Sociology in modules

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Sociology is
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The Scientific study of social behavior and human groups.
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Which sociologist introduced the concept of the sociological imagination?
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C.Wright Mills
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Durkheim’s research suggested that
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there seemed to be higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.
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Within sociology, a/an __________ is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
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theory
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In this sociologist’s hierarchy of sciences, sociology was the \”queen\” and its practitioners \”scientist-priests.\”
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Auguste Comte
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Which sociologist introduced the concept of anomie to the discipline?
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Émile Durkheim
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Anomie refers to
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the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
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Weber taught his students that they should employ what in their intellectual work?
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Verstehen
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Which sociologist below tried to establish a juvenile court system?
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Jane Addams
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Which sociologist below made a major contribution to society through his in-depth studies of urban life, both black and white?
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W.E.B. DuBois
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According to the text, Herbert Spencer
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applied the concept of evolution of the species to societies.
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The term __________ refers to a construct or model for evaluating specific cases.
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ideal type
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__________ sociology is sociological inquiry that seeks only a deeper knowledge of the fundamental human phenomena.
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Basic
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Which step is the first step in the scientific method?
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defining the problem
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An explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept is
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an operational definition.
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The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called
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the independent variable.
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Which type of variable is a factor held constant to test the relative impact of the independent variable?
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a control variable
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The systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem is termed the
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scientific method.
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A sociologist studying prejudice views the phenomenon in terms of a person’s unwillingness to hire or work with members of minority groups. This view illustrates an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept and is known as a/an
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operational definition.
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A/an __________ is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variables.
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hypothesis
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A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions is referred to as a/an
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variable.
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A correlation exists when
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a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable.
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The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study is termed
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sampling representativeness.
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Which kind of sample is most frequently used by social scientists?
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a random sample
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study generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire that provides researchers with information about how people think and act is known as what?
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a survey
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_________ refers to the study of an entire social setting through extended systematic observation.
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Ethnographic research
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Using __________, Erving Goffman conducted a pioneering exploration of how advertisements portray women.
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content analysis
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When sociologists want to study a possible cause-and-effect relationship, they may engage in what kind of research technique?
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experimental research
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Durkheim’s statistical analysis of suicide was an example of what kind of research technique?
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secondary analysis
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In the 1930s, William F. Whyte moved into a low-income Italian neighborhood in Boston. For nearly four years, he was a member of the social circle of \”corner boys\” that he describes in Street Corner Society. His goal was to gain greater insight into the community that these men had established. What type of research technique did Whyte use?
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participant observation
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Which of the following is NOT a form of survey?
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observation
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The term ___________ refers to subjects of observational research who deviate from their typical behavior because they realize that they are under observation.
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Hawthorne effect
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Max Weber argued that sociologists must practice what in their research?
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value neutrality
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In The Death of White Sociology, Joyce Ladner focused on what issue?
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the treatment of the lives of African Americans as a social problem
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Which of these was NOT a procedure used by the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) to ensure the validity of its findings on human sexuality?
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participatory observation
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What is one of the most complicating factors in researching human sexuality that is discussed in the text?
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The government agencies are reluctant to provide funding for such research.
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Culture is defined as
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the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior.
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People’s need for food, shelter, and clothing are examples of what Murdock referred to as
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cultural universals.
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Which theoretical perspective maintains that stability requires a consensus and the support of society’s members?
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functionalist theory
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Which view of culture became popular in sociology in the United Stated beginning in the 1950s?
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A common culture serves to maintain the privileges of certain groups
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Which one of the following terms describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests?
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dominant ideology
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What is the term used when one places a priority on understanding other cultures, rather than dismissing them as \”strange\” or \”exotic\”?
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Charles Darwin
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Evaluating the practices of other cultures on the basis of our own perspective is referred to as
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ethnocentrism.
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The process of introducing a new idea or object to culture through discovery or invention is known as
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innovation
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The finding of the DNA molecule is an example of a/an
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discovery.
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What term do sociologists use to refer to the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society?
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diffusion
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The emergence of Starbucks in China represents what aspect of culture?
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globalization
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What term did William Ogburn introduce to refer to the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new material conditions?
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culture lag
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An American touring different parts of China wants local meat for dinner, but is shocked to learn that the specialty in one restaurant is dog meat. This illustrates
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culture shock.
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Terrorist groups are examples of
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countercultures
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Anyone who feels disoriented, uncertain, out of place, even fearful, when immersed in an unfamiliar culture may be experiencing
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culture shock.
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__________ is the term used by sociologists in referring to the process whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
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Socialization
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In everyday speech, the term _________ is used to refer to a person’s typical patterns of attitudes, needs, characteristics, and behavior.
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personality
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The Hollywood film Nell best illustrates which aspect of socialization?
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the impact of isolation
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Which sociologist used the phrase looking-glass self to emphasize that the self is the product of our social interactions with other people?
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Charles Horton Cooley
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In which of Mead’s stages of the self do children merely imitate the people around them?
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the preparatory stage
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Which sociologist was among the first to analyze the relationship of symbols to socialization?
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George Herbert Mead
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Mead is best known for his theory of
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self.
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Suppose a clerk tries to appear busier than he or she actually is when a supervisor happens to be watching. Goffman would study this behavior from what approach?
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an interactionist approach
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According to Piaget, children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas during which stage in the development of thought processes?
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social interaction
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According to Goffman, the way students behave after receiving their exam grades is an example of
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impression management.
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__________ are gestures, objects, and/or words that form the basis of human communication.
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Symbols
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You are at a singles’ bar and a friend of yours is rejected by a woman when she \”comes on\” to another person. Your friend turns to you and says, \”There really isn’t an interesting person in this entire crowd.\” Erving Goffman would refer to your friend’s behavior as
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face-work.
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In Daniel and Cheryl Albas’s study of student interactions based on exam performance (Sociology on Campus: Impression Management by Students), which type of encounter offers sympathy, support, and rationalization?
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Ace-Bombers encounters
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Assuming new social and occupational positions occasionally requires us to unlearn a previous orientation. We refer to this process as what?
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resocialization
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Which social institution is seen as the most important agent of socialization in the United States, especially for children?
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the family
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According to the __________ hypothesis, social network users try to increase their popularity online to compensate for inadequate popularity offline.
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social compensation
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The belief that schools in this country foster competition through built-in systems of rewards and punishment is an example of which sociological perspective?
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conflict perspective
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__________ is the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life.
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Resocialization
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Viewed from which sociological perspective are childcare costs an especially serious burden for lower-class families?
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conflict perspective
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At age 15, Hispanic girls celebrate reaching womanhood with a ceremony called quinceanera. This ceremony illustrates
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rites of passage.
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Prisons, mental hospitals, and the military are all examples of
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degradation ceremonies.
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According to contemporary research (Social Policy and Socialization: Child Care around the World),
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good day care benefits children.
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A person’s age is an example of what kind of status?
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ascribed status
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AIDS is an example of what kind of status?
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master status
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In the United States, we expect that cab drivers will know how to get around a city. This expectation is an example of what?
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a social role
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What occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person?
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role conflict
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Departure occurs in which stage of role exit?
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the third stage
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Which functional prerequisite contributed to the failure of the Shakers?
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replacing personnel
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Which sociological perspective argues that the present organization of social institutions is no accident?
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conflict perspective

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