Sports Psychology chapter 10

I) Understanding the communication process
A) Step 1-person sends a message to another person
B) Step 2- the sender of a message encodes their thoughts into a message
C) Step 3- the message is channeled (usually through spoken words but at times through nonverbal means like sign language) to the receiver
D) Step 4-the receiver interprets/decodes the message
E) Step 5-the receiver thinks about the message and internally responds by becoming interested, getting mad or feeling relieved.

different types of communication
1) Occurs in 2 main ways
a) Inteepersonal
b) Intrapersonal

interpersonal communication
a) Involves minimum of 2 people and a meaningful exchange.
b) The sender intends to affect the response of a specific person or persons
c) Message or content mb received by the person it was intended , by persons it wasn’t intended for or both
d) Times when the message gets distorted so that the senders intended message doesn’t get transmitted.

nonverbal communication
– Also known as nonverbal cues
– Important element of interpersonal communication
– Research indicates this type of communication as critical in imparting and receiving info (e.g. during a tennis match spectators saw the players only btw pts but never saw the players actually hit a ball or play a pt but still est.75% of th time they couldn’t pick out who was winning but the nonverbal cues exhibited by players btw pts strong enough to communicate who was ahead and who was behind.

intrapersonal communication
a) Also known as self talk
b) Communication we have with ourselves
c) Inner dialogue which tends to help shape and predict our actions and how wwe perform
d) Example: a youngster in a PE class that is afraid of performing a tennis servbe for the first time tells themselves they cant do it and will look foolish for doing so convincing not to go forward with the tennis serve

verbal messages
A) Need to be sent clearly and eceived and interpreted correctly
B) Example: bill parcells: when sending a message not enough to be honest and accurate but the impact of the messages also dependent on the receiver and what they are willing to take in at that time
C) Important to oick the right time and place to deliver communications
D) Breakdowns can occur due to messages being ineffectively sent, not received or misinterpreted

nonverbal messages
A) Important to have an awareness of the many nonverbal cues one uses while communicating
B) Majority of info conveyed in daily convo nonverbal est.
C) Critical for coaches, athletes and exercise leaders to be very pbservant of their and others nonverbal cues as a rich source of info which will help improve the sending and receiving of messages.
D) Less likely to be consciously ctrled and therefore harder to hide than verbal messages and can give away ones unconscious feelings and attitudes (e.g. just before starting an aerobicvs class an exercise leaders asks a woman how they and the woman shrugs, looks down, frowns and mutters fine,” while their words say everything isd good the leader can tell what is reallt going on.
E) Physical appearance
a) Were our first impression of a person tends to come from
b) E.g. we might think of someone as warm and friendly
c) May judge someone based off their clothing
F) Posture
G) Gestures
H) Body position
a) Really a part of proxemics-the study of how people communicate by the way they use space (e.g. of body position lang is a coahc’s surrounding themselves with starting players as opposed to reserves).
I) Touching
J) Facial expression
K) Voice characteristics

proxemics
the study of how people communicate by the way they use space (e.g. of body position lang is a coahc’s surrounding themselves with starting players as opposed to reserves).

Guidelines for sending effective verbal and nonverbal messages
A) Be direct
B) Own your message i.e. use terms like I and my and not we or the team when referencing your own messages stating your own beliefs as if the team is doing so disown ones own messages and implies cowardice in expression of your own messages
C) Be complete and specific
D) Be clear and consistent
E) State your needs and feelings clearly
F) Separate fact from opinion (e.g. verifying a fact before stating your own opinion e.g. if you see your son come into the house post hanging out with the Williamson kid don’t say I see you’ve been chillin with the Williamson kid but rather say that was the Williamson kid wasn’t it? (verifying the fact of were the kid was) and then state your own opinion that you don’t think it was a good idea for your son to chill with the Williamson kid
G) Focus on 1 thing @ a time
H) Deliver messages right away
I) Make sure your message doesn’t contain a hidden agenda or the stated purpose of the message which is not the same as the real purpose
J) Be supportive (e.g. giving it over sarcastically)
K) Consistency with nonverbal messages
L) Reinforce with repetition
M) Make your messages appropriate to the receivers frame of reference (e.g. not using complex language when speaking to young athletes)
N) look for feedback that your message was accurately interpreted

confirmation behaviors
A) communication indicative of people that are endorsed, recognized and acknowledged as valuable and significant resulting in an increased motivation and affective learning
B) example: communication indicating an appreciation of a student or players questions or comments

clarity behaviors
A) refer to the clarity which people perceive their teachers or coaches as being
B) due to the clarity which facilitates both cognitive and affective learning
C) example: teacher or coaches which use clear and relevant examples

active listening
A) best way to listen better
B) involves attending to main and supporting ideas, acknowledging and responding giving appropriate feedback and being attentive to a pseakers total communication
C) involves nonverbal communication like direct eye contact and nodding to confirm one understands the speaker
D) showing a concern for the content of the message being given
E) when done well shows sensitivity and encourages an open exchange of ideas and feelings
F) not mixing up hearing with listening

difference between hearing & listening
A) hearing simply receiving sounds listening is an active process
B) hearing someone doesn’t mean your listening to the messages meaning
C) someone who finds themselves nt listening needs to practice focusing their concentration on the speaker

supportive listening
A) confirms a person is with the speaker and values the persons message
B) some good ways to remain a supportive listenr is by using supportive behaviors while listening
1) communicates the message that other ppl acknowledge, understand and accept (e.g. used when describing someone elses behavior instead of trying to evaluate or attack it)
2) use of confirming behaviors when listening (e.g. rephrasing what the person is telling you and other cues that you are paying attention)
3) use of both verbal and nonverbal listening behaviors (e.g. maintaining eye contact)

aware listening
A) Being aware of how ppl react differently to the way you communicate
B) Some ways to do this include:
1) Being flexible
2) Be alert for barriers and breakdowns in communication
a) Barriers may involve noise including other ppl talking while you try to listen to specific ppl. (e.g. coaches and athletes tend to listen above the roar of a crowd)
b) Useful to develop strategies to deal with noise like nonverbal signals

breakdown
– Occur when messages are misinterpreted or misdirected and often occurs unknowningly until something bad happens which can be traced back to the breakdown.

empathy
A) A persons ability to perceive, recognize and understand other ppls feelings, behaviors, intentions & attitudes.
B) For awhile has been viewed as an important prereq to effective communication

sender failure
Senders may send messages poorly (e.g. ambiguous messages ineffective communications like a coach telling a player if the practice well they will start in the beg of the season over the next few wks the coach compliments the athlete regularly and doesn’t mention him not being a starter. 2 days prior to the season beg athlete taken aback when listed as a reserve and inconsistency tends not to be good

receiver failures
A) Receivers as well as sender scan contribute to miscommunication
B) Example: a kid spacing out in class is more to blame than the teacher trying to effectively convey their message

improving communication
A) Carefully designed interpersonal communication training can help improve a teams morale and cohesion and open up lns of communication and reg occurring structured team meetings which focus on team difficulties and provide constructive assessment of a situation great way to do this (e.g. having all team members be receptive to the opinions of others without getting on the defensive or becoming resistant).

dealing with confrontation
A) Confrontation tends to be a face to face dialogue amongst ppl in a conflict but can be when properly used helpful to both parties in understanding the issues of the confrontation more clearly without undue stress, guilt or inadequacy
a) Useful not just for major conflicts but minor conflicts too to help clear air
b) Should be avoided when you are angry
c) Should be used post considering the pruposes a confrontation may serve i.e. it shouldn’t be meant to put other ppl in their palce but to carefuly examine the behavior and its conseqences (e.g. if a fitness instructor believes his supervisor was wrong to reprimand him in fornt of a clinet bc he used a diff lifting technique than normal then the insturcvtor should meet with the supervisor to rdsolve their diff instead of letting the situation fester into a full blown episode

assumptions for approaching confrontation
a) 7 main approaches
– All needs are legit and important and need to be attended to (i.e. focusing on meeting specific needs instead of focusing on your own needs e.g. if a coach believes an athletes isn’t working hard then both the athletes and coaches needs should be considered
– There are enough resources to meet all needs (i.e. no limit on the human potential to create new ideas and resources and collectively we know more than anyone does individually)
– Within every person lie untapped power and capacity and those conflicted know what they need (coaches and exercise leaders shouldn’t impose solutions based on their own ideas of what the problem is with the athlete or participant individual needs need to be considered as well)
– Process as important as content for providing direction and focus-flow of feelings, thoughts, and events
– Improving situations diff from solving problems (i.e. dealing with situations canhelp someone focus on the underlying csuses instead of eliminiatinfg the problem or symptom e.g. punishing someone for constant lateness may alleviate the problem but the causes of the lateness remain)
– Everyone is right from their own perspective (important to see a situation from another perspective confrontations are were ppl tend to spend inordinate amounts of time defending their viewpt without simply solidying they are right (need to be dan lekaf zechut)
– Solutions and resolutions temp states of balance and not absolute

coach athlete relationship
one of closeness,co-orientation and complementarity

closeness in a coach athlete relationship
reflects the emotional tone coaches and athletes experience and express in descr their relationship

complementariy in a coach athlete relationship
Refers to the interactions where coaches and athletes are engages reflecting their act of cooperation

co-orientation in a coach athlete relationship
a) occurs when relationship members have established common frames of reference including shared goals, values and expectations.

the sandwitch approach
1) Based on research most effective way to constructively criticize
2) Approach which offers constructive feedback in a sensitive effective manner and consists of 3 sequential elements:
a) A positive statement
b) Future oriented instructions-key to this process concentrate on how the mistake cannot be repeated keeping the person from thinking about the error right away
c) A compliment