Sociology Quizzes Chapters 1-5

1. According to the sociological perspective, people’s behavior:
• Is influenced by the social context.
• Is entirely determined by the social context.
• Has nothing to do with the social context
• Is mostly a result of their genes.
• Is mostly a result of their personality.
Is influenced by the social context.
2. The significance of a sociological imagination is that:
• Sociology should be considered a philosophy rather than a science.
• Sociologists are primarily interested in predicting the future.
• Sociology attempts to connect individual experiences to a conception of a larger social structure.
• Sociology is not concerned with empirical verification of theories.
• Sociologists imagine that studying sociology will lead to revolutions.
Sociology attempts to connect individual experiences to a conception of a larger social structure.
3. When sociologists visit Starbucks, they witness a variety of behaviors and social relationships that are not necessarily immediately apparent to the coffee drinkers. The ability to interpret all the events taking place within the coffeehouse is referred at as:
• Theory
• Macrosociology
• Sociological imagination
• Sociological romanticism
• Feminism
Sociological imagination.
4. What does the term social structure refer to?
• Any building constructed by more than one person.
• Random events or actions that occur within a building or concrete structure.
• The mental state or personality of an individual.
• A regularity or pattern in people’s behavior and relationships.
• A major feature of the natural landscape.
A regularity or pattern in people’s behavior and relationships.
*5. A student who is sitting quietly in a classroom and listening to his professor lecture is likely acting based on self-interest if he is:
• Hoping he will make a good impression on the professor so she will write him a good letter of recommendation.
• Taking good notes.
• Repeating the same behavior he learned in high school.
• Hoping the lecture will go faster without interruption and the class will end early.
• None of the above.
Hoping he will make a good impression on the professor so she will write him a good letter of recommendation.
6. The growth of communication technology such as the Internet and e-mail in the last thirty years has changed:
• Our IQ.
• Our self-confidence.
• The number of words we hear everyday.
• Our social interaction.
• None of the above.
Our social interaction.
7. Advances in information technology, communication, and transportation have made it possible for people and goods to be transported around the globe and have also made it possible for people to get in touch with each other. This means that American society is:
• Influenced at every moment by globalization.
• Becoming more rational.
• Losing its place as a global leader.
• Losing social cohesion based on shared norms and values.
• None of the above.
Influenced at every moment by globalization.
8. Organic solidarity is:
• How society operates naturally.
• When people disagree on basic values and customs but work together anyway.
• A source of social conflict in society.
• When the institutions of society function together as a whole.
• All of the above.
When the institutions of society function together as a whole.
9. Which is NOT associated with the concept of anomie?
• Being disconnected from modern social life.
• A feeling of despair.
• A feeling of aimlessness.
• A form of control of morality.
• None of the above.
A form of control of morality.
10. The economic system in which conflict is inevitable because it is in the interest of the ruling class to exploit the working class and in the interest of workers to overcome that exploitation is called:
• Socialism
• Marxism
• Capitalism
• Communism
• Globalization
Capitalism
1. Some time around the 1920s in American sociology, largely at the University of Chicago, sociology as a discipline began to transform in what way?
• There was a stronger attempt to ground sociological concepts and theories in facts and data.
• There was a stronger attempt to make theoretical speculations more generalizable.
• Sociological findings were increasingly applied to business and industry.
• Sociology began to look more like an art than a science.
• Sociology aligned itself with the Communist Party.
here was a stronger attempt to ground sociological concepts and theories in facts and data.
2. Why is theory a necessary component of sociological research?
• Theory illuminates or explains the data.
• Theory is what makes the research intellectual.
• Theory is necessary for publication.
• Theory is what makes sociobiological research a science.
• None of the above; theory is superfluous to sociological research.
Theory illuminates or explains the data.
3. Given what you learned in high school about scientific research, in what way does the sociological research process differ from that of, for example, physics?
• Physicists use a scientific process that, unlike sociological research, doesn’t rely on theory.
• There is little difference in the processes that are employed by physicists or sociologists.
• Sociologists study mental states, whereas physicists study particles.
• Physicists are usually employed by private corporations, whereas sociologists work only at universities.
• The differences between the research processes of physicists and sociologists are far too vast to list.
There is little difference in the processes that are employed by physicists or sociologists.
4. Joe, for his research project in his sociology class, is studying cheating among college students. He is currently developing a questionnaire. What stage of the research process is he in now?
• Define the research problem.
• Carry out the research.
• Interpret the results.
• Working out a design.
• Review the evidence.
Working out a design.
5. Reviewing the evidence involves:
• Reviewing the research problems that previous researchers have left unanalyzed.
• Reviewing related research.
• Examining how previous researchers approached the problem under study.
• All of the above are steps that are necessary to properly review the evidence.
• None of these steps are necessary in reviewing the evidence.
All of the above are steps that are necessary to properly review the evidence.
6. Sociological research indicates there is a significant correlation between level of education attainment and occupational success. Identify the causal mechanism for this correlation.
• Positive parental attitudes toward education and such tools as books and computers for learning in the home.
• Up-to-date school facilities and well-educated teachers.
• Positive peer associations.
• The overall school experience.
• The overall work experience.
Positive parental attitudes toward education and such tools as books and computers for learning in the home.
7. Balbina, a student taking a sociology class, wants to do research on the homeless in her city. She would like to provide a rich, detailed, inside view of being homeless. What research method should she choose?
• Ethnography
• Survey
• Historical analysis
• Experiment
• Comparative research
Ethnography.
8. The scope of experimentation is much smaller in sociology than in the natural sciences. Why is this?
• Sociological researchers can only bring small groups into a laboratory setting, and people may behave unnaturally because they are being watched.
• Sociological researchers can control all of the conditions, making experiments more laborious for them.
• It is exceptionally difficult to find willing participants who meet the criteria of sociological studies.
• There is not enough statistical data to gather while conducting experiments.
• Sociological researchers exercise unconscious prejudices while choosing experiment subjects.
Sociological researchers can only bring small groups into a laboratory setting, and people may behave unnaturally because they are being watched.
9. A classic experiment conducted by Harold Garfinkel involved researchers violating everyday norms of behavior and observing how subjects react. This research used what method?
• Ethnography
• Survey
• Experiment
• Comparative research
• Historical analysis
Experiment.
10. For a sample to accurately reflect the characteristics of the study population, it must be:
• Democratic
• Public
• Open-ended
• Standardized
• Representative
Representative.
1. A common Japanese expression “the nail that sticks up must be hammered down” is a norm that permeates Japanese culture and supports conformity and equality. Sociologists would say that this is a powerful mechanism of:
• Individuality
• Social ill
• Social control
• Regionality
• Multiculturalism
Social control.
2. Among the Navajo, averting one’s eyes is a sign of respect, and direct eye contact is seen as insulting. This is called a:
• Value
• Belief
• Material culture
• Cultural norm
• Subculture
Culture norm.
*3. Cultural tool kits:
• Are the same for all members of society.
• Contain a variety of social scripts that we can draw on.
• Are not influenced by the circumstances individuals find themselves in.
• Are the same in all societies.
• The same over the course of an individual’s life.
Contain a variety of social scripts that we can draw on.
4. Which of the following best explains why different groups of people created different cultures?
• People are born with distinctive DNA patterns that vary by culture.
• Some groups of people are genetically less intelligent than other groups.
• People learned to adapt to their physical surroundings.
• Western people were more technologically and culturally advanced than others.
• All of the above; all groups share similar cultures.
People learned to adapt to their physical surroundings.
5. An example of assimilation would be:
• A town with a large population of immigrants from Vietnam opens a Vietnamese-American cultural center.
• A young man who immigrated to the United States from Japan speaks English, but also meets with a group.
• A Japanese Americans once a week to watch Japanese films and eat traditional Japanese food.
• After immigrating to the United States, a young woman from China adopts some American cultural practices, but at the same time closely identifies with her country of origin.
• A family from Mexico moves to the United States and adopts mainstream American cultural practices and at the same time loses many of their Mexican cultural practices.
• A group of students at a local college start a club for immigrants from the country of El Salvador.
A family from Mexico moves to the United States and adopts mainstream American cultural practices and at the same time loses many of their Mexican cultural practices.
*6. Body modification is an expression of:
• Culture
• Instincts
• Norms
• Semiotics
• Society
Culture.
7. Expert skiers and snowboarders use such terms as black ice, corn, powder, packed powder, and so on to describe differing snow and ice conditions. They do this in order to perceive the environment in a particular way and to avoid life-threatening situations. Many social scientists would argue that this is an example of:
• The linguistic relativity hypothesis
• Cultural universals
• Ethnocentrism
• Society
• Instincts
The linguistic relativity hypothesis.
8. Which type of society shows that human beings are NOT simply competitive by nature?
• Industrial
• Hunting and gathering
• Pastoral
• Agrarian
• Traditional civilization
Hunting and gathering.
*9. The industrialized and developing societies have developed:
• Separately from one another.
• In interconnection with one another.
• At the same rate.
• In entirely different ways, but equally.
• In no way; the third world is essentially the same today as it was a thousand years.
In interconnection with one another.
10. Select the attribute that is NOT considered part of developing countries.
• Rapid process of urban development.
• Influenced by contact with Western industrialization.
• Most crops produced for sale rather than directly consumed.
• Stable borders.
• None of the above.
Stable borders.
1. For humans to be socialized, it is imperative that they have:
• Two parents: a mother and a father.
• Proper medical treatment.
• Educated parents who are familiar with theories of child psychology.
• Regular social interaction with adults.
• Educational toys, particularly books.
Regular social interaction with adults.
2. John is unable to comprehend other people’s perspectives and believes that only his outlook is accurate. How would Jean Piaget describe John’s behavior?
• Concrete operational
• Egocentric
• Formal operational
• Selfish
• Symbolic relativist
Egocentric.
3. Which of the following best describes adults who NEVER reach the formal operational stage?
• They often remain highly egocentric.
• They are more often uneducated people.
• They never quite learn how to “play” with an idea.
• They cannot deal with hypothetical ideas.
• All of the above.
All of the above.
4. Schools teach us various academic subjects. However, they are also involved in the socialization process in more latent ways, exemplified by their emphasis on:
• Learning the importance of triangulation for measurement analysis.
• The significance of the femoral artery.
• Teaching students the importance of observing rules.
• Making certain students learn Shakespearean rhyme.
• None of the above.
Teaching students the importance of observing rules.
5. In what way(s) have the changes in work brought by industrialization been socializing agents?
• The separation of work and home requires workers to adapt to a variety of situations.
• For the first time in history, people have to learn to cooperate with others at work.
• Working at home becomes a major part of social life for the first time.
• Work is no longer considered a significant component of one’s life.
• None of the above; work is the same in industrialized countries as it always has been.
he separation of work and home requires workers to adapt to a variety of situations.
6. Which of the following would be a positive, albeit latent, consequence of the preoccupation with video games?
• They prepare young men to go to war by neutralizing their feelings about death and killing.
• They prepare young women for their subordinate roles in society.
• They teach young boys how to treat women in a socially acceptable manner.
• They instruct girls and boys on the social norms of etiquette.
• They provide young people with skills useful in an electronic age.
They provide young people with skills useful in an electronic age.
7. Functionalists argue that social roles:
• Are inherently embedded in social class contexts and related to social power.
• Direct an individual’s behavior as people learn these roles from their culture and perform these roles as they have been defined.
• Really serve no inherent function in supporting social.
• Are in a constant state of change.
• Work well in industrialized settings but experience dysfunction in more traditional settings.
Direct an individual’s behavior as people learn these roles from their culture and perform these roles as they have been defined.
8. What is the difference between social identity and self-identity?
• Social identity is a static concept, whereas self-identity is dynamic.
• Social identity focuses on similarities among people, whereas self-identity focuses on individual differences.
• Social identity describes postindustrial identities, whereas self-identity describes postmodernist identities.
• Social identity is a sociological concept, whereas self-identity is a psychological concept.
• None of the above; there is no difference between the two concepts.
Social identity focuses on similarities among people, whereas self-identity focuses on individual differences.
9. If parents wish to raise their children in a nonsexist way, why do they have difficulty doing so?
• Traditional gender roles are reproduced in very many areas of everyday life.
• Traditional gender roles are genetically determined.
• There is too significant a gap between traditional and contemporary gender roles.
• There is too little literature supporting raising children in a nonsexist way.
• Children resist being raised in a nonsexist way.
Traditional gender roles are reproduced in very many areas of everyday life.
10. Sociologically, which of the following best describes a midlife crisis?
• When you turn fifty years old, the midpoint between birth and 100 years—the average life expectancy.
• When a seventy-year-old woman cohabits with an eighty-five-year-old man.
• When a forty-five-year-old man who has never ice skated decides to join an amateur hockey team.
• When a twenty-something woman panics because her biological clock is ticking.
• All of the above.
When a forty-five-year-old man who has never ice skated decides to join an amateur hockey team.
*1. The study of everyday life shows:
• How behavior is shaped and guided by social forces, such as roles and norms
• How individuals shape their social reality, including social forces, such as roles and norms
• How individual behavior is neither fixed nor unstructured
• All of the above
• None of the above
All of the above.
2. Which of the following statements is true?
• Infants have facial expressions similar to those of adults.
• Even the nuances of a smile—how long it lasts, for example—are the same in every culture.
• Certain gestures—a thumbs up, for example—mean the same thing everywhere.
• Basic facial expressions of emotion—a smile when happy, a frown when sad, for example—are different depending on geographical location.
• All of the above.
Infants have facial expressions similar to those of adults.
3. If your instructor were to ask if you cleaned up your room before leaving the house, she would be acting outside of:
• Her role
• The values of society
• Her personal space
• The institutional imperatives of the educational system
• None of the above
Her role.
4. When your professor wears a tie to the first day of class and later changes into shorts and a T-shirt for a barbeque with friends, he is engaging in:
• Social positioning
• Civil inattention
• Brackets
• Social rolling
• Impression management
Impression management.
5. Which of the following would NOT be classified as civil inattention?
• Walking across campus focused on the exam you are going to take
• Waiting in the registration line to pay your school fees
• Selecting a seat in a large lecture hall where you do not know your fellow students
• Working on a group project in your sociology class
• Riding the bus to work
Working on a group project in your sociology class.
6. An example of audience segregation is:
• Hanging out at the same time with two friends who do not like each other
• Inviting both spouses’ families over for a holiday even though they are uncomfortable around each other
• Being openly gay at home but being “straight” at work for fear of discrimination
• Being able to express your sexuality at work
• Bringing a friend to a center of worship that conflicts with his or her own religious beliefs
Being openly gay at home but being “straight” at work for fear of discrimination.
*7. An ethnomethodologist would study all of the following EXCEPT:
• Conversations in a café
• Casual greetings among students
• Gender socialization
• Patterns of talk among New Guinea tribespeople
• Rules of everyday conversation
Gender socialization.
8. Which of the following is an example of interactional vandalism?
• Groups attack storeowners following a false arrest of a local resident.
• Police repeatedly hit a driver whose car had a broken taillight.
• Students vandalize campus or community property following a victorious football game.
• A student shouts out, “Hey teach’, lookin’ good today!”
• All of the above
A student shouts out, “Hey teach’, lookin’ good today!”.
9. Communicating through plain, everyday language requires:
• Conscious attention to the rules of formal grammar
• Array of complex, shared background understandings
• An intimate knowledge of the personalities involved in the conversation
• An ability to avoid overstating a problem
• None of the above
Array of complex, shared background understandings.
10. A middle-class white woman walks to the other side of the street when she sees a group of young black men approaching her. Her behavior can be linked to:
• Gender inequality
• Racial inequality
• Class inequality
• All of the above
• None of the above
All of the above.