Sociology Exam #2 Study

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Researchers for negative income tax should have focused on:
the children rather than the parents
The SAT was developed in order to provide children from public schools with a chance to demonstrate their fitness for college and to show they were as able as students from private high schools. It is therefore ironic that:
researchers now question how meritocratic the SAT is since the SAT may test knowledge that is biased against certain groups.
Which is NOT a finding of research examining the effects of class size on educational achievement?
Students who have been in small classes are less likely to have discipline problems when they are subsequently placed in regular-sized classes.
In the nineteenth- century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to:
scientific rascism
The study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other. What are the two spheres?
nature and nurture
The comparison between the Burakumin and the Japanese shows that race is:
not just about physical or biological differences
According to Judith Lorber, differences between sexes are not easy to explain because gender isn’t natural, but rather is:
a social institution
All of the following are among the best practices for effective teaching listed by Langiois and Zales EXCEPT:
adopting strategies to encourage students to share compliments and insults
John and Monique are married. Both of their parents live with them, as does John’s sister and brother-in-law, and some nieces and nephews. This is known as:
kinship network
Sarah Fenstermaker Berk has characterized the American family by examining how women and men learn to take on distinct roles paralleling the divide between public and private spheres. She calls the family a:
“gender factory”
Which group argues that sexuality in America is an expression of the unequal power balance between men and women?
Marxist feminists
Which federal government program for children matches the state funding while still allowing states to set their own criteria for eligibility and control the disbursement of funds?
Who studied the matriarchal thesis in the work titled The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (1965)?
Under Johann Caspar Lavater’s theory of _______, people with light skin were thought to have higher intellect.
After mental illness became “medicalized”, what was one major change that occurred?
Medication replaced counseling
Sociologists often describe an individual’s position in a stratified social order that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families, or households in terms of indicators such as occupation, income, wealth, and education. Sociologists call this:
socioeconomic status
Until 1972, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association listen homosexuality as:
a mental disorder
Although doctors are very intimate and person with their patients, it is also important for them to:
remain objective
Which of the following is NOT a reason why American teenagers are rapidly spreading STDs?
Teens believe if they don’t climax they will not get an STD.
Gated communities are examples of what factor that is mixing with wealth inequality to increase the gap between the rich and poor?
economic segregation
Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nation, and religion. Which group has made the case that the early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?
black feminists
The opening story about the author kidnapping a child to become his new baby sister shows:
the social impact of race
Which of the following is NOT a sociological criticism of the idea that the IQ affects educational outcomes?
If there is a relationship between innate intelligence and educational performance, then there is no need to look at social factors.
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, what percentage of Latinos in the United States come from Mexico?
One concern of using technology such as amniocentesis in countries such as China and India is:
aborting female fetuses
The Supreme Court’s landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down what doctrine?
separate but equal
Ferguson and Millar saw social developments resulting from the establishment of private property representing a huge improvement in society, because private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and:
Inequality creates _____, which affects our height through stress reactions.
psychological stress
Jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also called:
pink-collar jobs
The effect of globalization has been to bifurcate labor into:
high-skilled and low-skilled
What term refers to a group of people who share a set of physical characteristics and a bloodline?
Boys are more likely to engage in risky behavior and experience problems at school; boys are also more likely to _____ than girls.
take math and science AP classes, and score higher
The domestic duties that still fall disproportionately on working women’s shoulders are labeled by Hochschild (1989) as:
“the second shift”
Minimizing the amount of time welfare programs require of their recipients was one of the many rationales behind:
the negative income tax
Examples of nonacademic socialization can be referred to as:
the hidden curriculum
Espenshade, Chung, and Walling (2004) studied asmission to elite colleges and found that group A was four times more likely to gain admission, and group B was three times more likely to be admitted. Group A and B are, respectively:
athletes and legacy students
A traditional family consisting of a mother, father, and their biological children is known as a/an:
nuclear family
What term describes the measurement of poverty where a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members?
absolute poverty
Which is NOT an argument against tracking in schools?
Tracking benefits children with less advantaged backgrounds, but only if their parents can advocate on their behalf to get them into college preparatory tracts.
In one study of television portrayals of Arabs, researchers found basic myths that continue to surround this group. Which of the following is NOT one of these myths?
They don’t assimilate
In today’s society, which of the following are we not allowed to legally sell?
Asians have been applauded for their smooth assimilation and are referred to as:
the model minority
The majority of Latinos in the United States have immigrated here within the last ______ years.
Business managers are examples of what concept?
contradictory class location
The modern capitalist society is an example of which type of society?
Surgeons today recommend prompt surgery to make intersex children conform to an ideal of normal genitalia. About 90% of these surgeries:
reassign an ambiguous male anatomy into a female one
Based on measurements of skull bumps, Blumenbach came up with five principal varieties of:
Which scenario does NOT illustrate the resource dilution hypothesis?
Misha, Nisha, and Trisha are triplets. Their educational outcomes will be stronger than single-born children because they can learn from one another.
The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson upheld:
In the opening story, Nawal el Saadawi concedes that women will never achieve equal status with men under Muslim theocracies, because under Islamic belief a man’s honor is tied to a women’s virginity. This principle perpetuates and legitimates:
the brutal control of women’s bodies

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