Study Guide 10 Respiratory System

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three categories for respiration
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lungs gas exchange cellular respiration
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lungs
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ventilation
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gas exchange
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(lungs,blood,tissue) pick up and drop off system between the lungs and the tissues with blood as the transport media and blood capillaries as the site of exchange
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cellular respiration takes place in the _________(what organelle)?
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mitochondria
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It (cellular respiration) burns glucose in the presence of oxygen and yields molecules of __________ in the process of forming/recharging ATP
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C02
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other functions of respiratory system
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speech smell adjusts blood pH move blood and lymph valsalva maneuver
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how does the buildup of C02 result in greater acidity in the blood? write out the formula
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C02 plus H20= H2C03= H+ plus HC03
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list the structures a breath of air will pass entering through mouth or nose and reaching the lungs
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1. mouth or nose 2. Pharynx 3. Epiglottis 4. Larynx 5. Trachea 6. Main Bronchi(right and left) 7.Smaller bronchi 8. Bronchioles 9. Ductules 10. Alveoli
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what structures act to deliver air?
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the trachea and its associates
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which structures function in gas exchange?
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alveoli
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why is it better for air to pass through the nasal cavity than the oral cavity?
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the nasal cavity has conchae or turbinates, bones covered with mucous membrane. The mucous membrane moisten the air breathed in and the mucous in this area helps catch foreign particles and keep them out the lungs
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what are the boundaries/wall of the nasal cavity?
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nasal septum(part bone +cartilage)
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what is the danger of the close proximity of the esophageal opening to the trachea opening?
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the opening of the trachea lies just in front of the opening to the esophagus
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in what situations is the especially dangerous and why?
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when swallowing goes wrong and food misses the esophagus and gets stuck in the trachea
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what is aspiration pneumonia?
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when foreign materials are breathed into the lungs or airway leading to lungs
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what is the job of the epiglottis?
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to prevent the entry of food into the trachea
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name two functions of the larynx
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to keep food and drink out of the airway to produce sound
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what changes and differences in vocal folds/cords cause high or low pitched sounds?
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the tighter the string the higher the sound……(visually the cord is actually more of a sheet with a cord/ligament at the edge)
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an endotracheal tube is often used in surgery. why?
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to administer 02 and gas anesthetic during surgery
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what structures does an endotracheal tube pass through?
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mouth, over the tongue, past the epiglottis, pass the vocal cords and into the trachea
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what would be the disadvantage of an edotracheal tube going to far and entering a bronchus?
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it will only supply one lung with ventilation and leave the other one useless
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what is meant by the bronchial tree?
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a branching system of air tubes
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what is meant by upper respiratory tract?
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nasal cavity pharynx trachea and bronchi
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what is meant by lower respiratory tract?
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lungs
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describe the chest cavity and its contents
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right and left chest cavity and mediastinum
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what is the function of an alveolus?
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it squashes the oxygen molecules so they diffuse from the alveolus into the capillary
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how are alveoli arranged?
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little sacs in the lungs that resembles grapes
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bronchial dilation
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increase in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole
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bronchial constriction
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a reduction in diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole
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how many cells must an 02 or C02 molecules pass through for gas exchange in the lungs?
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2
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smoking
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walls between the alveoli may break down
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asthma
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alveoli wall becomes thick or in chronic asthma the walls may break down
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pneumonia
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alveoli wall becomes thick or filled with fluid
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pulmonary edema
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alveoli wall fill with fluid
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emphysema
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walls between the alveoli may break down
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what lung surfactant?
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watery fluid inside alveoli
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why is lung surfactant important?
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without surfactant, the walls of a deflating alveolus would tend to cling together
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in what part of the lungs is surfactant located?
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the lining of the alveoli
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describe pleura. where is it and what is it?
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outside protective layer \”saran wrap\”….its located on the outside of the lungs and on the inside of the chest cavity
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lungs adhere to the walls of the chest. what cause this?
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pleura makes a little fluid and keep lungs and chest stuck together
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the \”non space\” between the lungs and the chest wall is called what?
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negative space or potential space
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what is pneumothorax and when and how does it occur
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air that’s in the potential/negative space……a puncture chest wall or a puncture lung
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hemothorax
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blood in the potential space
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pyothorax
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pus in the potential space
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chylothroax
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lymph in the potential space
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what muscular activity is involved in inspiration, both normal and forced?
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normal—the muscles between the ribs, the intercostals, which lift up and help expand the chest forced—may be assisted by additional muscle including some in the neck
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what muscular activity in involved in expiration, both normal and forced?
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normal and forced—abdominal and chest muscles
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inhalation
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active( requires effort)
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expiration
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passive(no effort)
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what happens to air pressure inside the chest during inspiration?
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air pressure decrease
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what happens to air pressure inside the chest cavity during expiration>
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air pressure rise
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tidal volume
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the amount of air exchanged during relaxed breathing
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forced expiratory
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measure how much air can be expired, breathed out, in a certain amount of time
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what area of the brain controls conscious breathing?
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cerebrum
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what area of the brain contains the centers for autonomic breathing?
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internal stimuli
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why cant you commit suicide by holding your breath?
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your autonomic systems kick’s in and you take a breath
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give examples of external stimuli which could influence autonomic rate of breathing..
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sudden fear, anxiety, or other emotions which influence breathing rate
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what internal stimuli influence autonomic rate of breathing?
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central chemoreceptors peripheral chemoreceptors sensory nerve endings in pharynx, trachea and bronchi
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central chemoreceptors
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respond mostly to change in pH….located in the brain stem…increase breathing rate
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peripheral chemoreceptors
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respond to change inC02 and 02….located in the carotid and aortic arteries
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sensory nerve endings
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located in the pharynx, trachea and bronchi….stimulated by excess fluids and irritants
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apnea
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breathing temporarily stops
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dyspnea
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labored breathing
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hyperventilation
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breathing in excess
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hypoventilation
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breathing slow not enough 02 is supplied to the lungs
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Dalton’s law
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the total volume of a gas mixture is equal to the sum partial pressures of its individual gasses….\”GAS EXERTS PRESSURE\”
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Boyle’s law
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the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume…..\”WHEN THE CHEST GETS BIGGER(GREATER VOLUME), PRESSURES INSIDE THE CHEST ARE LOWERED AND AIR RUSHES IN\”
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Charles’s law
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the volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature…..\”THE HOTTER AIR GETS THE MORE IT EXPANDS\”
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Henry’s law
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at the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its (1) partial pressure in the air and (2) its solubility in water….\”WHAT INFLUENCES 02 LEAVE THE AIR AND HEAD FOR, DISSOLVE IN, WATER OR IN OUR CLASS, BLOOD WHICH IS MOSTLY WATER\”
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atmospheric air is approximately what % 02?
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20%
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alveolar air is approximately what % 02?
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14%
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which is more soluble in water 02 or C02
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C02
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how does 02 travel in blood?
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in hemoglobin
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how does C02 travel in blood
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in plasma
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what is the advantage of hemoglobin holding onto a certain amount of C02?
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this offers a little protection in the event you stop breathing. There is enough oxygen to sustain life for 4 to 5minutes
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what is oxygen affinity
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refers to the ability of hemoglobin to hold onto an 02 molecule
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what conditions in tissue effect oxygen affinity? in other words, tissue under what conditions will get the most oxygen?
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active tissue, exercising muscles, are warmer and making more acid as a result of increased molecule…..and…tissues which are inflamed and infected

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