Sports Management Exam 3

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
National Identity
?The nation is an imagined community
?The imagined community is characterized by a deep horizontal comradeship
?This deep horizontal comradeship allows for connections based on abstract similarity
?Because the concept of national identity is imagined and abstract, sports offer a tangible experimental context to enact identity rituals
Basking in reflected glory
Opposite of this is CORFing
Hosting/winning global sports events
Used to assert symbolic national superiority
Ex: 1936 Berlin Olympics
Concerns with using sport to promote national identity
?Nationalism isn’t necessarily positive because of jingoism (extreme nationalism) and xenophobia (fear of other cultures/people)
?There are opportunity costs to spending money on sports
?Ex: Mexico 1968 Olympics ? student protestors killed, protesting that Olympic money should go to their education and that their basic needs weren’t being met
EXAM QUESTION: American Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented the game of baseball.
True or false?
Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 1800s
?Disagreement: British sports writer Henry Chadwick says baseball comes from English game called Rounders; Albert scalding says it’s American
?Investigation: Mills Commission
?Outcome: determined Doubleday invented it after receiving a letter from a Colorado mining engineer
?Event: baseball is attributed to be invented in America by Abner Doubleday
?Symbolism: although a myth, helps unite a nation of immigrants around a new sporting identity
1800s – cultural imperialism
The culture of the powerful influencing the culture of the less powerful

The irony: baseball represents resistance toward British culture, yet historians cite baseball as a tool later used to promote American culture imperialism

Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 1936
?Event: Jesse Owens and several African-American athletes earn medals in 1936 Berlin Olympic Games
?Symbolism: American diversity outshines Hitler’s purported “superior” Aryan athletes
Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 1980
?Event: USA men’s hockey team upsets powerhouse USSR in medal round of 1980 Winter Olympics
?Symbolism: Capitalism is superior to communism and the USA represents a meritocracy
?Event: USA boycotts 1980 Moscow Olympic Games
?Symbolism: America stands for democracy and human rights
EXAM QUESTION: In 1980, the US achieved major victories over the Soviet Union in both the Winter and Summer Olympic Games.
True or False?
Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 1984
?Event: Mary Lou Retton becomes first non-Eastern European female gymnast to win all-around gold
?Symbolism: while Soviets boycotted, America asserted its dominance in women’s sport too
Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 1992
?Event: Dream Team dominates 1992 Barcelona Olympic basketball competition
?Symbolism: American sport-systems are vastly superior to global competitors in high-profile sports
Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 2001
?Event: Yankees compete in 2001 World Series following 9/11 just a month prior
?Symbolism: terrorism won’t keep Americans from living their lives; sports unite, not divide
Incomplete History of Sport & American Nationalism – 2013
?Event: National anthem at the Boston Bruins game following the Boston Marathon bombing
?Symbolism: terrorism won’t keep Americans from living their lives; sports unite, not divide
?Example of liminality (suspension of social status during a ritual) creating communitas (a spirit of informal community in which people are equals)
EXAM QUESTION: The “Tackling Paid Patriotism” report found that the Department of Defense had spent $6.8 million on promoting all of the following at professional sports events except…?
Push-up contests
U.S. Department of Defense & Professional Sports Leagues – Marketing
D.O.D. defended the marketing strategy as a way to “reach a large number of people to connect with American public”
U.S. Department of Defense & Professional Sports Leagues – Event Management
Effective “theming” works to evoke and reinforce the symbolism of the event
U.S. Department of Defense & Professional Sports Leagues – Media
The media should be leveraged to reinforce the symbolism and to tie the on-field product to the off-field narratives
Sport’s Role in Creating National Identity
?Because of our love for the nation, we forget about our individual differences; we no longer think of our differences, this national identity allows us to build a friendship based on this “abstract similarity”
?While sport was one of the many different cultural objects that provided content to these new national narratives, sport was somewhat unique in that it became one of the most powerful symbols for the nation
History and Background
?Individuals use national sport team victories to enhance their identity and pride with their nation
?Throughout the 20th century, sport has been a valuable “weapon” for nationalists, allowing citizens of a given nation to showcase their identity
?The World Cup and the Olympic Games are major sporting events that provide a context to allow individuals to showcase national identity through their nation’s symbols
Evidence and Examples
?Mandela sent an important message to the rest of the world illustrating that he wasn’t there to support the Springboks but to support a new South Africa
?Markovits and Hellerman (2001) found that viewership of any international sporting competition drops at least one-half, often more, whenever representatives of that country no longer participate in that event due to elimination, disqualification, or any other reason for departure
?It has been noted that the 2014 World Cup winner wasn’t Germany, but rather merchandise sales
?In many cases, in the context of the national team, many of the people who root for the sport teams during these mega sport events have little knowledge or affinity for the sport or athletes themselves, but root for them anyway, because they feel it’s their patriotic duty
Major Sport Events and Tournaments in Context
?1954 German National Soccer Team
Winning the World Cup nine years after the war ended gave the Germans for the first time postwar a sense of national pride, and it allowed the nation to reconstruct a new collective identity (national identity) in a civilized fashion
?Croatian 1998 Soccer Team
?South Korea 2002 Soccer Team
?Costa Rican 2014 Soccer Team
?Manny Pacquaio
Pacquaio’s heroic stature is manifested through how his boxing matches unite the nation into what has been characterized as a ringside community
Limitations of Sport in the Creation of National Identity
?National identity has been used as an excuse to pour billions of dollars into the organization of mega sport events such as the World Cup or the Olympics, as politicians often sell these investments under the claim that they bring the nation together
?Not only do these events cost the nation billions, which reduces or negates the economic benefits, the national identity legitimization for these investments seems to be overstated or unrealized as well
Extended Example: National Identity from Yugoslavia to Serbia
?What becomes apparent from these studies is that hosting events, even mega events, doesn’t contribute to a sense of national identity and that the relationship between a sport and national identity is limited to (the performances of) the national sport teams
?Media accounts depicted the scenes at the soccer match as episodes from a battlefield with “soldiers” from each country engaged in lethal combat
Sport Management Implications
The attachment of national fans to individual players is an important concept to be recognized by leagues/teams when developing their marketing strategies, because national identity may be an important predictor of team identity for specific teams and their fans
Has sport evolved over time as a site for social change?
Ex: Missouri football team boycotting because of racism
Ex: Jack Johnson (African-American boxer)
Do sports serve as a site where barriers are broken? Or reinforced?
Ex: Jackie Robinson West loses Little League title

Sports offer a powerful context for progress but they require management

Ex: Mohammad Ali

Why sports?
1. Belief in sport as a social good
2. Cultural practice that most have experienced
3. Simple, common language
4. Evokes emotion and passion
EXAM QUESTION: The historical practice of funnelling athletes into certain positions based on racial or ethnic stereotypes is most precisely called what?
We also need to consider social progress at different levels in sport – participants/athletes
?QB position historically most stacking
?1980’s first African-American QB to win Super Bowl
?Racial stereotypes in sport announcing
We also need to consider social progress at different levels in sport – spectators/fans
European soccer culture
We also need to consider social progress at different levels in sport – managers/employees
Dan Rooney ? Rooney rule (must interview at least one minority candidate for management position)
Functional Perspective
?When people believe in the power of sports to promote diversity and inclusion
?”Sports bring people together through a collective interest”
?Ex: the movie Remember the Titans
Social Categorization Framework
?Any group of people will categorize itself along the basis of in-groups and out-groups, as well as perceived/actual similarities and differences
?To promote inclusion and diversity, we must translate social contact into a recategorization around a shared superordinate goal that transcends the differences and unites people around something more powerful
Critical Race Theory
Framework that focuses on how legal mechanisms establish and maintain power structures that favor the privileged and marginalize people of color
EXAM QUESTION: UT was the last all-white college football team to win a national championship in 1969.
True or false?
Interest-Convergence Principle
Suggests that those groups in power will only support initiatives that benefit minorities when the benefits to themselves outweigh the costs (while still being in their favor)
When successful in promoting social progress, sport exhibits some common sport management elements

1. Racial/Ethnic
2. Disability
3. Sexuality
4. Gender

Preparing to leverage potential opportunities that arise from performance success
Ex: Mo’ne Paris
Working through proper legal channels wherever applicable
Ex: Oscar Pistorius
Planning and executing a strategic public relations and marketing campaign
Ex: Jason Collins
Branding through the reach of both viral and mainstream media outlets
Ex: Ronda Rousey
Sport Management in Action: San Antonio Spurs – Management
EXAM QUESTION: In matters of social inclusion and diversion, “leading” can be both a top-down and bottom-up process.
True or false?
Sport Management in Action: San Antonio Spurs – Leadership
Although leadership can come from different levels, major social change inevitably requires upper-management support
EXAM QUESTION: Becky Hammon was hired by the San Antonio Spurs in order to meet the requirements of Title IX.
True or false?
Sport Management in Action: San Antonio Spurs – Legal Issues
Although Title IX doesn’t apply to the Spurs, federal legislation has had some impact on addressing discrimination in sports (ex: Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990)
Conceptual thinking about the future
If we enter the field with the attitude that sports are the greatest thing in the world, we will be lazy managers
Sport management will become…
1. More organized
2. More formalized
3. More essential
EXAM QUESTION: Dr. Bowers identifies “technology” as one of the most important trends in the future of sport management.
True or false?
Challenges about traditional thinking of trends
Technology is not a trend
?Definition – technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
?Your smartphone (“technology”) is actually the end result of technology

Many of the “trends” we see referred to when people talk about what the future will look like, Bowers argues, are actually the processes that ENABLE trends

?”Technology” enables new experiences and deeper engagement
?”Globalization” enables the spread of sports and ideas across borders
?”Big data” enables bias reduction and data-driven decision making
Prediction #1 for the Future of Sports
Advancements in neuroscience and cognitive development will enable an increase in focus on understanding and applying cognitive training for athletes, particularly through virtual simulations

Ex: Xavi’s brain assessment
Ex: German club using virtual simulations

Prediction #2 for the Future of Sports
In spite of advancements in concussion detection and prevention, football participation will continue to decrease while football viewership will hold/increase
Prediction #3 for the Future of Sports
The proliferation of social media will enable fans to not only follow teams and athletes, but to take a more active role in shaping the competitive outcomes

Ex: Formula E ? Fan Boost

Prediction #4 for the Future of Sports
The increased awareness of the power of college student-athletes to effect systemic changes will force the NCAA to adopt major reforms… or be replaced (less likely)
Prediction #5 for the Future of Sports
Advancements in statistical analysis won’t only be further integrated into personnel decision-making, but will also expand into how fans experience game broadcasts

Ex: Statcast for baseball

Prediction #6 for the Future of Sports
More top-level buy-in to ADM principles will enable youth sports to see a very gradual correction toward less bifurcation (split) between “professionalized” and “play” models of development
Prediction #7 for the Future of Sports
Driven by high-ceiling media rights and market potential, new “sports” will continue to emerge that challenge traditional definitions of what it means to be an “athlete”

Ex: eSports, drone racing

Prediction #8 for the Future of Sports
“Wearables” will continue to grow in use for both elite and recreational athlete training – particularly for sport-specific training – but the major shift will be from outputting descriptive data to predictive data

Ex: Fit Bit

Prediction #9 for the Future of Sports
Sports and entertainment will become further intertwined as large media companies increasingly diversify and cross-leverage their holding

Ex: Point Break ? motor cross scenes

Prediction #10 for the Future of Sports
Stadiums and arenas will shift toward becoming a more strategically planned and integrated part of a city’s physical and financial infrastructure, as our class has suggested is essential
EXAM QUESTION: Which of the following is NOT a type of sports property that Red Bull sponsors?
Baseball team
Sport Management in Action: Red Bull – Policy
Public-private partnerships will be increasingly important for making new sports and events possible; while Red Bull Stratos didn’t partner with NASA, they used former NASA scientists
Sport Management in Action: Red Bull – Development
Red Bull increasingly aims to cultivate an athlete base in order to develop pathways for future athlete advancement
Sport Management in Action: Red Bull – Marketing
Red Bull Media House ? produces high action sports video for people to use
Customer value, company value, collaborator value
Represents the 3-V Optimal Value Principle
EXAM QUESTION: The Red Bull Media House is an example of an organization that satisfies the 3-V Optimal Value Principle.
True or false?
Main Point
Game theory
What do King Solomon and David Lee Roth have in common?
1. Both of them were Jewish
2. They both got a lot of girls
3. They both wrote the lyrics to a number-one pop song
4. They both dabbled in game theory
Solomon ? dividing baby
Roth ? M&M’s
Pooling equilibrium
A situation where liars and honest people act the same, but an incentive can cause them to respond differently and lead to separating equilibrium
Zappos example
?Offers $2000 to employees to quit
?Saves money and weeds out bad employees
Bullet factory in Israel example
?Secret bullet factory under laundry building
?”Warm beer” alarm
Nigerian scam emails example
?Still use the name Nigeria to weed out those who know about the scam and get responses from gullible people
?Can be stopped with a chatbot
Terrorists and British banks example
?Suicide bombers don’t buy life insurance
?By publishing this, potential terrorists would buy insurance from their banks
?Separates potential terrorists from normal people
Understand how hard persuasion will be – and why
CCP climate change survey example
It’s not me; it’s you
?See how argument will be perceived rather than what’s being said
?If it doesn’t resonate with the listener, it doesn’t matter how indisputable and logically correct it is
Don’t pretend your argument is perfect
?Sounds unrealistic
?Self-driving car example
Acknowledge the strengths of your opponent’s argument
?If you ignore their argument, they might decide not to engage at all
?Self-driving cars killing people vs reducing death toll
Keep the insults to yourself
?It will strengthen adversial conversation
?School teachers example
Why you should tell stories
?Humans relate to them and they can create long lasting impressions
?Story not anecdote
?Stories appeal to the narcissist in all of us
?Stories exert power beyond the obvious
?King David story example
Why do people avoid quitting?
1. They think it’s a sign of failure
2. Sunk costs – since already so much of resources (time and money) is invested, people invest more to get value out of already invested resources
3. Opportunity costs – investing resources implies that they can’t be invested somewhere else, rarely people think about that missed opportunity
?A good practice where an institute, before launching a project, thinks about all the ways it can fail
?NASA example
?Prevents flushing out the doubts which no one is willing to say out loud
?Offers anonymity (coin flip example)

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