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Speech Perception Essay

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Acoustic Signal (Acoustic Stimulus)
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Patterns of pressure changes in the air produced by the position of movement of structures in the vocal apparatus
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Aphasia
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Difficulties in speaking or understanding speech due to brain damage
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Articulator
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Structure involved in speech production such as the tongue, lips, teeth, jaw, and soft palate
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Audiovisual Speech Perception
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A perception of speech that is affected by both auditory and visual stimulation, as when a person sees a tape of someone saying and pronouncing two contradictory vowels
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Broca’s Aphasia
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Language problems characterized by labored and stilted speech and short sentences
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Broca’s Area
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Area in the frontal lobe that is important for language perception and production; damage causes difficulty speaking
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Categorical Perception
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In speech perception, perceiving one sound at short voice onset times and another sound at longer voice onset times; the listener perceives only 2 categories across the whole range of vocal onset times
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Coarticulation
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The overlapping articulation that occurs when different phonemes follow one another in speech; can result in different articulation based on context
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Dual-stream Model of Speech Perception
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Model that proposes a ventral stream starting in the temporal lobe that is responsible for recognizing speech, and a dorsal stream starting in the parietal lobe that is responsible for linking the acoustic signal to the movements required to produce speech
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Formant
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Horozontal band of energy in the speech spectrogram associated with vowels
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Formant Transitions
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In the speech stimulus, the rapid shift in frequency that precedes a formant
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Indexical Characteristic
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Characteristic of the speech stimulus that indicates information about the speaker, such as age, gender, or emotional state
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McGurk Effect
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When a person sees a tape of someone saying and pronouncing two contradictory vowels, they will almost unanimously believe they hear the vowel from the visual
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Motor Theory of Speech Perception
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A theory that proposes a close link between how speech is perceived and how it is produced; when we hear a particular speech sound, this activates the motor mechanisms that are responsible for producing that sound, and it is this activation that enables perception
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Multimodal
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The involvement of a number of different senses in determining perception
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Phoneme
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The shortest segment of speech that, if changed, changes the meaning of a word
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Phonemic Restoration Effect
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An effect that occurs in speech perception when listeners perceive a phoneme in a word even though the acoustic signal of that phoneme is obscured by another sound
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Phonetic Boundary
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The voice onset time when perception changes from one speech category to another in a categorical perception experiment
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Shadowing
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Listener’s repetition aloud of what they hear as they are hearing it
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Sound Spectrogram
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A plot showing the pattern of intensities and frequencies of a speech stimulus
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Speech Segmentation
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The process of perceiving individual words from the continuous flow of the speech signal
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Statistical Learning
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The process of learning about transitional probabilities and other characteristics of the environment
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Transitional Probabilities
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The chances that one sound will follow another sound
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Voice Cells
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Neurons in the temporal lobe that respond more strongly to same-species voices than to non-voice sounds
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Voice Onset Time
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In speech production, the tie delay between the beginning o a sound and the beginning of the vibration of the vocal chords
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Wernicke’s Aphasia
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An inability to comprehend words or arrange sounds into coherent speech
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Wernicke’s Area
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Area in the temporal lobe involved in speech perception, damage to which results in difficulty understanding speech
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Word Deafness
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Occurs in the most extreme form of Wernicke’s Aphasia, when a person cannot recognize words even though ability to hear pure tones remains intact