sociology quiz 4

The dimension of Weber’s system of stratification that helps determine one’s class consists of the respect or regard that a person is given by others, and is called __________.
Prestige

According to Forbes magazine, the richest people in the world are Mexican entrepreneur Carlos Slim Helu, Bill Gates (co-founder of Microsoft Corporation), and investor Warren Buffet. In Wright’s Marxian model these men would be members of the __________ class.​
capitalist

Whereas Marx defined class in purely economic terms, Max Weber developed a multidimensional approach to social stratification that reflects the interplay among wealth, prestige, and __________.
power

​A combination of three factors qualifies people for the __________ class: university degrees, authority and independence on the job, and high income.
upper-middle class

​In the model of American social classes based on Weber’s theory, the __________ is made up of prominent families that have held great wealth for several generations.
upper-upper

……… is the most likely to have life-threatening consequences, such as when a homeless person freezes to death on a park bench.​
absolute poverty

A difference between the caste system in India and the caste system in South Africa is that in India caste was based in part on __________.​
occupation

​__________ is the value of all of a person’s or family’s economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property
wealth

About 20 percent of the U.S. population lives from just above to just below the poverty line. These people typically hold unskilled jobs, seasonal migrant jobs in agriculture, and lower-paid factory and service jobs and are termed the __________.​
the working poor

Computers and other technologies perform a great deal of work today, reducing the need for workers with special expertise. As a result, high-paying positions have been replaced with low-paying positions. This process has been termed __________.​
deskilling

Marx’s theory had important insights into capitalist societies; for example,________________.
the economic basis of class sytems

About …. of the US pop is included in the underclass
3-5 percent

The U.S. Social Security Administration has established an official poverty line. The poverty line is computed by ______________________________
​determining the cost of a minimally nutritious diet (short-term) and multiplying this figure by 3 to allow for nonfood costs

According to the text, one of the most important characteristics of systems of stratification is their degree of __________.
flexibility

From the perspective of __________, social inequality is not only inevitable; it is an essential part of any healthy society.​
functionalism

Wealth in the United States________________________.​
is nonexistent for nearly 1 in 4 US households

​Marx used the term __________ for the feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself that he suggested resulted from continually being exploited.
alienation

__________ theorists view education as the “elevator” to social mobility. They see education as providing all students with opportunities, and they argue that students’ abilities are now more important than their class, race, or gender in determining success.​
functionalist

The Department of Agriculture uses the term __________ for people whose access to adequate food is limited by lack of money and other resources.
food insecure

Social inequality and poverty have both economic and structural sources. According to your text, in the United States a great deal of poverty is due to
​high unemployment and the low wages paid for many jobs

Social critic and journalist Barbara Ehrenreich demonstrated that people in the __________ use strategies like help from relatives and continually changing residences in order to survive
working poor

mobility is the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next.​
intergenerational

​__________ occurs when people experience a gain or loss in position and/or income that does not produce a change in their place in the class structure.
horizontal mobility

__ theorists stress that schools are agencies for perpetuating social inequality because parents with limited income are not able to provide the same educational opportunities for their children as are families with greater financial resources.
conflict

In 2012, the poorest 20 percent of households in the United States received approximately __________ of the total income pie.​
3 percent

Today, great disparities exist in the distribution of educational resources. Because funding for education comes primarily from __________, school districts in wealthy suburban areas generally pay higher teachers’ salaries, have newer buildings, and provide state-of-the-art equipment.​
local property taxes

​Of the two categories of people who work for wages, Weber called the white-collar workers, public officials, managers, and professionals the __________.
middle class

Until the 1990s, white South Africans controlled the government, the police, and the military by enforcing __________, the term used in South Africa for “the separation of the races.”​
apartheid

Sociologists often use the term __________ to refer to a classification that reflects a combination of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
socioeconomic status

Which age group (of all races) has the highest percentage living in poverty?​
0-18

The term pink-collar refers to_____________________________.​
semiskilled positions that are low paying, are not manual labor, and are primarily held by women

​Both Karl Marx and Max Weber identified ___________ as an important determinant of social inequality and social change.
class

__________ is the term for economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (government aid), and ownership of property.​
income

Skilled blue-collar workers, which include electricians, plumbers, and carpenters, and unskilled blue-collar workers which include janitors and gardeners, are all members of the __________, according to the Marxian model of class.
working

Of the richest 20 people in the world, how many are women?
3 percent

The U.S. State Department estimates that about __________ foreigners are brought to the United States and enslaved annually.
17,500

For many of the working poor, medical insurance is out of the question. In 2010, approximately __________ of people in the United States were without health insurance coverage.
16 percent

In the Marxian model of Erik Wright, business owners and craftspeople that may hire a small number of employees but largely do their own work would be considered __________ class.​
small-business

The open stratification system based on the ownership and control of resources, as well as the type of work people do, is termed __________.​
class

Caste systems and slavery are both __________.
systems where status is determined at birth

In a class system_____________________________.​
status is based on access to and ownership of resources

A difference between the caste system in India and the caste system in South Africa is that in South Africa caste was based largely on __________.​
racial classification

In Wright’s Marxian model, the __________ is made up of a number of subgroups, including blue-collar workers, some of whom are highly skilled and well-paid and others of whom are unskilled and poorly paid.​
working class

​Slavery in the United States ___________.
was challenged by some slaves through acts of resistance and sabotage

__________ is the sociological term for the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on the control of basic resources.
social stratification

Weber defined social class using ___________ as a major contributor.
power

​__________ occurs when people experience movement either up or down the class structure.
vertical mobility

In a caste system, people are allowed to marry only within their own group. This is termed __________.​
endogamous

According to sociologist Max Weber’s system of stratification, __________ is the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
power

Workers have not overthrown capitalism as Marx had predicted because __________
many workers have experienced a rising standard of living

​According to Marx, the capitalist class maintains its position at the top of the class structure by control of the society’s __________, which is composed of the government, schools, churches, and other social institutions.
superstructure

​Marx’s theory had important insights into capitalist societies; for example,________________.
economic basis of class system

Meredith studies how waiters are treated by diners at a country club in order to learn about the daily structure of inequality and how these patterns are enacted and replicated. Meredith is a __________.​
Symbolic interactionist

The term __________ include(s) property such as buildings, land, farms, houses, factories, and cars, as well as other assets such as bank accounts, corporate stocks, bonds, and insurance policies.​
wealth

Davis and Moore, two functionalists, believe that stratification results in
meritocracy

Poor people in the United States______________________________.
are at greater risk for heart disease and cancer than more affluent persons

​Becky’s mother is an architect and her father is a college professor. Becky left home at age 16 to live with her boyfriend. When their relationship ended, Becky no longer communicated with her parents and did not return to high school. After working briefly at a fast food restaurant, Becky resorted to asking passersby at a local shopping area for money. Becky’s story illustrates the concept of __________.
vertical mobility

In 2012, the top 5 percent of households in the United States received more than 20 percent of all income—an amount greater than that received by the bottom __________ of all households.​
40 percent

​Sociologist Max Weber placed categories of people who have a similar level of wealth and income in the same class. He referred to the privileged commercial class of wealthy bankers, ship owners, professionals, and merchants who possess similar financial resources as __________.
entrepreneurs

In the late 1970s, sociologist Diana Pearce coined the term __________to refer to the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
feminization of poverty

In Wright’s Marxian model, persons who have substantial control over production and over workers but do not participate in key corporate decisions such as how to invest profit are the __________.​
managerial class

​Marx used the term __________ to refer to those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive.
proletariat

​Whereas Marx defined class in purely economic terms, sociologist __________ developed a multidimensional approach to social stratification that reflects the interplay among wealth, prestige, and power.
Max Weber

The U.S. poverty rate in 2012 was __________
15 percent

Corporations have been disinvesting in the United States, displacing millions of people from their jobs. Economists refer to this displacement as the __________ of America.​
deindustrialization

​The model of the American class system based on the work of __________ is based on three elements: education, occupation of family head, and family income.
Max Weber

Vestiges of a caste system exist today in __________.
India and South America

Occupations such as medical technicians, teachers, and nurses pertain to the __________, which makes up an estimated 30 percent of the U.S. population
middle class

​One of the most important characteristics of systems of stratification is their degree of flexibility. In a closed system of stratification __________.
there is little or no social mobility

The term __________ refers to those who are poor, are seldom employed, and experience long-term deprivation
underclass

​A factory worker is promoted to the position of foreman in the factory. She receives a small increase in pay. This person has experienced __________ mobility.
Horizontal

__________ poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
relative

Marx used the term __________ for those who own the means of production—the land and capital necessary for factories and mines
bourgeoisie

Marx described workers as alienated for a variety of reasons, including that __________.
​ workers are alienated from the goods they produce because they use their creativity and labor to produce them but do not own them

__________ poverty refers to the condition in which people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life
Absolute

When______ behavior occurs between nonequals, it confirms the inequality of the relationship
deference

Contemporary Marxian (or conflict) theorists examine class in terms of __________.​
people’s relationships with others in the production process

​The upper-middle class is comprised of highly educated professionals, such as physicians, attorneys, stockbrokers, and corporate managers, which make up about __________ of the population.
14 percent

When analyzing social class, __________ are most likely to consider the degree of control that workers have over the decision-making process and their ability to plan and implement their own work
conflict theorists

__________ theorists view education as the “elevator” to social mobility. They see education as providing all students with opportunities, and they argue that students’ abilities are now more important than their class, race, or gender in determining success.​
functionalist