sociology quiz 4

question

The dimension of Weber’s system of stratification that helps determine one’s class consists of the respect or regard that a person is given by others, and is called __________.
answer

Prestige
question

According to Forbes magazine, the richest people in the world are Mexican entrepreneur Carlos Slim Helu, Bill Gates (co-founder of Microsoft Corporation), and investor Warren Buffet. In Wright’s Marxian model these men would be members of the __________ class.‚Äč
answer

capitalist
question

Whereas Marx defined class in purely economic terms, Max Weber developed a multidimensional approach to social stratification that reflects the interplay among wealth, prestige, and __________.
answer

power
question

‚ÄčA combination of three factors qualifies people for the __________ class: university degrees, authority and independence on the job, and high income.
answer

upper-middle class
question

‚ÄčIn the model of American social classes based on Weber’s theory, the __________ is made up of prominent families that have held great wealth for several generations.
answer

upper-upper
question

……… is the most likely to have life-threatening consequences, such as when a homeless person freezes to death on a park bench.‚Äč
answer

absolute poverty
question

A difference between the caste system in India and the caste system in South Africa is that in India caste was based in part on __________.‚Äč
answer

occupation
question

‚Äč__________ is the value of all of a person’s or family’s economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property
answer

wealth
question

About 20 percent of the U.S. population lives from just above to just below the poverty line. These people typically hold unskilled jobs, seasonal migrant jobs in agriculture, and lower-paid factory and service jobs and are termed the __________.‚Äč
answer

the working poor
question

Computers and other technologies perform a great deal of work today, reducing the need for workers with special expertise. As a result, high-paying positions have been replaced with low-paying positions. This process has been termed __________.‚Äč
answer

deskilling
question

Marx’s theory had important insights into capitalist societies; for example,________________.
answer

the economic basis of class sytems
question

About …. of the US pop is included in the underclass
answer

3-5 percent
question

The U.S. Social Security Administration has established an official poverty line. The poverty line is computed by ______________________________
answer

‚Äčdetermining the cost of a minimally nutritious diet (short-term) and multiplying this figure by 3 to allow for nonfood costs
question

According to the text, one of the most important characteristics of systems of stratification is their degree of __________.
answer

flexibility
question

From the perspective of __________, social inequality is not only inevitable; it is an essential part of any healthy society.‚Äč
answer

functionalism
question

Wealth in the United States________________________.‚Äč
answer

is nonexistent for nearly 1 in 4 US households
question

‚ÄčMarx used the term __________ for the feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself that he suggested resulted from continually being exploited.
answer

alienation
question

__________ theorists view education as the “elevator” to social mobility. They see education as providing all students with opportunities, and they argue that students’ abilities are now more important than their class, race, or gender in determining success.‚Äč
answer

functionalist
question

The Department of Agriculture uses the term __________ for people whose access to adequate food is limited by lack of money and other resources.
answer

food insecure
question

Social inequality and poverty have both economic and structural sources. According to your text, in the United States a great deal of poverty is due to
answer

‚Äčhigh unemployment and the low wages paid for many jobs
question

Social critic and journalist Barbara Ehrenreich demonstrated that people in the __________ use strategies like help from relatives and continually changing residences in order to survive
answer

working poor
question

mobility is the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next.‚Äč
answer

intergenerational
question

‚Äč__________ occurs when people experience a gain or loss in position and/or income that does not produce a change in their place in the class structure.
answer

horizontal mobility
question

__ theorists stress that schools are agencies for perpetuating social inequality because parents with limited income are not able to provide the same educational opportunities for their children as are families with greater financial resources.
answer

conflict
question

In 2012, the poorest 20 percent of households in the United States received approximately __________ of the total income pie.‚Äč
answer

3 percent
question

Today, great disparities exist in the distribution of educational resources. Because funding for education comes primarily from __________, school districts in wealthy suburban areas generally pay higher teachers’ salaries, have newer buildings, and provide state-of-the-art equipment.‚Äč
answer

local property taxes
question

‚ÄčOf the two categories of people who work for wages, Weber called the white-collar workers, public officials, managers, and professionals the __________.
answer

middle class
question

Until the 1990s, white South Africans controlled the government, the police, and the military by enforcing __________, the term used in South Africa for “the separation of the races.”‚Äč
answer

apartheid
question

Sociologists often use the term __________ to refer to a classification that reflects a combination of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
answer

socioeconomic status
question

Which age group (of all races) has the highest percentage living in poverty?‚Äč
answer

0-18
question

The term pink-collar refers to_____________________________.‚Äč
answer

semiskilled positions that are low paying, are not manual labor, and are primarily held by women
question

‚ÄčBoth Karl Marx and Max Weber identified ___________ as an important determinant of social inequality and social change.
answer

class
question

__________ is the term for economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (government aid), and ownership of property.‚Äč
answer

income
question

Skilled blue-collar workers, which include electricians, plumbers, and carpenters, and unskilled blue-collar workers which include janitors and gardeners, are all members of the __________, according to the Marxian model of class.
answer

working
question

Of the richest 20 people in the world, how many are women?
answer

3 percent
question

The U.S. State Department estimates that about __________ foreigners are brought to the United States and enslaved annually.
answer

17,500
question

For many of the working poor, medical insurance is out of the question. In 2010, approximately __________ of people in the United States were without health insurance coverage.
answer

16 percent
question

In the Marxian model of Erik Wright, business owners and craftspeople that may hire a small number of employees but largely do their own work would be considered __________ class.‚Äč
answer

small-business
question

The open stratification system based on the ownership and control of resources, as well as the type of work people do, is termed __________.‚Äč
answer

class
question

Caste systems and slavery are both __________.
answer

systems where status is determined at birth
question

In a class system_____________________________.‚Äč
answer

status is based on access to and ownership of resources
question

A difference between the caste system in India and the caste system in South Africa is that in South Africa caste was based largely on __________.‚Äč
answer

racial classification
question

In Wright’s Marxian model, the __________ is made up of a number of subgroups, including blue-collar workers, some of whom are highly skilled and well-paid and others of whom are unskilled and poorly paid.‚Äč
answer

working class
question

‚ÄčSlavery in the United States ___________.
answer

was challenged by some slaves through acts of resistance and sabotage
question

__________ is the sociological term for the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on the control of basic resources.
answer

social stratification
question

Weber defined social class using ___________ as a major contributor.
answer

power
question

‚Äč__________ occurs when people experience movement either up or down the class structure.
answer

vertical mobility
question

In a caste system, people are allowed to marry only within their own group. This is termed __________.‚Äč
answer

endogamous
question

According to sociologist Max Weber’s system of stratification, __________ is the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others.
answer

power
question

Workers have not overthrown capitalism as Marx had predicted because __________
answer

many workers have experienced a rising standard of living
question

‚ÄčAccording to Marx, the capitalist class maintains its position at the top of the class structure by control of the society’s __________, which is composed of the government, schools, churches, and other social institutions.
answer

superstructure
question

‚ÄčMarx’s theory had important insights into capitalist societies; for example,________________.
answer

economic basis of class system
question

Meredith studies how waiters are treated by diners at a country club in order to learn about the daily structure of inequality and how these patterns are enacted and replicated. Meredith is a __________.‚Äč
answer

Symbolic interactionist
question

The term __________ include(s) property such as buildings, land, farms, houses, factories, and cars, as well as other assets such as bank accounts, corporate stocks, bonds, and insurance policies.‚Äč
answer

wealth
question

Davis and Moore, two functionalists, believe that stratification results in
answer

meritocracy
question

Poor people in the United States______________________________.
answer

are at greater risk for heart disease and cancer than more affluent persons
question

‚ÄčBecky’s mother is an architect and her father is a college professor. Becky left home at age 16 to live with her boyfriend. When their relationship ended, Becky no longer communicated with her parents and did not return to high school. After working briefly at a fast food restaurant, Becky resorted to asking passersby at a local shopping area for money. Becky’s story illustrates the concept of __________.
answer

vertical mobility
question

In 2012, the top 5 percent of households in the United States received more than 20 percent of all income‚ÄĒan amount greater than that received by the bottom __________ of all households.‚Äč
answer

40 percent
question

‚ÄčSociologist Max Weber placed categories of people who have a similar level of wealth and income in the same class. He referred to the privileged commercial class of wealthy bankers, ship owners, professionals, and merchants who possess similar financial resources as __________.
answer

entrepreneurs
question

In the late 1970s, sociologist Diana Pearce coined the term __________to refer to the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
answer

feminization of poverty
question

In Wright’s Marxian model, persons who have substantial control over production and over workers but do not participate in key corporate decisions such as how to invest profit are the __________.‚Äč
answer

managerial class
question

‚ÄčMarx used the term __________ to refer to those who must sell their labor to the owners in order to earn enough money to survive.
answer

proletariat
question

‚ÄčWhereas Marx defined class in purely economic terms, sociologist __________ developed a multidimensional approach to social stratification that reflects the interplay among wealth, prestige, and power.
answer

Max Weber
question

The U.S. poverty rate in 2012 was __________
answer

15 percent
question

Corporations have been disinvesting in the United States, displacing millions of people from their jobs. Economists refer to this displacement as the __________ of America.‚Äč
answer

deindustrialization
question

‚ÄčThe model of the American class system based on the work of __________ is based on three elements: education, occupation of family head, and family income.
answer

Max Weber
question

Vestiges of a caste system exist today in __________.
answer

India and South America
question

Occupations such as medical technicians, teachers, and nurses pertain to the __________, which makes up an estimated 30 percent of the U.S. population
answer

middle class
question

‚ÄčOne of the most important characteristics of systems of stratification is their degree of flexibility. In a closed system of stratification __________.
answer

there is little or no social mobility
question

The term __________ refers to those who are poor, are seldom employed, and experience long-term deprivation
answer

underclass
question

‚ÄčA factory worker is promoted to the position of foreman in the factory. She receives a small increase in pay. This person has experienced __________ mobility.
answer

Horizontal
question

__________ poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living. ‚Äč
answer

relative
question

Marx used the term __________ for those who own the means of production‚ÄĒthe land and capital necessary for factories and mines
answer

bourgeoisie
question

Marx described workers as alienated for a variety of reasons, including that __________.
answer

‚Äč workers are alienated from the goods they produce because they use their creativity and labor to produce them but do not own them
question

__________ poverty refers to the condition in which people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life
answer

Absolute
question

When______ behavior occurs between nonequals, it confirms the inequality of the relationship
answer

deference
question

Contemporary Marxian (or conflict) theorists examine class in terms of __________.‚Äč
answer

people’s relationships with others in the production process
question

‚ÄčThe upper-middle class is comprised of highly educated professionals, such as physicians, attorneys, stockbrokers, and corporate managers, which make up about __________ of the population.
answer

14 percent
question

When analyzing social class, __________ are most likely to consider the degree of control that workers have over the decision-making process and their ability to plan and implement their own work
answer

conflict theorists
question

__________ theorists view education as the “elevator” to social mobility. They see education as providing all students with opportunities, and they argue that students’ abilities are now more important than their class, race, or gender in determining success.‚Äč
answer

functionalist

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member