Sociology Exam 3 WVU

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capitalism
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is an economic system based on private property and market exchange
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the market for help naming children
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Which of the following is the clearest example of the pervasiveness of markets in the intimate spaces of people’s lives?
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concerns and considerations about social forces
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According to sociologists, what does the rational-choice perspective of markets overlook?
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to maintain levels of trust necessary to carry out economic transactions
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Why do markets need social ties?
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formal market rule
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Insider trading is an example of a(n) __________.
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structural inertia
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Alpha Corporation, which has developed an impermeable shell that protects it from environmental demands, strongly resists change and thus is said to exhibit __________.
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Harvard University and Yale University
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Of the following higher education institutions, which two are most likely to be in the same niche market?
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increasingly similar
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Organizational isomorphism is a concept used by sociologists to explain why organizations in the same field tend to become __________ over time.
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has continued right up to the present
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Growth of specialization in the kinds of jobs people hold __________
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measuring a manufacturing process
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Which of the following job skills is more easily measured than the others?
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feel trusted by their employer
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In terms of job satisfaction, people tend to rate jobs as better when they __________.
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actions are tightly controlled or monitored
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Satisfaction in work performed is invariably lower when __________.
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the elimination of health and pension benefits
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Which of the following consequences of lean production has been more consistently harmful to workers than the others listed?
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market
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Amir, like most people in his community, makes weekly trips to the village square, where local vendors sell their goods. Everyone in the area is familiar with what will be available to purchase and how transactions are to be conducted. Although the exchanges between buyers and sellers may seem frenetic to outsiders, the locals adhere to a set of regulations and norms that satisfies the needs of all involved. This scenario conforms to the sociological definition of which term?
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an organization
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For 23 years, a group of 12 men and women has been operating a successful charity for families impacted by AIDS. The group has seen many changes over the years, regarding personnel, community needs, medical advances, and economic climate. The charity has endured throughout the years because of its sense of purpose and commitment. What kind of a group is it?
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loose coupling
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A Southwestern U.S. fast-food chain has opened an outlet in New Orleans. The new outlet’s manager is familiar with the myriad federal, state, and local regulations that govern the operation of eating establishments. The restaurant chain also has a long list of its own rules and guidelines. Knowing the distinct preferences of New Orleans diners, the manager decides to bypass some of the specifics of all of these regulations, while complying with health standards for storing, handling, preparing, and serving food to ensure repeat business. What action is the manager engaging in?
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deskilling
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Enrique took pride in his ability to handcraft furniture, enjoying each step in the construction, assembly, and finishing of each piece. When his business failed, he began working at a furniture manufacturing plant, where he was responsible for nailing upholstery to sofa and chair frames. Enrique’s experience is an example of __________.
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coercive;mimetic
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When new government regulations are passed an organization will mostly likely engage in __________ isomorphism to meet regulatory standards, and, they may use __________ isomorphism to go about making specific changes.
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assembly line; scientific management
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The __________ is a product of __________
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unionization; the use of lean production methods
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One might argue that the decline of __________ in the United States encouraged __________.
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feudalism
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The dominant system of inequality prior to the advent of capitalism is known as __________.
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American
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According to Forbes magazine, in 2014, the richest individual in the world was __________.
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their jobs
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Before retirement, most people get most or all of their income from __________.
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home ownership
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The primary way in which most Americans accumulate wealth is through __________.
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socioeconomic status
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__________ is a designation of class that considers income, occupation, and salary.
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the United States
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Which of the following countries is much less egalitarian than the others?
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complements; replaces
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In general, technology __________ jobs that require higher levels of education while it __________ jobs that require middle and lower levels of education.
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progressive tax system
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The premise of the __________ is that billionaires, millionaires, and all those at the top of the income ladder are expected to pay more in taxes than minimum-wage employees.
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social mobility
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Because there are no obvious ways of determining how much opportunity individuals really have, social scientists measure it indirectly by examining __________.
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caste societies
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Sociologists refer to societies in which individuals experience no social mobility as __________.
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absolute poverty
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Lana, a single woman with no dependents, is unable to afford basic necessities, such as housing and healthcare. What type of poverty is she experiencing?
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high; low
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In general, countries with __________ inequality also tend to have __________ social mobility.
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racial minorities; whites
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__________ are much more likely than __________ to live in poverty in the United States.
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1980s
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When did homelessness begin to grow into a serious problem in the United States?
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her two properties and her $20,000 savings
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Patricia works as a sales manager and earns approximately $60,000 a year. She owns her own home and has $20,000 in the bank as an emergency fund. She also owns a rental property, from which she earns $12,000 a year. Which of the following responses best represents her wealth?
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having high SES
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Sandra is a corporate attorney. She graduated from Harvard Law School at the top of her class and earns $250,000 a year. Sociologists who evaluate Sandra’s social position based on the dimensions of her income, education, and occupation would describe her as __________.
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globalization
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The components of Nike tennis shoes are produced in different parts of the world. The final assembly of the shoes is completed in China. Thereafter the shoes are shipped to the United States, where David purchases a pair at a suburban mall in Denver. Of the following economic phenomena, which does this scenario best represent?
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the working poor
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Karen is a home care aid. She earns about $10 an hour and works 40 hours a week. She is unable to save, and last month her car broke down. She cannot afford to fix her car, being already late in paying her bills for gas and electricity. From this description of Karen’s life, you conclude that she is a member of which class?
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median; mean
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It is often better to use the __________, instead of the __________, to measure household income because it is a more stable calculation that is influenced less by outliers.
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less
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The United States spends __________ on programs that directly alleviate poverty than other wealthy nations.

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