Any factor that brings about change in a health condition or other defined characteristic is a(an):
Activities, usually initiated during the early phases of pathogenesis, that are intended to limit the progression of disease:
secondary prevention
The application of epidemiology that examines causal hypotheses regarding the association between exposures and health conditions is known as:
analytic epidemiology
A type of study of the placement of health services in a community and the optimal utilization of such services is called:
operations research
The administration of immunizations against infectious diseases is one example of:
primary prevention
The occurrence of new disease or mortality within a defined period of observation is called:
The epidemiologic measure that refers to the number of deaths due to a disease that occur among persons afflicted with the disease is known as:
case fatality rate
To permit fair comparisons across populations by removing the effect of differences in the composition of various populations, epidemiologists utilize:
adjusted rates
Based on Figure 2-4 (page 29), the smallest percentage of childhood cancer deaths in the United States in 2004 were related to:
the colon/rectum
Epidemiologic rates contain three essential elements: disease frequency, unit size of the population, and the ___________:
time period during which an event occurs
The term that refers to the generalizability of epidemiological findings to the population from which the data have been taken is:
external validity
The term that describes the use of health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response:
syndromic surveillance
Which of the following is NOT considered a nationally notifiable infectious disease:
corona virus
Established in 1984 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, _______ is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive health practices, and health care access primarily related to chronic disease and injury.
According to Figure 3-6 (page 59), the infant mortality rate in the United States in 2005 was lowest for which of the following races:
Asian or Pacific Islander
The type of investigation that is defined as one “that examines the relationship between diseases (or other health-related characteristics) and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined population at one particular time”:
cross-sectional study
Gradual changes in the frequency of diseases over long periods of time are referred to as:
secular trends
Based on Figure 4-18 (page 84), between 1983 and 2005, the percentage of enterovirus reports was lowest in:
Severe weather events (and their consequences) are often studied using:
cyclic trend analysis
Based on the secular trends displayed in Figure 4-15 examining yearly suicide rates among females: In 2004, among women aged 15-19 years, the rate of suicide was lowest for:
With continuous variables, a measure of the strength of an association between the variables is _______.
Pearson correlation coefficient
In a dose-response relationship, the lowest dose at which a particular response occurs is termed the:
The time period between initial exposure (to a pathogen, for example) and a measurable response is called:
The assertion that the observed association is not likely to have occurred as a result of chance is called:
statistical significance
The type of association represented by the dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked and mortality from lung cancer is an example of:
method of concomitant variation
Which of the following types of study designs is considered an observational analytic study:
The measure of the association between frequency of exposure and frequency of outcome used in case-contol studies is:
odds ratio (OR)
An investigation involving intentional change in some aspect of the status of the subjects is called a (an):
intervention study
“The distortion of a measure of the effect of an exposure on an outcome due to the association of the exposure with other factors that influence the occurrence of the outcome” is a type of study bias known as:
The type of study in which “disease-free” subjects are classified according to their exposure to a factor of interest and then observed over time to document the occurrence of new cases (incidence) of disease or other health events:
prospective cohort study
The individuals, organizations, and members of government who are affected by policy decisions are known as:
An examination of the evidence that associates exposure to an agent with its toxicity and produces a qualitative judgement about the strength of that evidence (whether derived from human epidemiology or extrapolated from laboratory animal data) is known as:
hazard identification
_______ refers to estimates of the number of excess unwarranted health events expected at different time intervals at each level of exposure.
risk characterization
The ability of the measuring instrument to give a true measure of the entity being measured is termed:
The ability of a screening test to identify only nondiseased individuals who actually do not have the disease:
The resistance of an entire community to an infectious agent as a result of the immunity of a large proportion of individuals in that community to the agent is called:
herd immunity
An inanimate object that has the potential to harbor and transmit infectious disease agents is known as a (an):
Based on Figure 8-14 (page 153): In 2002, worldwide, the greatest percentage of deaths form vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) among children
pneumococcal diseases
In the investigation of a disease outbreak, the graphic plotting of the the distribution of cases by time of onset is called a (an):
epidemic curve
A type of incidence rate used when the occurrence of a disease among a population at risk increases greatly over a short period of time, often related to a specific exposure:
attack rate
Regarding binge drinking among high school students in the United States (1991, 1993, 2003, 2005),the greatest percentage of binge drinking occurred among:
males, grades 11-12, 1993
Based of Figure 9-15 (page 170), methamphetamine use in the past year among persons aged 12 or older (2002, 2003, 2004) was lowest among those individuals aged:
26 and older
According to BRFSS data (Figure 9-18), in the United States in 2007: In the state of Florida, the prevalence of obesity based on the percentage of persons with body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater was:
The need to drink increasing amounts of alcohol in order to feel its effects is known as:
alcohol dependence
An anxiety disorder that some people develop after seeing or living through an event that caused or threatened serious harm or death is termed:
post-traumatic stress disorder
Based on Figure 10-7: The age-adjusted death rates for leading causes of injury in the United States indicate that, in 2004, for the first since 1968, the number of reported _______ deaths exceeded the number of firearm deaths.
Between 2001 and 2005 in the United States, the estimated annual rate of nonfatal sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries treated in emergency departments was highest for:
males, aged 10-14
According to data for the 1990’s, __________ was the state with a death rate for all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes that was approximately eight times higher than the national average.
West Virginia
In the United States in 2003, the prevalence of physical dating violence victimization among high school students was greatest in which region of the country:
According to the CDC, ______ are the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal injuries for persons aged 65 years and older: