Sociology Test 1 quiz questions

Which of the following best describes sociology as a subject?
a. The study of individual behavior
b. The study of cultures
c. The study of society and social interaction
d. The study of economics

C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how
society affects individuals.
a. culture
b. imagination
c. method
d. tool

A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and
a. interact
b. work in the same industry
c. speak different languages
d. practice a recognized religion

Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to:
a. compare the behavior of individuals from different societies
b. compare one society to another
c. identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure
d. compare individuals to groups

Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology?
a. Astrology
b. Economics
c. Physics
d. History

Which founder of sociology believed societies changed due to class struggle?
a. Emile Comte
b. Karl Marx
c. Plato
d. Herbert Spencer

The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to:
a. whether individuals like or dislike their society
b. whether research methods use statistical data or person-to-person research
c. whether sociological studies can predict or improve society
d. all of the above

Which would a quantitative sociologists use to gather data?
a. A large survey
b. A literature search
c. An in-depth interview
d. A review of television programs

Weber believed humans could not be studied purely objectively because they were influenced by:
a. drugs
b. their culture
c. their genetic makeup
d. the researcher

Which of these theories is most likely to look at the social world on a micro level?
a. Structural functionalism
b. Conflict theory
c. Positivism
d. Symbolic interactionism

Who believed that the history of society was one of class struggle?
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Karl Marx
c. Erving Goffmann
d. George Herbert Mead

Who coined the phrase symbolic interactionism?
a. Herbert Blumer
b. Max Weber
c. Lester F. Ward
d. W.I. Thomas

A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to:
a. behaviors
b. conflicts
c. human organs
d. theatrical roles

Which research technique would most likely be used by a symbolic interactionist?
a. Surveys
b. Participant observation
c. Quantitative data analysis
d. None of the above

Kenneth and Mamie Clark used sociological research to show that segregation was:
a. beneficial
b. harmful
c. illegald
d. of no importance

Studying Sociology helps people analyze data because they learn:
a. interview techniques
b. to apply statistics
c. to generate theories
d. all of the above

Berger describes sociologists as concerned with:
a. monumental moments in people’s lives
b. common everyday life events
c. both a and b
d. none of the above

A measurement is considered ______ if it actually measures what it is intended to measure,
according to the topic of the study.
a. reliable
b. sociological
c. valid
d. quantitative

Sociological studies test relationships in which change in one ______ causes change in another.
a. test subject
b. behavior
c. variable
d. operational definition

In a study, a group of 10-year-old boys are fed doughnuts every morning for a week and then
weighed to see how much weight they gained. Which factor is the dependent variable?
a. The doughnuts
b. The boys
c. The duration of a week
d. The weight gained

Which statement provides the best operational definition of “childhood obesity”?
a. Children who eat unhealthy foods and spend too much time watching television and playing
video games
b. A distressing trend that can lead to health issues including type 2 diabetes and heart disease
c. Body weight at least 20% higher than a healthy weight for a child of that height
d. The tendency of children today to weigh more than children of earlier generations

Which materials are considered secondary data?
a. Photos and letters given to you by another person
b. Books and articles written by other authors about their studies
c. Information that you have gathered and now have included in your results
d. Responses from participants whom you both surveyed and interviewed

What method did researchers John Mihelich and John Papineau use to study Parrotheads?
a. Survey
b. Experiment
c. Ethnography
d. Case study

Why is choosing a random sample an effective way to select participants?
a. Participants do not know they are part of a study
b. The researcher has no control over who is in the study
c. It is larger than an ordinary sample
d. Everyone has the same chance of being part of the study

What research method did John S. Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd mainly use in their Middletown
a. Secondary data
b. Survey
c. Participant observation
d. Experiment

Which research approach is best suited to the scientific method?
a. Questionnaire
b. Case study
c. Ethnography
d. Secondary data analysis

The main difference between ethnography and other types of participant observation is:
a. ethnography isn’t based on hypothesis testing
b. ethnography subjects are unaware they’re being studied
c. ethnographic studies always involve minority ethnic groups
d. there is no difference

Which best describes the results of a case study?
a. It produces more reliable results than other methods because of its depth
b. Its results are not generally applicable
c. It relies solely on secondary data analysis
d. All of the above

Using secondary data is considered an unobtrusive or ________ research method.
a. Non-reactive
b. non-participatory
c. non-restrictive
d. non-confrontive

Which statement illustrates value neutrality?
a. Obesity in children is obviously a result of parental neglect and, therefore, schools should
take a greater role to prevent it
b. In 2003, states like Arkansas adopted laws requiring elementary schools to remove soft drink
vending machines from schools
c. Merely restricting children’s access to junk food at school is not enough to prevent obesity
d. Physical activity and healthy eating are a fundamental part of a child’s education

Which person or organization defined the concept of value neutrality?
a. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
b. Peter Rossi
c. American Sociological Association (ASA)
d. Max Weber

To study the effects of fast food on lifestyle, health, and culture, from which group would a
researcher ethically be unable to accept funding?
a. A fast-food restaurant
b. A nonprofit health organization
c. A private hospital
d. A governmental agency like Health and Social Services

The terms _________________ and ______________ are often used interchangeably, but have
nuances that differentiate them.
a. imperialism and relativism
b. culture and society
c. society and ethnocentrism
d. ethnocentrism and xenocentrism

The American flag is a material object that denotes the United States of America; however, there are
certain connotations that many associate with the flag, like bravery and freedom. In this example, what
are bravery and freedom?
a. Symbols
b. Language
c. Material culture
d. Nonmaterial culture

The belief that one’s culture is inferior to another culture is called:
a. ethnocentrism
b. nationalism
c. xenocentrism
d. imperialism

Rodney and Elise are American students studying abroad in Italy. When they are introduced to their
host families, the families kiss them on both cheeks. When Rodney’s host brother introduces himself
and kisses Rodney on both cheeks, Rodney pulls back in surprise. Where he is from, unless they are
romantically involved, men do not kiss one another. This is an example of:
a. culture shock
b. imperialism
c. ethnocentrism
d. xenocentrism

Most cultures have been found to identify laughter as a sign of humor, joy, or pleasure. Likewise,
most cultures recognize music in some form. Music and laughter are examples of:
a. relativism
b. ethnocentrism
c. xenocentrism
d. universalism

A nation’s flag is:
a. A symbol
b. A value
c. A culture
d. A folkway

The existence of social norms, both formal and informal, is one of the main things that inform
___________, otherwise known as a way to encourage social conformity.
a. values
b. sanctions
c. social control
d. mores

The biggest difference between mores and folkways is that
a. mores are primarily linked to morality, whereas folkways are primarily linked to being
commonplace within a culture
b. mores are absolute, whereas folkways are temporary
c. mores refer to material culture, whereas folkways refer to nonmaterial culture
d. mores refer to nonmaterial culture, whereas folkways refer to material culture

The notion that people cannot feel or experience something that they do not have a word for can be
explained by:
a. linguistics
b. Sapir-Whorf
c. Ethnographic imagery
d. bilingualism

Cultural sanctions can also be viewed as ways that society:
a. Establishes leaders
b. Determines language
c. Regulates behavior
d. Determines laws

An example of high culture is ___________, whereas an example of popular culture would be
a. Dostoevsky style in film; “American Idol” winners
b. medical marijuana; film noir
c. country music; pop music
d. political theory; sociological theory

The Ku Klux Klan is an example of what part of culture?
a. Counterculture
b. Subculture
c. Multiculturalism
d. Afrocentricity

Modern-day hipsters are an example of:
a. ethnocentricity
b. counterculture
c. subculture
d. high culture

Your 83-year-old grandmother has been using a computer for some time now. As a way to keep in
touch, you frequently send e-mails of a few lines to let her know about your day. She calls after every e-
mail to respond point by point, but she has never e-mailed a response back. This can be viewed as an
example of:
a. cultural lag
b. innovation
c. ethnocentricity
d. xenophobia

Some jobs today advertise in multinational markets and permit telecommuting in lieu of working
from a primary location. This broadening of the job market and the way that jobs are performed can be
attributed to:
a. cultural lag
b. innovation
c. discovery
d. globalization

The major difference between invention and discovery is:
a. Invention is based on technology, whereas discovery is usually based on culture
b. Discovery involves finding something that already exists, but invention puts things together
in a new way
c. Invention refers to material culture, whereas discovery can be material or theoretic, like laws
of physics
d. Invention is typically used to refer to international objects, whereas discovery refers to that
which is local to one’s culture

That McDonald’s is found in almost every country around the world is an example of:
a. globalization
b. diffusion
c. culture lag
d. xenocentrism

A sociologist conducts research into the ways that Hispanic American students are historically
underprivileged in the American education system. What theoretical approach is the sociologist using?
a. Symbolic interactionism
b. Functionalism
c. Conflict theory
d. Ethnocentrism

The Occupy Wall Street movement of 2011 grew to be an international movement. Supporters
believe that the economic disparity between the highest economic class and the mid to lower economic
classes is growing at an exponentially alarming rate. A sociologist who studies that movement by
examining the interactions between members at Occupy camps would most likely use what theoretical
a. Symbolic interactionism
b. Functionalism
c. Conflict theory
d. Ethnocentrism

What theoretical perspective views society as having a system of interdependent inherently
connected parts?
a. Sociobiology
b. Functionalism
c. Conflict theory
d. Ethnocentrism

The “American Dream”—the notion that anybody can be successful and rich if they work hard
enough—is most commonly associated with which sociological theory?
a. Sociobiology
b. Functionalism
c. Conflict theory
d. Ethnocentrism