Sociology Test Ch. 1-2

question

What is described as \”opening a window onto unfamiliar worlds\” and \”offering a fresh look at familiar worlds\”?
answer

the sociological perspective
question

To be classified as a society, what are the two key qualities a group of people must share?
answer

common culture and territory
question

What term do sociologists use to describe the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society?
answer

social location
question

What are the two components C. Wright Mills identified as being fundamental to understanding the sociological imagination?
answer

history and biography
question

What even led to an uprooting of what had been traditional social arrangements?
answer

The Industrial Revolution
question

Which social scientist first proposed applying the scientific method to the social world?
answer

Auguste Comte
question

Which social scientist proposed that societies evolve from a lower, barbaric form to a higher, civilized form in a process he called social Darwinism?
answer

Herbert Spencer
question

Based on the theories formulated by Karl Marx, what was the ultimate goal of the proletariat?
answer

the proletariat sought to develop a classless societt free of exploitation
question

Based on the theories formulated by Karl Marx, what was the ultimate goal of the proletariat?
answer

the proletariat sought to develop a classless society free of exploitation
question

Based on Emile Durkheim’s research on suicide, which of the following individuals would be the greatest suicide risk?
answer

Herbert, a single Protestant man living in the city
question

How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions?
answer

Marx believed economics was the central force driving social change, and Weber claimed it was religion
question

Frank is examining the broad stream of events that have occurred over the past 50 years and the specific experiences of his own life. By doing so, what sociological process has frank undertaken?
answer

the sociological imagination
question

Herbert Spencer believed that societies evolved from lower to higher forms because as generations pass, the most capable and intelligent members of society prosper while the less capable die out. What term did Spencer use to describe this process?
answer

the survival of the fittest
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Based on the original writings of Karl Marx, how would social change be accomplished?
answer

Workers would unite and overthrow the capitalists through revolution
question

According to the Wall Street Journal, who were the \”three greatest modern thinkers\”?
answer

Karl Marx; Albert Einstein; Sigmund Freud
question

What was awarded the world’s first academic appointment in sociology?
answer

Emile Durkheim
question

What did Max Weber believe to be the force behind the rise of capitalism?
answer

changes in religion
question

Who was the first woman appointed to a cabinet post in the federal government?
answer

Frances Perkins
question

In 1837, before Durkheim and Weber were born, who published Society in America?
answer

Harriet Martineau
question

T/F The corners of life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society, such as their sex, occupation, and age, are known as social location
answer

True
question

T/F Subjectivity is a vital component of the scientific method due to the need to be spontaneous, creative, and analytical.
answer

False
question

T/F The concept of \”survival of the fittest\” was coined by Herbert Spencer, the father of the philosophical view called Social Darwinism
answer

True
question

T/F Marxism and communism are identical political ideologies with both leading to a classless society
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False
question

T/F Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life as the Protestant ethic
answer

True
question

What is the underlying principle of symbolic interactionism?
answer

it analyzes how one’s behavior depends on the way they define themselves and others
question

People may change their opinions about an issue such as divorce based on restructuring of that image, the issues involved, and what they mean. This is an example of which sociological perspective?
answer

symbolic interactionism
question

How would Robert Merton describe the intended beneficial consequences of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program that raised the standard of living for millions of Americans in the 1930s?
answer

They would be classified as manifest functions
question

Cordell has done an extensive study of the increase in divorce rates in the United States since 1950. He has come to the conclusion that the transformation of American society has resulted in a redefinition of love, marriage, children, and the rate of divorce. In view of this, with which sociological perspective would Cordell’s conclusion be most aligned?
answer

symbolic interactionism
question

Jimmy and Alex are doing a survey on the opinion undergraduates have on academic services. There are 12,000 undergraduate students, they plan to survey 2,000 students. The 12,000 would be considered ___ and the 2,000 would be the ___
answer

population; sample
question

Jose is conducting research on organized crime. Rather than interviewing criminals or going undercover, he is examining data that someone else has collected. Which method is he using?
answer

secondary analysis
question

If the second measure of an experiment and control group are identical, what does this mean about the experiment?
answer

the treatment or independent variable was ineffective in making the predicted changes
question

T/F Talcott Parsons is credited with being one of the major social reformers and social activists of the 1940s, which led to a widespread acceptance of sociology as a social sceince in America
answer

False
question

T/F Pure, basic, and applied sociology are all terms that refer tot he application of the scientific method to the social world
answer

False
question

T/F Research aimed at learning more about some behavior is called basic sociology
answer

True
question

T/F In structural functionalism, the term functional refers to how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole, and structural refers to what each part does.
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False
question

T/F Robert Merton and Emile Durkheim were both advocates of the concept of structural functionalism, which views society as being composed of many interrelated parts
answer

True
question

T/F When using unobtrusive measures, the researcher observes the behavior of people without subjects knowledge that they are being studied
answer

True
question

T/F Although sociological research should be value free, undesirable results should be discarded when they are contrary to the hypothesis
answer

False
question

T/F Repeating a study by other researchers to compare results is referred to as replication
answer

True
question

Who was the first African American to earn a doctoral degree from Harvard University?
answer

W.E.B. Du Bois
question

Who was the influential sociologist who, in the 1940s, developed abstract models to explain how the parts of society work together harmoniously?
answer

Talcott Parsons
question

What term describes the use of sociology to solve social problems in business, the workplace, and other aspects of society?
answer

applied sociology
question

What is a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work?
answer

a theory
question

Which sociological perspective analyzes how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and others?
answer

symbolic interactionism
question

Which theoretical perspective stresses that society as a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously?
answer

functional analysis

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