Sociology-Quiz 4

Chapter 12
Family – Agring
A social institution that binds people together through blood, marriage, law, and/or social norms. Family members are generally expected to care for and support each other.
Compare Japan and US – rates of abortion, teen birth rate, births to unmarried women, fertility rate
Responses to Japan’s low birth rate
Monogamy, serial monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, polygyny, endogamy, exogamy
Patriarchal, matriarchal and egalitarian authority
Functions of family
Secure parental employment
A situation in which at least one parent or guardian is employed full-time (35 or more hours per week for at least 50 weeks in the past year).
Productive and reproductive work
productive work: Work that involves “the production of the means of existence, of food, clothing, and shelter and the tools necessary for that production” (Engels 1884, pp. 71-72).
reproductive work: Work that involves bearing children, care-giving, managing households, and educating children.
Breadwinner system – what is it and why did it fail?
#313, 314
Heyday of breadwinner system
ie system
Women in low-technology tribal societies, fortified households, private households, advanced market economies
low-technology tribal societies: Hunting-and-gathering societies with technologies that do not permit the creation of surplus wealth.
fortified households: Preindustrial arrangements characterized by no police force, militia, national guard, or other peacekeeping organization. Instead, the household acts as an armed unit, and the head of the household acts as its military commander.
private households: emerge in conjunction with a market economy and rise of government-controlled police and military force that alleviate the need for citizens to take the law into their own hands.
advanced market economies: offer widespread employment opportunities for women. #321
How Industrial Revolution changed status of children and why people now choose to have children
Who cares for elderly in Japan?
A physical or mental condition that interferes with someone’s ability to perform an activity that the average person can perform without technical or human assistance.
Something society has imposed on those with certain impairments because of how inventions were designed and social activities organized to exclude them and to accommodate others.
Tyranny of the normal
A point of view that assumes those who are impaired with regard to some activity such as walking, are also impaired in other areas that do not involve walking.
Chapter 13
Why focus on the European Union?
Functions of education
Formal education
A purposeful, planned effort aimed at imparting specific skills and information.
How did early school reformers in the US view public education?
Country with highest per-pupil spending on primary and secondary education
In the US where does most of the funding for primary and secondary education come from?
Federal Government (the states) #336
Students in what country have the highest percentage of mathematically illiterate?
United States
In European countries when does foreign language study begin?
early as age five
Resnick’s concern with US focus on a single language
#1 country sending students to US
Compare countries and college education cost paid by public funds
ACT scores in US
% students who borrow money for college
Historical factors contributing to a credential society in the US
Chapter 14
What do sociologists study when studying religion?
Almost every terrorist attack originates from what?
What is religion?
Hijab and American dress customs
Durkheim’s three features of religion
Sacred and profane
sacred: A domain of experience that includes everything regarded as extraordinary and that inspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe, respect, mystery, and reverence.
profane: A term describing everything that is not sacred, including things opposed to the sacred and things that stand apart from the sacred, albeit not in opposition to it.
Sacramental, prophetic and mystical religions
sacramental religions: Religions in which the sacred is sought in places, objects, and actions believed to house a god or spirit.
prophetic religions: Religions in which the sacred revolves around items that symbolize significant historical events or around the lives, teachings, and writings of great people.
mystical religions: Religions in which the sacred is sought in states of being that, at their peak, can exclude all awareness of one’s existence, sensations, thoughts, and surroundings.
Rules that govern how people must behave in the presence of the sacred to achieve an acceptable state of being.
A professionally trained religious organization, governed by a hierarchy of leaders, that claims everyone in a society as a member.
Sect and established sects
sect: A small community of believers led by a lay ministry, with no formal hierarchy or official governing body to oversee its various religious gatherings and activities. Sects are typically composed of people who broke away from a denomination because they came to view it as corrupt.
established sects: Religious organizations, resembling both denominations and sects, that have left denominations or ecclesiae and have existed long enough to acquire a large following and widespread respectability.
Very small, loosely organized groups, usually founded by a charismatic leader who attracts people by virtue of his or her personal qualities.
Civil religion
An institutionalized set of beliefs about a nation’s past, present, and future and a corresponding set of rituals. Both the beliefs and the rituals take on a sacred quality and elicit feelings of patriotism. Civil religion forges ties between religion and a nation’s needs and political interests.
Manifest destiny
When was “under God” added to the Pledge of Allegiance?
Functions of religion
Conflict theorists focus on religion
Liberation theology
Max Weber on capitalism and religion
A process by which religious influences on thought and behavior are reduced.
Islamic revitalism
Responses to the belief that existing political, economic, and social systems have failed—responses that include a disenchantment with, and even a rejection of, the West; soul-searching; a quest for greater authenticity; and a conviction that Islam offers a viable alternative to secular nationalism, socialism, and capitalism.
A. Introduction:
1. Attention getter: Credit card is really popular today. It is not only convenient, but also good for building your credit history, and improving your credit score.
2. Introduction of topic: In the other ways, the bankers will never provide good service if they don’t get any benefits. According to Personal Finance, 11th edition, a research shows that consumers who use a credit card are willing to pay up to 100 percent more for goods than people who are paying cash. Credit cards can get users into a lot of trouble if they are not careful!
3. Credibility statement: I took personal financing planning course and have well researched on this topic.
4. I believe that I can give you some good tips on how to manage the credit card better though three steps:
a. Considering which credit card to choose
b. Being aware of many credit card potential downsides
c. Reacting when your credit card is lost or stolen.
B. Body:
1. There are a few criteria you should watch for when you are considering which credit card to choose.
a. First is the interest rate. The higher the interest rate, the higher the cost that you have to pay.
b. Next is the grace period. The grace period is the time between when you make a purchase and the time when interest starts being charged. The grace period is a very important characteristic because it can determine whether or not you have to pay interest to use the credit card at all.
c. Annual fees are also important. According to the Wall Stress Journal, published 2009, these fees typically range from $15-$55 per year. However, there are many excellent credit cards that have no annual fee.
2. Credit cards also have many potential downsides.
a. When you pay cash, it is easy to track how much you spent because you can simply look at the bills you have left in your wallet. However, it’s hard to know exactly how much that you have left in your bank account when you use the credit card.
b. Credit cards also have very high interest costs. The more you use the more debts reduces to your future income and financial flexibility.
3. What to do if your credit card is lost or stolen.
a. If you have any doubts about the security of your card, call Credit Card Company immediately. You can unfreeze the card anytime after you find it.
b. According to the New York Times, published 2009, nine million Americans are victims of some sort of identity theft each year. If you are confident that the card has been stolen, you should also file a police report as soon as possible.
C. Conclusion:
1. Credit card is useful, but it can get the users into a lot of troubles if they do not use it carefully.
2. By giving you three steps, such as considering which credit card to choose, being aware of many credit card potential downside and reacting when credit card is lost or stolen; I hope that you can manage your credit card better.
3. If you use credit card carefully, you can build your credit history and improve the credit score; therefore, you are able to borrow money to purchase a house or car with a low interest in the future.

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