Exam #2 (PP) – Flashcards

question
Allport believed that present and future behavior can best be explained in terms of
answer
functional autonomy.
question
The needs to know and to understand
answer
can be stronger than the safety needs.
question
An idea in Rogers' theory similar to Freud's superego is
answer
conditions of worth.
question
The fully functioning person is aware of all experiences and
answer
all of the answers
question
For Eysenck, the most significant factor in intelligence is
answer
heredity
question
Erikson noted identity confusion in his study of
answer
all of the answers
question
Identity cohesion or role confusion appears at ages
answer
12-18
question
According to Allport, life's ultimate and necessary goal is to
answer
maintain an optimal level of tension.
question
The driving forces for behavior are ____ traits.
answer
dynamic
question
In his study of play constructions, Erikson believed he saw
answer
the symbolic expression of the genitals for both sexes.
question
The process of maturation is
answer
often accompanied by struggle and pain.
question
Older people should seek
answer
new challenges.
question
In Rogers' approach to therapy, the therapist provides
answer
unconditional positive regard.
question
Erikson once worked
answer
at a guidance center for emotionally disturbed delinquents
question
According to Maslow, truly self-actualized people constitute ____ of the population
answer
less than 1%
question
We can see origins of Rogers' personality in his childhood experience of
answer
living by someone else's view of the world rather than his own.
question
Rogers' early work in psychology was
answer
diagnosing and treating delinquent and underprivileged children.
question
Computer analysis of the letters from Jenny
answer
yielded valid and comparable results to indicate Allport's eight prominent traits.
question
Allport's research methods focused on
answer
the normal healthy individual
question
Allport formulated a theory of personality development in which
answer
considerable knowledge has been gained about the functioning of the normal, emotionally healthy adult.
question
Cattell's personality measures are ____ because of the biases that affect scoring and interpretation
answer
subjective
question
For Cattell, behavior that is considered predictable must be
answer
lawful and orderly
question
In Allport's theory, central traits
answer
best describe a person's behavior.
question
Allport believed that personality is often revealed indirectly through
answer
expressive behavior
question
Allport's approach to personality is characterized by the
answer
conscious rather than the unconscious
question
Erikson identified the stage of identity cohesion versus role confusion as
answer
a moratorium to give a person time and energy to play different roles and live with different images
question
Rogers believed that the essence of human nature is
answer
an innate drive for actualization.
question
Erikson's most unusual assessment technique is
answer
. psychohistorical analysis
question
Allport believed that the best way to study personality was through
answer
normal and healthy adults.
question
McCrae and Costa's five personality factors
answer
include agreeableness and conscientiousness.
question
Metapathology results from
answer
frustration of the metaneeds.
question
Allport's idiographic approach was the study of
answer
the individual case.
question
Adolescents who have not experienced an identity crisis but are committed to an occupation are in the
answer
foreclosure status
question
At each stage of psychosocial development,
answer
adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping are incorporated into the ego identity.
question
With regard to experimental research, Rogers
answer
preferred to have a clearer view of a person's experiential world.
question
Environmental-mold traits are
answer
learned characteristics from the influences of friends, work, and where we live.
question
For Cattell, traits are
answer
all of the answers
question
All of the following are characteristics of self-actualized persons except
answer
a complete acceptance of the norms and beliefs of the majority.
question
Erikson's epigenetic principle of maturation
answer
asserts that development is determined by a combination of biological and social factors.
question
Allport's theory has become more popular today because
answer
all of the answers
question
Maslow called moments of intense ecstasy, power, and transcendence of the self
answer
peak experiences.
question
For Cattell, if two measures showed a high correlation, then
answer
the traits and factors of the two tests are similar or related.
question
According to Cattell, a valid personality theory should be able to
answer
predict behavior in response to a given stimulus situation
question
If a conflict at one stage cannot be resolved, then a person will
answer
have much difficulty to continue normal development in the next stage
question
Erikson divided personality growth into
answer
eight stages from birth to death.
question
Cattell has identified 16 ____ traits that form the basis of personality
answer
source
question
Compared to coping behavior, expressive behavior is
answer
a better reflection of the personality.
question
In response to charges that his concepts are ambiguous and poorly defined, Erikson cited
answer
his artistic temperament and lack of formal training in science
question
To Rogers, the only valid way to study personality is through
answer
examining each person's subjective perceptions.
question
Studies of ego identity show that
answer
adolescents high in ego identity develop trust, autonomy, initiative, and industriousness.
question
Our level of psychological adjustment and emotional health is a function of the extent to which our
answer
self is congruent with our environment
question
One unusual assessment technique used by Allport was
answer
the personal-document approach
question
Q-sort research has shown that person-centered therapy increases the
answer
correlation between perceived self and ideal self.
question
Research on psychosocial stages demonstrated
answer
a relationship between happiness and successful development in the first six stages.
question
Failure to adapt at one developmental stage
answer
can be corrected by success at a later stage
question
In Cattell's system, the mental elements of personality are called
answer
traits
question
Source traits are
answer
the basic elements of personality.
question
The basic strength associated with the final stage of development is
answer
wisdom.
question
Research using the Q sort provides
answer
impressive evidence for the effectiveness of person-centered therapy.
question
With my childhood," Maslow observed, "it's a wonder I'm not ____"
answer
psychotic.
question
Ergs and sentiments are
answer
dynamic motivating traits.
question
Erikson's primary research method was
answer
the case study
question
All of the following are personality factors identified by McCrae and Costa except
answer
deference
question
The 16 PF Test is widely used
answer
for personality research and for predicting occupational success
question
The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)
answer
measures time competence and inner directedness.
question
Allport chose the term proprium for the
answer
ego or self
question
In the business world, Rogers' therapy
answer
has been used as a training method for managers.
question
At the lowest level of Maslow's hierarchy, we find ____ needs.
answer
physiological
question
In his college student years, Maslow was influenced by the ideas of
answer
john b Watson
question
Allport emphasized the importance of the
answer
present and the future.
question
Temperament traits describe a person's
answer
emotional behavior
question
Rogers' personality theory is rooted in
answer
humanistic psychology
question
Maslow's first studies in psychology were
answer
training in experimental psychology.
question
Rogers' work was influenced by his early
answer
solitude.
question
Erikson's primary assessment technique was
answer
Erikson was skeptical of most assessment techniques
question
In general, Cattell's theory is
answer
respected, but not widely followed.
question
Rogers' work is significant in its attempt to
answer
define the self
question
Allport believed that the emotionally healthy adult is
answer
no longer dominated or determined by childhood drives
question
The only pre-determined belief of the person-centered therapist is
answer
the client's inherent value and worth.
question
Self-actualizers can occasionally
answer
all of the answers
question
Allport believed his famous meeting with Freud illustrated
answer
the error of placing too much importance on the unconscious.
question
Carl Rogers' fully functioning person would
answer
all of them
question
When the needs for affection and security are met in infancy
answer
all of the answers
question
According to Eysenck's research, extraverts have lower levels of ____ than introverts.
answer
cortical arousal
question
Erikson's use of psychohistorical analysis included such figures as
answer
Gandhi and Martin Luther.
question
Maslow believed strongly in
answer
free will
question
Malignancies develop when
answer
only the maladaptive tendency is present.
question
At the end of World War II, there was a need for veterans to receive counseling quickly. Person-centered therapy was described as
answer
simple, informal, and brief.
question
Maslow's image of human nature takes the position of
answer
free will
question
Much of the POI research
answer
uses the correlational method.
question
Metamotivation refers to
answer
the motivation of self-actualizers.
question
Erikson's theory has been criticized because it is
answer
incomplete in its description of the last stage of maturity.
question
In the stage of intimacy versus isolation, a person may prefer to
answer
all of the answers
question
Maslow believed that the belongingness and love needs
answer
involves the need both to give and to receive love.
question
Rogers believed that personality could only be understood from our own viewpoint, that is, based on a persons'
answer
subjective experiences
question
During a peak experience, the person
answer
feels powerful, confident, and decisive
question
On the uniqueness and universality issue, Cattell noted the existence of ____ traits and ___ traits
answer
common/unique
question
Concerning cognitive needs, studies have been shown that emotionally healthy adults
answer
are motivated to improve their knowledge about unexplained events
question
Allport believed the unconscious is actually
answer
important only in neurotic or disturbed behavior.
question
Cattell's image of human nature stresses the concept of
answer
behavior as lawful, orderly, and therefore predictable.
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question
Allport believed that present and future behavior can best be explained in terms of
answer
functional autonomy.
question
The needs to know and to understand
answer
can be stronger than the safety needs.
question
An idea in Rogers' theory similar to Freud's superego is
answer
conditions of worth.
question
The fully functioning person is aware of all experiences and
answer
all of the answers
question
For Eysenck, the most significant factor in intelligence is
answer
heredity
question
Erikson noted identity confusion in his study of
answer
all of the answers
question
Identity cohesion or role confusion appears at ages
answer
12-18
question
According to Allport, life's ultimate and necessary goal is to
answer
maintain an optimal level of tension.
question
The driving forces for behavior are ____ traits.
answer
dynamic
question
In his study of play constructions, Erikson believed he saw
answer
the symbolic expression of the genitals for both sexes.
question
The process of maturation is
answer
often accompanied by struggle and pain.
question
Older people should seek
answer
new challenges.
question
In Rogers' approach to therapy, the therapist provides
answer
unconditional positive regard.
question
Erikson once worked
answer
at a guidance center for emotionally disturbed delinquents
question
According to Maslow, truly self-actualized people constitute ____ of the population
answer
less than 1%
question
We can see origins of Rogers' personality in his childhood experience of
answer
living by someone else's view of the world rather than his own.
question
Rogers' early work in psychology was
answer
diagnosing and treating delinquent and underprivileged children.
question
Computer analysis of the letters from Jenny
answer
yielded valid and comparable results to indicate Allport's eight prominent traits.
question
Allport's research methods focused on
answer
the normal healthy individual
question
Allport formulated a theory of personality development in which
answer
considerable knowledge has been gained about the functioning of the normal, emotionally healthy adult.
question
Cattell's personality measures are ____ because of the biases that affect scoring and interpretation
answer
subjective
question
For Cattell, behavior that is considered predictable must be
answer
lawful and orderly
question
In Allport's theory, central traits
answer
best describe a person's behavior.
question
Allport believed that personality is often revealed indirectly through
answer
expressive behavior
question
Allport's approach to personality is characterized by the
answer
conscious rather than the unconscious
question
Erikson identified the stage of identity cohesion versus role confusion as
answer
a moratorium to give a person time and energy to play different roles and live with different images
question
Rogers believed that the essence of human nature is
answer
an innate drive for actualization.
question
Erikson's most unusual assessment technique is
answer
. psychohistorical analysis
question
Allport believed that the best way to study personality was through
answer
normal and healthy adults.
question
McCrae and Costa's five personality factors
answer
include agreeableness and conscientiousness.
question
Metapathology results from
answer
frustration of the metaneeds.
question
Allport's idiographic approach was the study of
answer
the individual case.
question
Adolescents who have not experienced an identity crisis but are committed to an occupation are in the
answer
foreclosure status
question
At each stage of psychosocial development,
answer
adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping are incorporated into the ego identity.
question
With regard to experimental research, Rogers
answer
preferred to have a clearer view of a person's experiential world.
question
Environmental-mold traits are
answer
learned characteristics from the influences of friends, work, and where we live.
question
For Cattell, traits are
answer
all of the answers
question
All of the following are characteristics of self-actualized persons except
answer
a complete acceptance of the norms and beliefs of the majority.
question
Erikson's epigenetic principle of maturation
answer
asserts that development is determined by a combination of biological and social factors.
question
Allport's theory has become more popular today because
answer
all of the answers
question
Maslow called moments of intense ecstasy, power, and transcendence of the self
answer
peak experiences.
question
For Cattell, if two measures showed a high correlation, then
answer
the traits and factors of the two tests are similar or related.
question
According to Cattell, a valid personality theory should be able to
answer
predict behavior in response to a given stimulus situation
question
If a conflict at one stage cannot be resolved, then a person will
answer
have much difficulty to continue normal development in the next stage
question
Erikson divided personality growth into
answer
eight stages from birth to death.
question
Cattell has identified 16 ____ traits that form the basis of personality
answer
source
question
Compared to coping behavior, expressive behavior is
answer
a better reflection of the personality.
question
In response to charges that his concepts are ambiguous and poorly defined, Erikson cited
answer
his artistic temperament and lack of formal training in science
question
To Rogers, the only valid way to study personality is through
answer
examining each person's subjective perceptions.
question
Studies of ego identity show that
answer
adolescents high in ego identity develop trust, autonomy, initiative, and industriousness.
question
Our level of psychological adjustment and emotional health is a function of the extent to which our
answer
self is congruent with our environment
question
One unusual assessment technique used by Allport was
answer
the personal-document approach
question
Q-sort research has shown that person-centered therapy increases the
answer
correlation between perceived self and ideal self.
question
Research on psychosocial stages demonstrated
answer
a relationship between happiness and successful development in the first six stages.
question
Failure to adapt at one developmental stage
answer
can be corrected by success at a later stage
question
In Cattell's system, the mental elements of personality are called
answer
traits
question
Source traits are
answer
the basic elements of personality.
question
The basic strength associated with the final stage of development is
answer
wisdom.
question
Research using the Q sort provides
answer
impressive evidence for the effectiveness of person-centered therapy.
question
With my childhood," Maslow observed, "it's a wonder I'm not ____"
answer
psychotic.
question
Ergs and sentiments are
answer
dynamic motivating traits.
question
Erikson's primary research method was
answer
the case study
question
All of the following are personality factors identified by McCrae and Costa except
answer
deference
question
The 16 PF Test is widely used
answer
for personality research and for predicting occupational success
question
The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI)
answer
measures time competence and inner directedness.
question
Allport chose the term proprium for the
answer
ego or self
question
In the business world, Rogers' therapy
answer
has been used as a training method for managers.
question
At the lowest level of Maslow's hierarchy, we find ____ needs.
answer
physiological
question
In his college student years, Maslow was influenced by the ideas of
answer
john b Watson
question
Allport emphasized the importance of the
answer
present and the future.
question
Temperament traits describe a person's
answer
emotional behavior
question
Rogers' personality theory is rooted in
answer
humanistic psychology
question
Maslow's first studies in psychology were
answer
training in experimental psychology.
question
Rogers' work was influenced by his early
answer
solitude.
question
Erikson's primary assessment technique was
answer
Erikson was skeptical of most assessment techniques
question
In general, Cattell's theory is
answer
respected, but not widely followed.
question
Rogers' work is significant in its attempt to
answer
define the self
question
Allport believed that the emotionally healthy adult is
answer
no longer dominated or determined by childhood drives
question
The only pre-determined belief of the person-centered therapist is
answer
the client's inherent value and worth.
question
Self-actualizers can occasionally
answer
all of the answers
question
Allport believed his famous meeting with Freud illustrated
answer
the error of placing too much importance on the unconscious.
question
Carl Rogers' fully functioning person would
answer
all of them
question
When the needs for affection and security are met in infancy
answer
all of the answers
question
According to Eysenck's research, extraverts have lower levels of ____ than introverts.
answer
cortical arousal
question
Erikson's use of psychohistorical analysis included such figures as
answer
Gandhi and Martin Luther.
question
Maslow believed strongly in
answer
free will
question
Malignancies develop when
answer
only the maladaptive tendency is present.
question
At the end of World War II, there was a need for veterans to receive counseling quickly. Person-centered therapy was described as
answer
simple, informal, and brief.
question
Maslow's image of human nature takes the position of
answer
free will
question
Much of the POI research
answer
uses the correlational method.
question
Metamotivation refers to
answer
the motivation of self-actualizers.
question
Erikson's theory has been criticized because it is
answer
incomplete in its description of the last stage of maturity.
question
In the stage of intimacy versus isolation, a person may prefer to
answer
all of the answers
question
Maslow believed that the belongingness and love needs
answer
involves the need both to give and to receive love.
question
Rogers believed that personality could only be understood from our own viewpoint, that is, based on a persons'
answer
subjective experiences
question
During a peak experience, the person
answer
feels powerful, confident, and decisive
question
On the uniqueness and universality issue, Cattell noted the existence of ____ traits and ___ traits
answer
common/unique
question
Concerning cognitive needs, studies have been shown that emotionally healthy adults
answer
are motivated to improve their knowledge about unexplained events
question
Allport believed the unconscious is actually
answer
important only in neurotic or disturbed behavior.
question
Cattell's image of human nature stresses the concept of
answer
behavior as lawful, orderly, and therefore predictable.
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