Sports Exam III

Professional sports are events and exhibitions
athletes compete individually or on teams and perform for pay
Major international business grossing billions of dollars each year through….
media rights, gate receipts, luxury seating, sponsorship, and properties
Drafting of more ___ ___ by North American sport leagues has catapulted professional sports into new markets
international players
Five North American major men’s leagues:
___ teams at the major league level
___ is only women’s “major” pro league
More than ___ North American minor league teams in baseball, basketball, hockey, arena football, women’s football, tennis, soccer, indoor and outdoor lacrosse
Numerous professional leagues also operate throughout….6
South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australia, and Africa
Athletes in professional leagues are _____
employees whose bargaining power and ability to
negotiate salaries vary.
Professional sports events are also staged around
the world in ____ sports.
___: First professional team, the Cincinnati Red
___: North America’s first professional sport
league, the National League, emerged
– Included bylaws for limits on franchise
movement, club territorial rights, and
mechanism for expulsion of a club
Corporate governance model
Owners act as the board of directors, and the commissioner acts as the chief executive officer
Leagues are structured as an ____ organization
for franchises to cooperate in business while
competing on playing field
League also handles….
rule making and rule enforcement
Trend for emerging leagues to be established as single entities to avoid ___ ___ and to create centralized fiscal control (e.g., MLS, WNBA)
antitrust liability
Initially sport team ownership was a hobby for the wealthy.
– Teams operated as “__ and ___” businesses.
Mom and Pop
Focus of owners today is on running team like a ___ rather than a hobby.
Most ownership groups today are diversified because of the….
costs of purchasing and operating a team.
Exception is the ___: Family or individual ownership is still the norm because of enhanced degree of revenue sharing.
Owners trying to recoup initial investment in club and make more money on their franchises: A growing trend is for owners to challenge league control over __ __ ___.
shared revenue streams
Some owners clamoring for local control over marketing revenues using __, ___, and __.
logos, trademarks, and sponsorships
Examples: Dallas Cowboys and NY Yankees
working to maximize ___:Examples: Boston Red Sox and Fenway Sports Group
Permission to own sports franchise granted by ___ ___ of league
ownership committee
League imposes restrictions on ownership, including limit on number of ___ ___ granted (number of teams) and restrictions on franchise location
franchise rights
Leagues may also impose ____ restrictions for franchise ownership: NFL bans corporate and public ownership
___ and ___ rights are granted with ownership
Franchise and territorial
Use of team __, ___, ___ are granted with ownership
colors, name, and logo
1920: First commissioner of a pro sport league
– MLB’s ______
Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis
League constitution and bylaws set forth commissioner’s powers
– Granted authority to ___ and ___ penalties when individuals involved with the sport are suspected of acting against the best
interests of the game
investigate and impose
Players’ associations have used ___ ___ to limit commissioner’s powers
collective bargaining
1885: _____ (a lawyer and HOF infielder/pitcher) established first players’ association to: Fight….
John Montgomery Ward

reserve system, salary caps, and practice of selling players without the players’ receiving a share of profits and negotiate with owners

When his plan did not work, about ___ players organized a revolt that led to organization of the Players League
1952: ___ formed:
– Dominated by management
– Negotiations limited to pensions and insurance
1966: ____ organized players as true labor
union by convincing all players that each of them
was essential to game revenues
Marvin Miller
Convinced players to fund players’ association by giving their ___ ___ __ to the union from which the union would operate and give remaining funds back to players in pro-rata shares
group licensing rights
___: NHL players tried to unionize.
– NHL owners humiliated, threatened, traded, and/or released players for involvement in players organizing efforts.
Labor relations did not play major role in professional sports until the late ____, when growing fan interest and increased TV and sponsorship revenues transformed leagues.
Once players unionize, collective bargaining must occur before league management can change….
hours, wages, or terms and conditions of employment.
With a players union in place, a league can negotiate acceptance for restrictive practices with players’ association.
– Practices that on their own might ___ ___ ___
violate antitrust laws
When the collective bargaining process reaches an ___ (a breakdown in negotiations), the players can go on strike or owners can “lock out” players.
Strikes and lockouts are far more disruptive in professional sports than in other industries because of the lack of ___ players (employees).
___: Birth of PGA
– Objectives are to grow golf interest, elevate standards of golf professionals, establish a relief fund, and hold meetings and tournaments
____: Many factors created growing tension between the PGA tournament professionals and the local country club professionals, and conflicts arose
PGA tournament players broke away from the larger membership to form a _____ (PGA Tour)
Tournament Players Division
Tours in the individual sports have their own….
rules and regulations.
Players must qualify annually for PGA Tour:
– Winning a PGA tournament exempts a player from qualifying for __ years, with each additional win adding 1 year (up to 5).
– Winning a major exempts a player for __ years.
– Winning the Tour Championship exempts a player for _ years.
Players who do not make the PGA Tour usually compete on the __
Nationwide Tour
Franchise Values and Revenue Generation: Owners diversify ___ to protect against risk that a franchise will lose a great deal of money.
Franchise Values and Revenue Generation: Currently, franchise values for major league clubs are in the hundreds of ____ of dollars.
Franchise Values and Revenue Generation: Franchise free agency —stadium games: Team owners threaten to move teams if their demands for….
new stadiums, renovations to existing stadiums, or better lease agreements
are not met.
Example of revenue generation: ____, who are maximizing revenue potential in every inch of Fenway Park
– LA Dodgers following the model
Boston Red Sox
Large vs. small-___ ___ created by the disparity in local broadcast revenues in MLB
– Forcing some teams to focus on efficiency (Oakland A’s) and use a system that uses less common statistics, wise drafting, and drafting of
players who are “signable”
market dichotomy
___ stability = ___ stability (NFL is example)
Labor, Cost
Contract Law: All players sign….
a standard player contract particular to each league.
Contract Law: Commissioner of league can refuse to approve
player’s contract if he or she believes it….
violates league rule or policy.
Contract Law:Disputes may occur over which team retains rights
to a particular ___, and such disputes may lead to legal battles between teams and players of different countries.
Antitrust Law: All professional sport leagues adopt restrictive
practices (drafts, reserve systems, salary caps, free agent restrictions, and free agent compensation) to provide….
– Restrictive practices may depress salaries or keep competitor leagues from signing marquee players.
financial stability and competitive balance between their teams.
Antitrust Law: Such practices are often challenged under antitrust law as ____.
– Argument is that such practices restrain trade or monopolize the market for professional team
Representation of minorities in sport management should ___ representation on the field.
___: All leagues showed lower averages for women in management and coaching positions.
2003: NBA, NHL, and MLB had improvements in the race categories.
– NBA: First African American majority owner was ___ (Charlotte Bobcats).
– MLB: First minority owner was Mexican American ___ (Anaheim Angels).
Bob Johnson & Arte Moreno
2005: Little or no progress from 2003 reports.
– WNBA: Representation of women has declined in every category except __ __ and __.
professional administrator and player
Necessary skills: Vary with position, yet a few universal skills include working knowledge of….
given sport, teams, and industry; good customer relation skills; willingness to work long hours
General manager
– In charge of all player….
-Traditionally former __ or ___, but as position has become more complex individuals with graduate degrees have become desirable
personnel decisions

player or coach

Other personnel
– Number of positions and specialization of jobs has __ greatly
– Entry level tends to be in sales, marketing, community relations, and media/public relations with low starting salaries
Tour Personnel: As with league sports, positions range from….
– Tours such as PGA and ATP employ many sport managers
commissioner to marketer to special events coordinator
Tour Personnel: Much of ___ ___work for site
operations of tour events; however, is often left to outside sport agency
event management
Agents: Almost all team and individual athletes in professional sports have agents representing them and….
coordinating business and financial affairs.
Agents: A growing number of ___ rely on sports agents
Agents: A range of opportunities is available in sport agencies in….
marketing, management, finance, accounting, operations, and so on.
Salary Caps: Intended to create parity among teams by ___
how much a team can spend on its players’ salaries.
Salary Caps: Owners must ___ with the players to have a
salary cap, and the union will inevitably negotiate for some exceptions to the salary cap.
Caps force teams to cut ___ players or renegotiate their contracts to make room under the cap to sign another player.
Caps can also require teams to have ___ ___, so low-revenue teams are prevented from cutting their payrolls to
stay competitive.
spending minimums
Professional sports are becoming ___ through the drafting and signing of players from other nations and the movement of marketing efforts into those countries.
NFL played exhibition game in ___ and regular season game in ___ in 2007.
China and England
__ seeks to move full force into China
Only the WNBA and NPF still exist; the ABL declared bankruptcy and the WUSA suspended operations in the fall of ___.
Staged ___ games in 2004 to keep interest in women’s professional soccer strong.
Large ___ agency firms have evolved to include sport marketing and event management.
Law of agency imposes ___ duties on the sport agent.
A highly ___ business: Many agents have no clients or are doing agency work part-time.
____ often cited as first sport agent
– Worked with Susan Lenglen and Red Grange
C. C. “Cash & Carry” Pyle
Until the ____ was extremely rare for pro team sport athlete to have an agent
– Teams generally refused to deal with agents
– No free agency until 1976, so little leverage to negotiate
Agents have existed in ___ sports such as golf
and tennis for a longer time
Seven Factors That Influenced Growth: 1. Evolution of players’ associations. 1970: ___ negotiated through collective
bargaining for right for players to be represented by agents
2. Free agency granted to players through the ____ arbitration decision.
Growth of sport ____ industry lead to greater media revenues for leagues and teams.
4. Need for ___ planning increased as salaries increased.
5. Development of competing leagues created competition for players and thus higher ____.
6. Increased number of ____ for individual-sport athletes.
7. Increased opportunity for athletes to increase income with opening up of….
television and entertainment industries.
Income dependent on consistent performance in events, appearance fees from events, and the ability to….
promote and market athlete’s image
Agent often travels with athlete, tending to ___ ___ so that the athlete can stay focused on playing
daily distractions
Large firms doing individual representation are often involved in….
all aspects of the sport (event management/marketing, broadcasting, consulting)
Because of increased income and increased job movement and added pressures on coaches to succeed, the number….
of coaches (and even general managers) with agents is growing.
Increased complexities of coaching may make having an agent to rely on for advice and counsel almost a ____.
Freestanding sport management firm
A full-service firm providing a wide range of services to
the athlete
Law practice-only firm:
Lawyer performs many legal tasks (contract negotiation, arbitration, legal
counseling, dispute resolution, and the preparation of tax forms)
Sport management firm affiliated with a law firm:
Each fills a void by providing the services the other does not offer
Boutique firms: Small firms find greater success representing
athletes in ___ sport and focusing on one or two services for the athletes or coaches.
Boutique firms: In smaller firms, an agent works ___ or with a
small group of employees
Boutique firms: Advantage may be that athletes receive
____ attention and are actually represented by the person he or she originally signed a contract with.
Boutique firms: Disadvantage may be that a solo agent often
cannot offer as….
many services as a large firm.
Conglomerate firms: In larger firms, the agent may be part of an
____ conglomerate representing many athletes in a broad range of sports.
Conglomerate firms: Advantage may be that large firms employ
professionals from….
many disciplines to provide service.
Conglomerate firms: Large firms have many ____ throughout the sport industry and can use their power on behalf of an athlete.
Conglomerate firms: Disadvantage may be that there is often a __ ___ of clients, and an athlete may be a “small fish in a big pond.”
large stable
Flat fee arrangement
Athlete must pay agent an amount of money agreed upon before the agent acts for the athlete
Percentage of compensation method
Often covers negotiation plus all of the work related to the provisions of the contract over its term
Other fee charges can be: 2
Hourly rate & Hourly rate with a compensation cap
Players’ associations ___ amount of agent fees.
Fierce competition for clients has driven average fees down closer to _% to _%
2, 3
Limitation only exists for the fees the agents can charge for negotiating the athlete’s ___, not for marketing deals.
Sports marketing representative
Coordinates all of the marketing and sponsorship activities for sports properties
Sports agents
May perform just one function (e.g., contract negotiation) or may have a number of employees performing functions for clients
Player/Coach Contract Negotiation: Agent must be knowledgeable about the….(contract, collective bargaining agreement, constitution), and common practices of its governing body.
sport and the rules, regulations, documents
Player/Coach Contract Negotiation: Agent must understand the value of the….
player’s or coach’s services.
Player/Coach Contract Negotiation: Agents must administer the contract and ensure the parties ___ with their contract promises
Marketing the Athlete/Coach: Should develop a plan in which each endorsement __ ___ ___ consistent with the athlete’s or coach’s ambitions and long-range goals
creates an image
Marketing the Athlete/Coach: Agent must keep in mind that client’s career and ….
public persona may be short-lived
Marketing the Athlete/Coach: Must also be familiar with ___ that may limit an athlete’s or coach’s marketing opportunities
Marketing the Athlete/Coach: Usually seek product endorsements before nonproduct endorsements—__ ___ ___
easier to obtain
Financial Planning covers….
banking and cash flow management, tax planning, investment advising, estate planning, and risk management
Sport agents often attempt to take on this function without….
– Doing so can lead to allegations of incompetence and negligence
proper skills and training
Disability insurance plans to protect athletes from….
career-ending injuries
Recent surge of companies offering…
pre-draft lines of credit
Agent must help a client with transition into a professional career and again with the transition into….
retirement from the sport
Agent must maximize the client’s earning potential during and after his or her playing career, but avoid ____.
Agent may take on the establishment of sport camps or ___ organizations under the athlete’s or coach’s name.
Provide legal counseling on contract and other legal matters
– However, nature of the legal work may dictate that a…
lawyer specializing in a particular area is better suited for providing the actual legal services
Resolve disputes the athlete or coach may have with….
his or her league, team, fans, referees or umpires, press, or endorsement companies.
Great deal of criticism and a public perception that the behavior of those in the agent profession is excessively ___
Five key problems in the profession:
1. Income mismanagement
2. Incompetence
3. Conflicts of interest
4. Charging of excessive fees
5. Overly aggressive client recruitment
Sport agents today must maneuver through a maze of….
conduct-governing regulations.
Many groups regulate agents: 4
– Players’ associations
• Agents register with unions and pay fee
– States (41 currently have some form of regulation)
– Federal government (Federal Trade Commission)
Athletes can also seek recourse under….
tort, criminal, agency, and consumer protection laws.
__ __ __must be large enough to accommodate large numbers of people
Public assembly facilities
Facilities include….
arenas, stadiums, convention (or exposition) centers, theaters (or performing arts facilities), racetracks, and amphitheaters.
International Association of Auditorium Managers (IAAM)
is the professional trade association for the facility management field.
Stadiums: Gain in the popularity of professional ___ and ___ launched construction of stadiums.
baseball and intercollegiate football
Stadiums: Constraints of __ __ limitations dictated the irregular sizes and shapes of the older ballparks (e.g., Fenway Park).
urban space
Stadiums: Early NFL teams played in ___ stadiums until new stadiums were built
Arenas: ___: Hockey owners followed the lead of baseball owners and built arenas to host their teams
Arenas: Needed to fill empty seats in arenas on nonhockey
nights: Hosted ___ matches on some nights
Arenas: __ ___ put together to fill nights
Ice Capades
Arenas: ___ enters arena picture, and arena owners earn revenue from two tenants
Baseball-only stadiums were becoming obsolete during the ___.
Team owners could make a great deal of money by having their __ __ build their stadium rather than building it themselves
host city
Cities built shiny new facilities to keep their teams enthusiastic about their ___ (e.g., Veterans Stadium, Three Rivers Stadium, Riverfront Stadium).
City leaders believed that publicly built stadiums were good ____ and added to quality of life.
Arenas: Built to accommodate one (or more) prime sports
tenant(s) or to lure a __ __ to the facility
prime tenant
Arenas: Intercollegiate facilities are financed by….
private donations, endowments, student fees, fund-raising campaigns, and, in the case of public institutions, public grants
Arenas: Public owner may ___ its own facility or contract
out for private management
Arenas: Recent trends in facility construction include….
practice facilities for the primary tenants to increase event bookings
Stadiums: Outdoor or domed facilities for….
baseball, football, and outdoor soccer teams
Stadiums: Stadium managers try to maximize ___, but it is
more difficult with a stadium than an arena
Stadiums: Far fewer nonsport events can play in stadiums,
primarily because stadiums are ____ ____
than other venues and most other events cannot attract
stadium-sized crowds
significantly larger
Stadiums: Stadium managers have become increasingly effective in creating events for their venues that….
take advantage
of all available spaces (e.g., parking lots for carnivals)
Convention Centers: Almost always built and owned by a __ __
public entity
Convention Centers: Built to lure conventions and business meetings to a __ ___
particular municipality
Convention Centers: Publicly financed because the rents and fees they charge do not always __ __
cover costs
Convention Centers: However, the economic impact the convention or business meeting has on the ____ can be
Theaters: Public assembly facilities that are primarily
utilized for the presentation of….
live artistic entertainment
Theaters: House prime tenants such as….
symphony orchestras, opera and dance companies, and resident theater groups
Theaters: Profits are ___, but the spinoff business from
theater attractions justifies public subsidies
Theaters: Provide culture and….
entertainment for a community, enhancing its quality of life
Federal government allows state and local governments to issue ___ ___
tax-exempt bonds
Tax exemption lowers interest on ___ and thus reduces the amount that cities and teams must pay for a stadium
Team owners have had to look for additional revenue to compete for, and pay, their players while __ ___
maintaining profitability
Building public assembly facilities meant other services had to be ___
____ (Miami Dolphins) privately financed new stadium using stadium revenues as collateral
Joe Robbie
Team owners then looked for city or state willing to build a new facility but let the team control the stadium ___ ___, thereby allowing the owner to maximize revenue without heavy debt service expenses
revenue streams
Examples: Baltimore and Cleveland
Money to build facilities is usually obtained by issuing ____
Promise by the borrower to pay back the lender a….
specified amount of money, with interest, within a specified period of time
General obligation bonds: Backed by the ___ ___ ability to raise taxes to pay off the debt (safe)
local government’s
___ ___: Backed specifically by the facility’s ability to generate revenues (risky)
Revenue bonds
Property taxes
Paid by homeowners, who are often long-term residents of a city
Occupational tax
Anyone who works in the community. More likely to pass in vote
Hospitality tax
Forces visitors to pay directly for the facility
General sales tax
Affects both local residents and out-of-town visitors
Corporate Investment: Sale of __ ___ for stadiums and arenas is a current trend
naming rights
Facility pouring rights
Being the facility’s exclusive soft drink or beer distributor
Outright corporate donations
Defray costs in exchange for the publicity and public relations benefits that may result from such a donation
Sports facilities are thought to improve the local economy in four ways:
– Building a facility creates construction jobs.
– People who attend games or work for the team generate new spending in the community, expanding local employment.
– Team attracts tourists/companies to the host city.
– New spending has a “multiplier effect” as increased local income causes still more new
spending and job creation.
Building a stadium is good for the local economy only if a stadium is….
the most productive way to make capital investments and use its workers
New sport facility: Extremely ___ effect on economic activity and employment
Sport facilities attract neither ___ nor new industry
A professional sport team creates a “__ __”
public good
Facility Ownership and Management Staff: Goal
To provide a clean, safe, and comfortable environment for patrons
Facility Ownership and Management Staff: functions
Security, clean-up, marketing and sales, scheduling and booking, operations, event promotions, and finance and box office operations
Facility Ownership and Management Staff: Private management
Provides expertise with dedicated personnel and network of facilities that
create leverage in cultivating key event relationships and in-turn event bookings
Marketing Director: Fast-paced, highly stressful, enormously ____ career track
Marketing Director: Acts primarily as in-house__ ___ for the various events booked into facilities
advertising agent
Marketing Director: Job responsibilities
Buying media (TV, radio, print,
billboards, etc.), coordinating promotions, and designing marketing materials (TV commercials, brochures, flyers, newspaper advertisements, etc.)
Marketing Director: Multiskilled performers who possess excellent….
people skills, sales ability, and written and oral communication skills
Public Relations Director: Forges solid ___ relationships with TV and radio news directors, newspaper editors, and reporters
Public Relations Director: Coordinates….
TV broadcasts from the facility, writes press releases on upcoming events, works with the media concerning events and activities in the facility
Public Relations Director: Possesses a strong….
writing ability, creative mind, and the ability to respond while under pressure
Event Director: Acts as the point person for the facility during __ __
each show
Event Director: Must be able to think and react quickly to any
problems arising during the event and must….
be able to deal calmly with show promoters, angry customers, lost children, and other situations
Booking Director: Position devoted to….
booking events for the facility
Booking Director: Much time is spent talking on the telephone…
with agents and promoters, and attending conventions to solicit events
Booking Director: Negotiating ___ is also part of the job
Operations Director: Supervises facility ___ for all types of events
Operations Director: Coordinating, scheduling, and supervising the numerous ___ that take place each year as
one show moves in and another moves out
Operations Director: Job requires a ____ knowledge of a
facility’s inner workings
Operations Director: Must also possess superior __ ___
people skills
Advertising, Sponsorship, and Signage Salesperson: Responsible for selling ____ and event sponsorships—an important source of revenue for facilities
Advertising, Sponsorship, and Signage Salesperson: Salespeople must possess excellent….
interpersonal and presentation skills
Group Ticket Salesperson: Primarily responsible for selling large
blocks of tickets for various events…
to corporations, charity organizations, schools, Boy Scout and Girl Scout troops, and other parties
Group Ticket Salesperson: Needs to excel on the….
telephone and in face-to-face presentations
Box Office Director: Responsible for the sale of all tickets to events as well as the collection…
of all ticket revenue
Box Office Director: Must be patient, have a calm demeanor in dealing with the public, and possess good ___ ___
supervisory skills
Security includes
physical barriers to entry, surveillance technology, and an increase in security personnel presence
Crowd management plan
Categorizing the type of event; knowing surrounding facilities and/or environment; being aware of team or school rivalries, threats of violence, the crowd size and seating configuration; having an existing emergency plan,
and using security personnel and ushers
Americans with Disabilities Act
To prevent discrimination against qualified people with disabilities in employment, public services,
transportation, public accommodations, and telecommunications services
Sport event management
All functions related to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of a sport event
Finance/budgeting, risk management, tournament operations, registration, volunteer management, and event marketing
Late ____: Focus turned to the professional aspects of managing sport events because of a desire to increase profits (Albert Spalding)
Barnstorming tours
The touring of star athletes and teams to promote the popularity of a particular sport
Emergence of….businesses that act on behalf of a sport property (e.g., IMG)
sport management/marketing agencies
Client representation
Acting on behalf of a client
in contract negotiations
Client marketing:
Locating appropriate
endorsement opportunities, booking appearances,
and developing entertainment extensions
other agency functions 3
-Event development and management
• Meeting increased demand for television production and development work
• Developing/marketing grassroots programs
other agency functions 3
• Soliciting corporate sponsorships
• Evaluating the success of events and initiatives through market research— implementing mail surveys, focus groups, on-site surveys, and sponsorship/economic impact surveys
• Studying impact of sponsorship activities
• Financial planning
Full-service agencies
perform the complete
set of agency functions (e.g., IMG, Octagon)
Specialized agencies
limit either the scope
of services performed or the type of clients
serviced (e.g., Redmandarin)
In-house agencies
are formations of separate
departments or divisions dealing with event
management within major corporations.
Budgeting attempts to….
predict revenues and expenses for a particular event
Zero-base budgeting
Review of all activities and
related costs of an event as if it were the first time
Cash-flow budgeting
Accounting for the receipt
and timing of all sources and expenditures of cash
DIM Process:
Developing, implementing, and
managing the risk management plan
Purchasing insurance:
Provides security to an
event regarding potential financial losses
Tournament Operations: Divided into….
pre-event, actual event, and postevent activities
Determine type of event being planned and the event’s goals
Specific, detailed, minute-by-minute
schedule of activities throughout the day
Activities surrounding completion of event
Registration system
Crucial for making a good first impression on clientele
Determining information that needs to be ____ and ____ during the registration process
collected and disseminated
Volunteer Management: 4
• Most events cannot be successfully executed without volunteers
• Determine volunteer needs: Numbers, qualifications, type of work
• Recruitment and training
• Keep volunteers happy
Integrated marketing approach
Corporate sponsorship, advertising, public relations, hospitality, ticket sales, broadcasting, Web site development, licensing/merchandising, fund-raising
____________ to manage functions in a consistent manner
Long-term strategic planning
Corporate Sponsorship: ____ in number of events has led to an increase in competition for sponsors
Corporate Sponsorship: Events have become increasingly reliant
on sponsorship, with possible ___ if sponsors are not identified
Corporate Sponsorship: Either sold by the event (in-house) or by
an _____ (IOC)
outside sport marketing agency
Advertising: Advertising expenditures are a very ___
portion of an event’s expenses
Advertising: Advertising sought through one of two means:
(1) media sponsors or (2) attachment to corporate sponsor advertisements
Advertising: • Nearly all successful events sell sponsorships to
__ ___
media outlets
Trade-out sponsorships
Event provides the typical sponsorship benefits in exchange for a
specified amount of free advertising space
Public Relations: Generating __ publicity is important
Public Relations: Must develop a good working relationship
with the members of the ___ (e.g., through hospitality)
Public Relations: Event must be ___ to attract interest
Public Relations: Holding ___ __ to introduce the event (e.g., WWF)
press conferences
Providing a satisfying experience for all
stakeholders of the event
Hospitality: One way of improving event ___
Hospitality: Hospitality rewards and builds relationships with
___ ___; generates business from new
customers; rewards employees for good
performance; rewards suppliers for excellent sales
current customers
Hospitality: Hospitality is one of the ___ most common
functions of a sport agency
Ticket Sales: Sporting events rely on ticket
sales to varying ____.
Ticket Sales: For medium-sized and smaller events, ticket sales are a less ____ way to generate revenues.
Ticket Sales: Ability to charge ___ is dependent on where the event occurs and how easily the event manager can control entry to the event (e.g., golf).
Broadcasting: Radio/television broadcasts add ___ to an
event and provide increased exposure, benefiting
Broadcasting: If a broadcast outlet does not feel an event will
be attractive to a __ ___, limiting the ability to sell advertising time, then the outlet will not be willing to pay a rights fee to televise
or broadcast that event.
large audience
Broadcasting: Event promoter can also use a __ __
or purchase airtime directly from outlet.
barter agreement
Web Site Development: Imperative that any event, no matter the size, has a Web site to…
provide important information and
promote the event
Web Site Development: Web site’s URL should be the….
name of the event or something that is very close to the name of the event
Web site should provide basic event details:
When/where the event is occurring, how tickets can be purchased for the event, online ticket purchase option, news releases, and so forth
Licensing/Merchandising: Sale of items that display an event’s name or logo:
Usually only beneficial for large, televised,
multiday events
Licensing/Merchandising: To cover the costs of inventory, staffing, and space allocation,….
significant sales must be achieved for the event to make a profit
Fund-raising: Not-for-profit events can use fund-raising as a….
means of revenue generation.
Fund-raising: Most often, not-for-profit events….
center around raising money for some charitable enterprise.
Fund-raising: ___-___ marketing efforts by corporations are
another instance in which fund-raising may be appropriate.
The event management field offers one of the
most ___ areas for career opportunities.
To be successful in event management, one must be prepared to work….
long and typically inconvenient hours.
Careers in event management involve working with one of three types of organizations:
sport management/marketing agencies, events, and charities.
Vertical Integration
Refers to the efforts of a sport management/ marketing agency to control all aspects of an event (e.g., IMG)
Raises a significant ethical dilemma:
There is no other organization or entity in place to ensure the ethical operation of an event
Benefits of vertical integration created significant….
consolidation among sport management/marketing agencies.
Larger, more diversified sport and entertainment companies purchased __________ (e.g., SFX Entertainment).
sport management/marketing agencies
Made-for-TV Events
Created solely to generate a profit by appealing to a large television audience
Number of outlets providing sport programming has ____; thus, there is a continual need for programming that will attract large television audiences
Myth 1: Sport management degree is a ticket to ____.
-Increased number of sport management programs offered, resulting in….

Increased competition for jobs

increased number of people with similar background looking for jobs
There are advantages to a sport management degree program, however—
internship opportunities, ability to build a network, learning of applied sport-related theories and principles.
Myth 2: It’s not ___ you know, it’s what you know.
Actually, it’s not who you know, it’s….

In the sport industry, people hire someone because of a personal recommendation from someone else

who knows you
Sport managers must expand networks to include….
all kinds of people.
It is important to tap into as many useful networks as possible so that you can ___ your contacts and industry knowledge.
Myth 3: Most opportunities are in ____ or NCAA Division I athletic departments
pro sports
Number of jobs in professional sport is limited, and people who get jobs in professional sport tend to stay in their jobs. Also, people already in the industry tend to get “___” when positions open up.
Colleges and universities are currently dealing with economic setbacks that affect the amount of….
money spent on athletic programs, thus reducing new hiring.
Myth 4: Sport management jobs are….
glamorous and exciting
Bottom line is that sport managers labor in the ___ so that others can enjoy the spotlight
Typical workweek for an event coordinator is __ to ___ hours per week, including a lot of late nights and long weekends.
60 to 70
Work of sport managers is similar to jobs in the ____ world, but they are unique in that they require industry-specific knowledge.
Myth 5: Sport management jobs pay ___
In general, salaries – especially starting salaries – tend to be __ in the sport industry
There are such a ___ number of applicants for these jobs that salaries can stay low
Demand for the jobs far ___ the supply
Find a job utilizing your ____, challenging you where you want to be challenged, and minimizing your frustrations.
Select aspects of the sport industry that are most interesting to you and begin research. Once you can speak….
intelligently regarding the field of interest, begin informational interviewing.
Increased experience =
Increased marketability. Take advantage of internship opportunities available and gain experience in the industry. Create your own volunteer opportunities.
Finding a job requires time, energy, and thoughtful preparation. Decide to make a certain….
number of phone calls, mail or e-mail a certain number of applications, and/or research particular organizations each week. Keep a journal of your activities.
Informational Interviewing: Expands your understanding of an….
industry, an organization, or a particular job or department by speaking to someone who is already there.
Informational Interviewing: Serves as a ___ for your career while building a strong network base.
Informational Interviewing: Have your ___ prepared before you call in the event the person you are trying to reach is available immediately.
Informational Interviewing: Ask for ___ on who else to contact in the industry of interest.
Other Sources of Information:
Professional journals, relevant books, and publications.
Most industry segments have an association that provides support for the profession. These associations provide….
valuable connections, current relevant information, and sometimes job postings.
Marketing Yourself: Resumes 6
-Present yourself as a colleague, not “just” a student
-Use industry language
-Present experience as lens toward career goal
-Convey learning
-Quantify whenever appropriate
-Assemble a portfolio
Provide a phone number where you will get messages if you are not home and a professional e-mail address you regularly check, and that your social media presents an image you want employers to see
Used to focus your resume.
Include all colleges attended; GPA if greater than 3.00; honors and awards; international/national exchange experience.
Think in terms of your accomplishments, what you brought to the organization, and any positive changes resulting from your work there.
Include major accomplishments demonstrating the qualities an employer looks for in a potential employee.
List all appropriate and/or relevant skills and activities.
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