SPED 3390-Exam 2

question

Standardized Test
answer

a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more people
question

Impetus for using standardized test
answer

-Immigration policies -World War I -World War II -Guidance movement >National Defense Education Act(1958) >Elementary and Secondary Act(1965)
question

Classifications of Standardized Tests
answer

>Psychological or Educational >Norm-referenced or Criterion-referenced >General survey/screening or Diagnostic >Group administered or individually administered >domain being measured
question

Assumptions underlying standardized assessment
answer

-person giving test is skilled -Error will always be present -acculturation of person taking test is comparable to norms -Behavior sampling is adequate amount and representative in area (large sample that measure what it says to measure) -present behavior is observed, whereas future behavior is only inferred
question

Factors to consider when selecting a standardized test
answer

-who is being tested -purpose for testing -reference sources -technical adequacy
question

Buros Institute of Mental Measurement
answer

most frequently used reference source
question

Factors to consider when administering standardized test
answer

-establish rapport before testing -adhere to standardized procedures -group size -durration of test -eliminate distractions -providing encouragement
question

Test may be discriminatory if…
answer

-non-English speaking student takes a test written in English -Measure based on values, beliefs, and other cultural heritage of the dominant american culture
question

proposal for reducing bias in assessment
answer

-translate text to english -use interpreter -use culture-fair test -use culture specific test -use separate norms -modify testing procedures -moratorium on standardized test (all have issues)
question

limitations of standardized test
answer

-findings are often overgeneralized -some tests are technically inadequate -child and administer/examiner variability
question

Intelligence
answer

measure of scholastic aptitude
question

Intelligence test
answer

-differences in present behavior -predict differences in future behavior
question

limitations of intelligence test
answer

1. intelligence testing has been misused 2. IQ is limited in predicting success 3. IQ is limited in predicting non-academic skills 4. provides limited information 5. underlying responses are not measured 6. nonconventional responses are penalizes
question

group administered intelligence test
answer

screening-produce low estimate of student’s performance
question

individually administered intelligence test
answer

eligibility decisions 1.general intelligence test that measures global intelligence 2.nonverbal measures
question

global intelligence
answer

ability to cope with the world around them
question

General Intelligence tests measuring Global intelligence
answer

-Wechsler Scales -WISC-IV -Woodcock-Johnson psychoeducational Battery-III
question

Wechsler Scales
answer

-Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-third edition (WPPSI-III) -Wechsler intelligence scale for children-fourth edition(WISC-IV) -Wechsler Adult intelligence scale-third edition (WAIS-III) -Wechsler Abbreviated scale of intelligence (WASI)
question

WISC-IV
answer

(mean=10 standard deviation=3 15 subtests grouped with 4 composite areas; 1.Verbal Comprehension (5 subtests) 2. Perceptual reasoning Index (4 subtests) 3.Working memory Index (3 subtest) 4.Processing speed Index (3 subtests) *some subtest are not used in scoring and are supplemental and can be used for extra information.They also can be used in place of other subtest when appropriate.
question

WISC-IV scores
answer

1. subtests-scaled scores (mean-10, standard deviation=3) 2.Composite and FSIQ scores (mean=100, standard deviation=15)
question

Interpreting IQ scores
answer

very high 130 & above superior 120-129 high average 110-119 average 90-109 low average 80-89 borderline 70-79 extremely low 69 & below
question

Technical adequacy of WISC-IV
answer

Norms-good Reliability-good validity-adequate
question

WJ-III test of cognitive abilities
answer

is a diagnostic system 1.General intellectual ability-Test of cognitive abilities(20 sub tests) 2.Academic Development-Test of achievement 3. each test contains a standard battery and an extended battery
question

WJ-III Test of Cognitive abilities
answer

-10 standard, 10 extended a. 7 broad clusters b.standard subtest can be combined to for additional clusters c. supplemental subtests can also create additional clusters
question

WJ-III scores
answer

1. age-grade equivalent 2. standard scores (mean=100, standard deviation=15) 3. relative performance Index (RPI) 4. computer score
question

WJ-III Technical adequacy
answer

Norms, reliability, and adequacy are all good
question

Assessment for special populations
answer

often carried out by one of three different practices: 1.adapt test items 2.use response-fair test 3.used test design for a standardized on special populations
question

preferred measure
answer

Use test that are design and standardized on special populations A.response requirements are fair and reasonable B.use norms cautiously *there are very few of these tests and very few are up to date
question

Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3(TONI-3)
answer

a language free test that requires no listening, no speaking, or writing -test administered in pantomime -subject points to one of several responses
question

what aspect of intelligence does TONI-3 measure?
answer

Abstract/Figural problem solving
question

TONI 3 scores
answer

1. percentile ranks 2.TONI Quotients (mean=100, standard deviation=15)
question

TONI-3 Technical adequacy
answer

Norms, reliability, and variability are all good
question

when should TONI-3 not be administered?
answer

when a more global level of intelligence is appropriate
question

Adaptive Behavior
answer

the way individuals adapt themselves to the requirements of their physical and social environment
question

Adaptive Behavior(2)
answer

effectiveness or degree to which individuals meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected of age and cultural group
question

Adaptive behavior includes what three factors?
answer

Maturation, learning, social adjustments
question

Maturation
answer

meet standards expected to age
question

learning
answer

learn basic skills
question

social adjustment
answer

participate in appropriate social group activities
question

How does assessment of adaptive behavior differ from other domains?
answer

A. assesses how skills are used and how it is interpreted B. Examiner does not directly assess subject 1.interviews with parents 2.written questionare with teacher
question

AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale Residential and Community scale (2nd ed) school (2nd ed)
answer

A. divided in to two parts part 1-focus on independent functioning and daily living skills part 2-focus on maladaptive behaviors
question

what two domains were deleted from the AAMR school?
answer

1. domestic activity from part 1 2. Sexual Behavior from part 2
question

scores of AAMR are identical
answer

-percentiles -standard scores for each domain in part 1 and 2 (mean=10, standard deviation=3) -standard scores for each of five factors that underly items/domains (mean=100, standard deviation=15) -age equivalents available for part 1 -no adaptive behavior composite of total is available
question

AAMR Residential and Community scale norms
answer

standardized on individuals with developmental disabilities stratified by living arrangements (i.e. living in a community or institutional setting)
question

AAMR School scale norms
answer

used two sampling procedures -2,074 individuals with mental retardation ranging from 3 to 21 -1,254 individuals w/out mental retardation ranging from 3 to 18
question

Reliability and Validity of AAMR
answer

adequate A. factor scores underlying domains more reliable than domain scores B.Support for criterion-related construct validity 1. content validity, especially for part 2, is troubling 2. many items in part 2 should not be considered maladaptive
question

Academic skill multiple-skill devises
answer

Measure the extent to which a student has profited from educational and/or life experiences compared to others of the same age or grade
question

what does special education assessment begins with?
answer

individually administered, norm-refferencedm survey/screening, multiple skill devices that access global academic performances
question

Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Normative Update (PIAT-NU)
answer

used with students k-12th grade six content area subtests (three presented in multiple choice format, 3 require free response items) 1.general information 2.reading recognition 3.reading comprehension 4.mathmatics 5.spelling 6. written expression
question

PIAT-NU scores for first 5 subtests
answer

1. age grade equivalents 2. standard scores (mean=100,standard deviation=15) 3. percentile ranks 4. stanines 5. normative curve equivalents two composite scores -total reading composite -total test composite
question

Scores for written expression
answer

level 1- grade based stanines level 2-grade based stanines & developmental scaled scores (mean=8, standard deviation=approx 3) written language composite(optional)
question

Technical adequacy of PIAT-NU
answer

Norms(must be proficient in English) 1. completed in conjunction with normative updating of the -Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement -Woodcock Reading Mastery test -KeyMath revised 2. Not all students in norm sample took all subtests (1/5 took each took each test & and proportions of the other subtests) -norms are outdates
question

Reliability and Validity of PIAT-NU
answer

same as data from PIAT-R-not accurate
question

WJ-III test of achievement
answer

-Part of a diagnostic system 22 achievement subtests(12 standard battery & 10 extended battery grouped into 5 curriculum areas: 1. Reading 2. oral language 3. mathematics 4. written language 5. academic knowledge *also a diagnostic system
question

8 clusters of WJ-III test of achievement
answer

1. oral expression 2. listening and comprehension 3. basic reading skills 4. reading comprehension 5. phoneme/grapheme knowledge 6. math and calculation skills 7. math reasoning 8. written expression (covers all learning disabilities identified by IDEA)
question

WJ-III test of achievement scores
answer

must be scored by computer program -age/grade equivalent -percentile ranks -standard scores(mean=100, standard deviation=15) -Relative Performance index (RPI)
question

WJ-III test of achievement technical adequacy
answer

Norms, validity, and reliability are all adequate(.90 or higher) # of subjects in college level were selected incorrectly and pre school level were underrepresented
question

Wechsler Individual achievement test-3rd edition (WIAT-III) subtests
answer

designed to be used for preK-12 between the ages 4-19 -WIAT-III consist of 16 subtest-measuring all areas of LD specified in IDEA 1. listening comprehension 2.Oral expression 3.early reading skills 4.word reading 5.pseudoword reading 6. reading comprehension 7. oral reading fluency 8.alphabet writing fluency 9. spelling 10. sentence completion 11. essay composition 12. math problem solving 13. numerical operations 14.math fluency-addition 15. math fluency-subtraction 16. math fluency-multiplication
question

WIAT-III composites
answer

1. oral reading 2. total reading 3. basic reading 4. reading comprehension and fluency 5.written expression 6. mathematics 7. math fluency 8. total achievement
question

WIAT-III types of scores
answer

-standard scores (mean=100, standard deviation=15) -percentile rank -age equivalent -as well as a curve equivalent and stanines
question

Technical adequacy of WIAT-III
answer

-has representative norms -empirical support for validity (.80 or higher) -solid evidence for validity
question

criterion validity
answer

correlated with other measures of intelligence
question

What are three individually administered, criterion-referenced, diagnostic, multiple skill devices that assess global intelligence?
answer

1. Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development-revised 2. Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-revised 3. Brigance Inventory of essential skills
question

Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development -revised
answer

birth to age 7
question

Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills-revised
answer

preK-9 -Elementary test clusters in five major areas 1. Readiness 2. oral language 3. reading 4. writing 5.mathmatics
question

Brigance Inventory of essential skills
answer

grade 6-adult education -contains same types of items as CIBS-R, but skills are assessed at somewhat higher grade levels
question

How are the three test highly similar in purpose and format?
answer

A. Primary purpose is to assess mastery of skills or concepts -not normed referenced comparison B. However some test on CIBS-R have been standardized
question

Classifications of learning disabilities
answer

1. listening comprehension 2. oral expression 3. basic reading skills 4. reading comprehension 5.written expression 6. mathematics calculation 7. mathematics reasoning
question

learning aptitude
answer

refers to an individuals capacity for altering behavior when presented with new information or experiences
question

WPPSI-III age range
answer

2 years, 6 months – 7 years, 3months
question

WISC-IV age range and frequency
answer

6 years – 16 years, 11 months *used most frequently is schools
question

WAIS-III age range
answer

16-89 years of age
question

WASI age range
answer

6-89 years of age -short but reliable -used for reevaluation every 3 years -not used initially
question

diagnostic system
answer

-samples behaviors from more than one domain -benefit-it will provide more accurate comparison of intelligence b/c both domains were normed on same sample
question

Short test tend to be more reliable than long ones(T/F)
answer

FALSE Long test tend to be more reliable than short ones
question

what are the advantages and disadvantages of WJ-III
answer

advantage-provides us with a lot of information disadvantage- it can be overwhelming
question

National Defense Education Act (1958)
answer

Cold war with Soviet Union, students were tested for GT in math and science because Soviet Union put a satellite in space before USA
question

Elementary and Secondary School Act (1965)
answer

NCLB – congress gave money to test special education individuals to provide them with appropriate education

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member