioxide in the lungs that causes acid-base imbalances and the body becomes acidic

respiratory acidosis causes:
COPD
airway obstruction
hypoventilation syndrome
severe scoliosis
severe asthma

respiratory acidosis symptoms:
chronic cough
wheezing
SOB
confusion
fatigue

respiratory acidosis tests:
CAT scan
ABG
pulmonary function test

respiratory acidosis treatment
mechanical ventilation
bronchodilators

respiratory alkalosis
CO2 levels are reduced and ph is high

respiratory alkalosis causes:
anxiety
fever
hyperventilation

respiratory alkalosis symptoms:
dizziness
numbness

respiratory alkalosis test
ABG
chest x-ray
pulmonary function tests

respiratory alkalosis treatment:
paper bag technique
increase carbon dioxide levels

RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)
spread by contact, virus can survive for various time periods on different surfaces

RSV symptoms
fever
SOB
cyanosis
wheezing
nasal congestion
croupy cough

RSV tests
ABG
chest x-ray

RSV treatments
ribvirin
ventilator in severe cases
IV fluids
bronchodilators

RSV monitor the patient for:
pneumonia
respiratory failure
otitis media

pulmonary actinomycosis
bacteria infection of the lungs caused by propionibacteria or actinomyces

pulmonary actinomycosis symptoms:
pleural effusions
facial lesions
chest pain
cough
weight loss
fever

alveolar proteinosis
a build up of a phospholipid in the lungs where carbon dioxide and oxygen are transferred
associated with infection
genetic disorder 30-50yo

alveolar proteinosis symptoms
weight loss
fatigue
cough
fever
SOB

pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas
congenital defect where lung arteries and veins form improperly and a fistula is formed creating poor oxygenation of blood

pulmonary aspergilloma
fungal infection of the lung cavities causing abscesses

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
thickening of lung tissue in the lower aspects of the lungs

pneumothorax
build up of gas in the pleural cavities

arterial system
blood delivered by the pulmonary vein to the left atrium, passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle and then is pumped into the ascending aorta

venous systme
return blood originating in the capillaries of peripheral and distal body parts to the heart

cardiogenic shock
rapid breathing
rapid pulse
anxiety
nervousness
thready pulse
mottled skin color
profuse sweating
poor capillary refill

hypovolemic shock
anxiety
weakness
sweating
rapid pulse
confusion
clammy skin

myocarditis
leg edema
SOB
viral symptoms
join pain
syncope
heart attack (pain)
fever
unable to lie flat
irregular heart beats

pericarditis
dry cough
pleuritis
fever
anxiety
crackles
pleural effusion
LE swelling
chest pain

arteriosclerosis
claudication pain
cold feet
muscle aches and pain in the legs
hair loss on the legs
numbness in extremities
weak distal pulse

heart sounds S1
tricuspid and mitral valve close

S2
pulmonary and aortic valve close

S3
ventricular filling complete

S4
elevated atrial pressure (atrial kick)

hypothyroidism
poor production of thyroid hormone
constipation
weight gain
weakness
fatigue
poor taste
hoarse vocal sounds
joint pain
poor speech
color changes
depression
decreased BP and HR
elevated liver enzymes, prolactin and cholesterol
decreased T4 and sodium
anemia
low temp
poor reflexes
MYXEDEMA if untreated!

hyperthyroidism
excessive production of thyroid hormone
skin color changes
weight loss
anxiety
possible goiter
nausea
exophthalmos
diarrhea
hair loss
elevated BP
fatigue
sweating
T3/T4 increased
TSH reduced

congenital adrenal hyperplasia
excessive production of androgen and low levels of aldosterone and cortisol
causes male sex characteristics to be expressed prematurely in boys and found in girls
treat: hydrocortisone, dexamethasone

Cushing’s
abnormal production of ACTH which in turn causes elevated cortisol levels
muscle weakness
central obesity distribution
back pain
thirst
skin color changes
bone and joint pain
HTN
H/A
frequent urination
moon face
weight gain
acne

diabetic ketoacidosis
increased levels of ketones due to a lack of glucose
insufficient insulin causing ketone production which end up in urine
low BP
abdominal pain
H/A
rapid breathing
loss of appetite
nausea
fruit breath smell
mental deficits
elevated glucose
increased amylase and potassium

graves’ disease
most commonly linked to hyperthyroidism
elevated appetite
anxiety
menstrual changes
fatigue
poor temp tolerance
diplopia
exophthalmos
tx: prednisone

type 1 diabetes
poor insulin production from beta cells of the pancreas
excessive levels of glucose in the blood stream that can’t be used due to lack of insulin
weight loss
vomiting
nausea
abd pain
frequent urination
elevated thirst

type II diabetes
the body doesn’t respond appropriately to the insulin that is present. insulin resistance
blurred vision
fatigue
elevated appetite
frequent urination
thirst

gram negative
do not hold color with gram stain

meningiomas
outside of arachnoidal tissue
usually benign and slow growing

tumor effects
headache
vomiting
seizures
neurological problems
dementia
drowsiness

tumor markers
AFP
alkaline phosphate
B-hCG
CA-125
PSA

zollinger-ellsion syndrome
tumors of the pancreas that cause upper GI inflammation
tumors secrete gastrin causing high levels of stomach acid
diarrhea
vomiting
abdominal pain
elevated gastrin levels
tx: ranitidine, cimetidine, lansoprazole, omeprazole

wilson’s disease
high levels of copper in various tissues throughout the body
genetically linked- autosomal recessive
(affects eyes, brain, liver, kidneys)
gait disturbances
jaundice
tremors
abd pain/distention
dementia
speech problems
muscle weakness
splenomegaly
confusion
dementia
bilirubin/PT increased
albumin/uric acid production
kayser-fleisher rings in the eye
tx: pyridoxine, corticosteroids

pancreatitis
fever
N/V
chills
anxiety
jaundice
sweating

hepatitis A
viral infection that causes liver swelling
fatigue
n/v
fever
itching
increased liver enzymes
presence of IgG and IgM
enlarged liver

hepatitis B
sexually transmitted disease
jaundice
dark urine
malaise
joint pain
fever
fatigue
decreased albumin

gastritis
inflammation of stomach lining
loss of appetite
hiccups
n/v (blood)
abd pain

ulcer
helicobacter pylori
weight loss
chest pain
heartburn
vomiting
indigestion
fatigue
tx: bismuth, famotidine, sucralfate, cimetidine, omeprazole

diverticulitis
abnormal pouch formation that becomes inflamed in the intestinal wall
fever
diarrhea
n/v
constipation

hiatal hernia
stomach sticks into the chest through the diaphragm
cause reflex symptoms

ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the rectum and large intestine
weight loss
jaundice
diarrhea
abd pain
fever
joint pain
GI bleeding
tx: mesalamine, corticosteriods, azathioprine

strabismus
eyes are moving in different stages

macular degneration
limited vision straight ahead
wet type more common
vit C, zinc and vit E may help slow progression

esotropia
appearance of cross-eyed gaze or internal strabismus

exotropia
external strabismus or divergent gaze

aphthous ulcer
canker sore

meniere’s disease
inner ear disorder
vertigo
ringing
tinnitus
hearing loss
tx: dazed
low salt diet

labrynthitis
vertigo associated with nausea and malaise
related to bacterial and viral infections

amniocentesis
used for spina bifida
Rh compatibility
immature lungs
down syndrome

preeclampsia
presence of protein in urine and increased BP during pregnancy
abnormal rapid weight gain
H/A
peripheral edema
nausea
anxiety
HTN
low urination frequency

polyhydaminos
high levels of amniotic fluid that can cause gestational diabetes and congenital defects

sheehan’s syndrome
hypopituitarism caused by uterine hemorrhage during childbirth
amenorrhea
fatigue
unable to breast-feed baby
anxiety
decreased BP
hair loss
tx: hormone therapy

toxic shock syndrome
infection of (S. Aureus) that causes organ disorders and shock
seizures
headaches
hypotension
fatigue
multiple organ involvement
fever
N/V

hirsutism
development of dark areas of hair in women that are uncommon
high androgen levels (cushing’s)

endometriosis
abnormal tissue growth outside the uterus
tx: progesterone, surgery

ermatitis statis
decreased blood flow to lower legs resulting in a skin irritation, possible ulcers

onychomycosis
fungal infection related to fingernails or toenails
often caused by trichophyton rubrum

lichen planus
pink or purple spots on legs and arms
treat with topical corticosteroid
lesions are itchy, flat and polygonal
may cause hair loss

psoriasis
can lead to arthritis
tx: UV light, tar soap, topical steroid cream
reddish rash

stevens-johnson syndrome
rashes
involves inside of mouth
may be due to drug sensitivity
can lead to uveitis or keratitis

scabies
human itch mite
raised red bumps that are itchy

st. anthony’s fire
calviceps purpurea (fungus) can cause intense pain in the extremities by causing blood vessels to constrict

impetigo
skin infection caused by staph or strep that causes itchy red skin and pustules

melasma
mask of pregnancy

urticaria
elevated itchy areas that are linked to allergic reaction
may be accompanied with edema and may blanch with touch
“hives”

vitiligo
loss of melanocytes resulting in skin turning white
hair in regions also affected will turn white

spine
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacrum
4 coccyx

legg-calve-perthes disease
poor blood supply to superior aspect of the femur
most common in boys age 4-10
femur ball flattens out and deteriorates
hip and knee pain
limited AROM and PROM
pain with gait and unequal leg length

developmental dysplasia of the hip
fat rolls asymmetrical
abnormal leg length
AROM limited

slipped capital femoral epiphysis
more common in males
most common hip disorder in adolescents
ball of femur separates from femur along epiphysis
hip pain
gait dysfunction
knee pain
abnormal hip AROM

systemic lupus serythemtosus
autoimmune disorder that affects joints, skin, various organ systems
chronic and inflammatory
more common in females
butterfly rash
weight loss
fever
hair loss
abd pain
mouth sores
fatigue
seizures
arthritis
nausea
joint pain
psychosis
tx: NSAIDS, protective clothing, cytotoxic drugs, hydorxychloroquine

paget’s disease
abnormal bone development that follows bone destruction
joint pain
bow legged appearance
hearing loss
neck and back pain
headaches
increased alkaline phosphate
tx; NSAIDS, calcitonin, plicamycin, etidronate

osteoarthritis
morning stiffness
joint pain
limited AROM
weight bearing increases symptoms

gout
uric acid development in the joints causing arthritis
tests: uric acid in urine

duchenne muscular dystrophy
genetically X linked recessive type of muscular dystrophy that starts in lower extremities
dystrophin-protein dysfunction
CPK levels increased
scoliosis