sociology points of interest 2

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Crime & deviance
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Social deviance: Any transgression of socially est. norms. Crime: The violation of laws enacted by society
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In a gathering society most people do the same things. They gather food for survival, so the memers of a society are very similar. Durkeim would say that the tpe of solidarity in a gathering society would be?
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Social cohesion: Social bonds; how well people relate to each other & get along on a day-to-day basis.
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Which of Durkeims types of social solidarity characterized pre-modern life?
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Mechanical or segmental solidarity: Social cohesion based on sameness.
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Which of Durkeims types of social solidarity characterized modern life?
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Organic solidarity: Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts.
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Which type of social solidarity is based on interdependence?
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Organic solidarity
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Punishments that are based on the usual unexpressed but widely known rules of group membership are known as unspoken rules & as?
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Informal social sanctions.
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According to merdian, a person who completely stops participating in society’s drive to achieve its defined goal is a?
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Retreatist
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Which of the following is an example of a symbolic interactionist theory of deviance?
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Labeling theory
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The first acts of deviance that peope engage in before they ever get caught and labled are known as?
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Primary deviance
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Gothman called situations where all aspects of life are conducted in the same place & under the same authority?
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Total institutions
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Which of the following is true regarding the current US incarceration rate?
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We have the highest rates today of incarceration that ever before in American history.
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What is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future?
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Assets
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Thomas Malthus had a positive view of inequality. He defended disease, slavery and child murder. Why?
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Malthus argued that human populations grow geometrically (multiplicatively, like rabbits), while our ability to produce food increases much slower. His theory suggests that a rising number of people on the planet would use all the available resources and bring about mass starvation and conflict. Because of these dire trends, Malthus believed inequality was good, or at least necessary for avoiding the problem of masive overpopulation and hence starvation.
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The process in India whereby an entire cast can leap frog over another and obtain a higher position in the hierachy is called?
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The class system
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Which group exploits the working class by taking the value of the work of laborers and then the repay in wages?
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The bourgeoisie: The capital class
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Which theorist argues that members of a class are grouped by their value in a commercial market placed?
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Erik Olin Wright: Contradictory class locations
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According to the relative social prestige of selected US occupations tables which blue collar occupation has the highest prestige store?
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A police officer.
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Pareto believed a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability called?
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Meritocracy
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. Mills believed that centralized power in the hands of feud?
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Was neither natural nor beneficial for society
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The upperclass is composed primarily of ceos, government officials, celebrities, and very successful professionals. What percentage of the poulation does this represent?
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1%
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What american job sector has greatly increased since the all crisis of 1973?
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Physical labor
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An example of horizontal social mobility is?
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A secretary who changes firms but retains her occupational status, a Methodist person who converts to luterism, a family that migrates to one city from another, or an ethnic group that shifts its typical job category from social stratum to another.
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What method is usually used to evaluate property?
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Evaluations are performed through objective analyses of statics and economy. But there is also value in mapping onto social policy a human life– paticularly one that has been so directly affected by the policy.
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According to Daniel Patrick Moynihan; what is the root cause of African Americans economic problems?
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According to Moynihan, the cultural arrangement of the black family- matrifocal (where the mother assumes structural prominence and multigenerational-is the cause, not the effect, of African American economic problem.
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What population was Oscar Lewis studying when he coined the term “Culture of Poverty”
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Oscar Lewis was studying the Mexican population.
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What is meant by the phrase “Busted her digit???
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The phrase “Busted her digit” means cashed her check.
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Welfare hinders work because?
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The notion was that reliance on the government created a sense of helplessness and dependency, and hindered entry into the formal labor market when the economy picked up.
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What term describes the measurement of poverty, where a household income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members?
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Absolute poverty is the point at which a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members.
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One of the way theorists who believe poverty is rationally measured poverty by?
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Relative Poverty is a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location.
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Molly Orshansky used the US department of agriculture recommendations for the minimum amount of healthy food estimated to cost for a variety of family types and multiplied disfigure by a factor of three to measure.
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Some critics argued that three was too high because the poor often spent more than one-third of their income on food during the 1950s and early 1960s. However, this argument appears flawed as a result of circularity: The poor may be spending more of their resources on food because they were poor. In other words, because food is the most basic necessity of all, we do not know what other necessities the poor may have forsaken While spending half their money to eat.
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A study of Cherokee children whos income greatly increased due to legalized gambling on reservations found that?
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Casino payouts in North Carolina lifted 14 percent of Cherokee families out of poverty. Among those families, children’s behavioral problems decreased, largely as a result of the additional time that parents now had to supervise their children.
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One of the explanations of continued racism in America is?
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One of the explanations of continued racism in American is that the key aspect of “American exceptionalism” is that we have no history of feudalism (with the exception of the South before the Civil War.
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What did Mechanic and Meyer find to be the most important factor in rating their doctor?
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Mechanic and Meyer found that patients consider interpersonal confidence the most important factor in rating their doctors.
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Which of the following is not one of the ways doctors establish their power?
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Doctors do not set their own pay rates like they did in the past.
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Fee for service means physicians are?
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Basically if the doctor took your insurance, there was a set billable rate. Each time the doctor did a procedure or met with you, he or she billed you and your insurance company.
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One can best equate homeopathy to?
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“Poison is the cure” You are given a little bit of the poison, a little bit of the disease, in order to cure or prevent an illness.
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In the 1990’s or so physicians authority begin to decline for several reasons. One of those was that more physicians were associated with hmo’s. (Health maintenance organization) This meant that physicians?
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The physician receives a capitation, meaning fee per person as opposed to fee per treatment. The patients pay a co pay every time they go to the doctor.
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A government program that provides health insurance for the poor is?
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Medicare
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Massachusetts passed a law that could leave less than one percent of the state’s population.
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It would leave less that 1% of the population uninsured.
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The white hall study found all of the following factors important in determining help outcomes except?
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Factors that are important Who you are Where you live How much you earn and what you do -all play a major role in determining your health. Morbidity: Illness in a general sense. Mortality: Death.
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The longevity discrepancy between blacks and whites may be a sign of?
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In the US, whites hold a significant advantage in health and longevity, having a life expectancy at birth of 78.9 years compared with African Americans’. This discrepancy is seen as both a major social problem and a sign of social inequality.
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It is suggested that Asian and Pacific Islanders have the lowest infant mortality rates because?
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Asian/Pacific Islanders have the lowest infant mortality rates, probably because, although a diverse group, they do better economically, on average.
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Why did the elderly who received more social security have higher mortality rates than those who received less and had to work part time?
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The people who received less Social Security lived longer. If income and mortality are negatively related, meaning that as your income increases, your chances of dying decrease, what happened here? Individuals who were receiving smaller social security packages compensated for the effects by working part-time longer. Elderly that stayed in the labor market had a positive impact on their longevity. Something about work is beneficial-mentally, physically, or both.
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What did Bogin find was different in the Mayans lifestyle that allowed them to grow four inches taller in the United States than in Guatemala?
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Bogin found that the Mayans living in the United States, had a better diet and had access to healthier lifestyles.

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