Epidemiology

Presence and multiplication of another organism usually a microbe in the body of the host
Colonization
A _ is an organism capable of supporting the nutritional and physical growth requirements of another
host
One organism, the host, is injured through the activities of the other, the parasite
Parasitism
The detrimental colonization of a host by a foreign organism
Infection
Ability to invade host
Infectivity
Infectivity formula
Number infected / Number susceptible x 100
Ability to cause disease
Pathogenicity
Pathogenicity formula
Number with clinical disease / number infected x 100
Ability to cause disease or death
Virulence
Virulence formula
Number of deaths / number with disease x 100
These are highly virulent; rarely found without disease to host
Pathogens
Produce disease when the health and immunity of the host have been severely weakened by illness, malnutrition, or medical therapy.
Opportunistic pathogen
Parasites that can’t survive outside of a host

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class="hw-flex-item">Obligate parasites
May exit in a free-living state or as commensal, and may become parasitic under certain conditions.
Facultative parasites
These types of parasites live inside the host
Endoparasites
Parasites that live on the surface of the host
Ectoparasites
The number of new cases of an infectious diseases that occur within a defined population
Incidence
The number of active cases at a given time
Prevalence
Disease that has a relatively stable and expected incidence and prevalence within a geographic area
Endemic
An abrupt and unexpected increase in the incidence of disease over endemic rates.
Epidemic
The spread of disease beyond continental boundaries
Pandemic
Where organisms can live, accumulate or persist outside of the host of interest; could be another organism or the inanimate environment
Reservior
Inanimate objects/materials by which organisms get from one host to another; includes water, food, objects and biological products
Vehicles
Living organisms bringing infectious organisms to a host
Biological Vector
Microbes do not multiply in the vector. Ex: biting insects infected with the infectious organism
Mechanical Vector
Microbes must propagate in the vector before they can be transmitted to a host
Biological Vector
Name the two types of human reserviors
Acute clinical cases
Carriers
Name the four types of carriers
Incubatory
Inapparent infection
Convalescent
Chronic
These types of carriers begin transmission before full blown disease appear
Incubatory carrier
This is a type of infection that doesn’t develop the disease but are able to transmit
Inapparent infections
Continue to carry infection after recovery
Convalescent
This is a type of carrier that continues to harbor infection years after recovery
Chronic carrier
Name the two types of contact transmission
Direct
Indirect
Name the three types of vehicle transmission
Airborne
Waterborne
Foodborne
Name the two types of vector transmision
Mechanical
Biological
Name the four types of portal entry
Penetration
Direct contact
Ingestion
Inhalation
What type of transmission is commonly associated with STDs?
Direct contact
A mother can spread an infection to a child through these two types of transmission
Vertical
Congenital
What are the TORCHES infections?
Toxo
Other (Varicella, Step B)
Rubella
Cytomegavirus
Herpes
Syphilis
The severity of congenital defects associated with infection are dependent upon _ _ of the fetus when transmission occurs
gestational age
What is the most efficient form of transmission?
Ingestion
An object capable of transmitting an infection
Fomite
A term desctibing an opportunistic infection acquired from host’s own microflora source of infection
Endogenous
External environment such as water, food, soil, or air source of infection
Exogenous
Mother to child during gestation source of infection
Congenital
Mother to child during birth source of infection
Perinatal
Animals to human source of infection
Zoonoses
Term describing a source of infection from vectors
Vector borne
Name the two terms for specific locations where infections can be acquired
Nosocomial
Community
Health care facility source of infection
Nosocomial
Outside health care facility source of infection
Community
Collection of signs and symptoms expressed by the host during the disease course
Symptomology
Symptomology is also referred to as these two things
Clinical picture
Disease presentation
Outwards expression of the interaction between invading organisms and the retaliatory inflammation and immune responses of the host
Symptomology
A group of symptoms shared by a number of diverse infectious diseases
Nonspecific
Symptoms that directly reflect site of infection
Specific
Obvious
Overt
Type of infection needing lab testing to detect
Covert
Name the five stages of the disease course
Incubation
Prodromal
Acute
Convalescent
Resolution
Stage of active replication of a pathogen
Incubation
There are _ symptoms in the incubation stage
no
This stage can have no pronounced clinical presentation or the initial symptom presentation of disease
Prodromal
This stage has the most impact of the infectious process
Acute
This stage is marked by the rapid proliferation and dissemination of the pathogen
Acute
In this stage, symptoms are pronounced and more specific to the pathogen and site of infection
Acute
This stage is marked by the containment of the infection
Convalescent
This stage is marked by the progressive elimination of the pathogen
Convalescent
This stage is marked by the repair of damaged tissue as well as the resolution of symptoms
Convalescent
This stage is marked by the total elimination of a pathogen and there are no longer and residual signs of infection
Resolution
In this type of infection, symptoms may be continuous or sporadic for months or years without a convalescent phase
Chronic
In this type of infection, progress from infection to resolution without clinically apparent symptoms
Subclinical
In this type of infection, disease existing, without marked symptoms, but ready to become active upon some slight occasion
Insidious
In this type of infection, there is an abrupt onset of symptoms with little or no prodromal
Fulminant
A term describing an infection that has disseminated from the site of primary infection (usually by the circulatory system) to involve other locations and organ systems
Systemic
Name three prominent places of localized infection
Respiratory
GU
GI
Substances or products generated by infectious agents that enhance their ability to cause disease
Virulence factor
Name the four main types of virulence factors
Toxin
Adhesion
Evasive
Invasive
Substances that alter or destroy the normal function of the host or host’s cells
Toxin
Toxins are primarily produced by _ pathogens
bacterial
Name the two main types of toxins
Endotoxin
Exotoxin
Proteins released from the bacteria cell during growth would be classified as what type of toxin
Exotoxin
This is another name for bacterial exotoxins that produce vomiting and diarrhea
Enterotoxin
These toxins are non-protein, complex molecules composed of lipid and polysaccharides that has no enzymatic activity
Endotoxin
Endotoxins are found in the _ _ of _ _ _
cell wall, gram negative bacteria
_ is not released from the bacteria during growth
Endotoxin
Endotoxins can cause _ _
endotoxic shock
Small amounts of endotoxins can produce these five symptoms
Clotting
Bleeding
Inflammation
Hypotension
Fever
_ is disease in individuals with weakened immune systems
Commensals
The five evasive factors are these
Superficial entry
Internal environment entry
Antibody evasion
Cell immunity evasion
Alternating life cycle
The study of the distribution and determinants of disease or health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems
Epidemiology
Term describing how often a disease causes death
Mortality
Term describing the relative incidence of disease
Morbidity
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