Flashcards About Sociology Chapter One

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What might a sociologist say about people’s selection of marriage partners?
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influenced by society
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Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society”?
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sociology
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The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was:
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Emile Durkheim
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Because there is more social isolation in rural ares of the US than in urban areas, we would expect suicide rates to be:
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higher (outsiders feel alone)
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Sociologists use the term “social marginality” to refer to:
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those at the margins of social life, or those who have challenges in society
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The US falls within which income category of the world’s nations?
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high-income
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Which of the following is a reason that it is important to understand the world beyond our own borders?
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helps us learn more about ourselves
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Making use of the sociological perspective encourages:
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“common sense”, see opportunities and constraints in life, be active participants, and live in a diverse world
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Sociologist Lenore Weitzman carried out research showing that women who divorce:
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experience dramatic loss of income
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Learning more sociology helps us to:
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prepare for the world of work
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The “In the Times” article explains that having a college degree today is very important if you’re to have a:
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job
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The term “sociology” was coined in 1838 by:
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Auguste Comte
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Sociology differs from the older discipline of philosophy by focusing on:
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nature of society
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The major goal of sociology’s pioneers, including Comte and Durkheim, was:
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improve society
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According to Comte, people begin to see society as a natural – rather than supernatural – phenomenon as their society enters which stage of development?
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metaphysical
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According to Comte, people living in Europe during the Middle Ages thought of society as:
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society expressed as God’s will
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When did sociology become established as an academic discipline in the US?
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beginning of the 20th century
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Most of today’s sociologists agree with Auguste Comte that science is crucial part of sociology, but most also recognize that:
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human behavior is far more complex
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Looking at the US, high suicide rates are typical of states in which people:
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where people live far apart from others
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What term is used to describe relatively stable patterns of social behavior?
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social structure
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Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?
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social dysfunction
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Identify the three sociologists who played a part in the development of sociology’s structural-functional approach.
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August Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer
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The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as:
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manifest functions
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Which of the following is the best example of a latent function of going to college?
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“marriage broker” (bringing together people of similar interest)
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The main characteristic of the _______ approach is its view of society as orderly and stable.
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structural-funtional
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The social-conflict approach draws attention to:
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inequality and change
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Which of the following statements might be made by a sociologist using the gender-conflict approach?
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women and men are not treated equally
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Which woman helped launch the discipline of sociology by studying the evils of slavery and also by translating the writings of Auguste Comte?
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Harriet Martineau
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Which pioneering sociologist founded Chicago’s Hull House to assist immigrants and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize?
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Jane Addams
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Karl Marx, speaking for the social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society was:
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change the world
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Which of the following early sociologists had an important influence on the development of the social-conflict approach?
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Karl Marx
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Which early sociologist received the first doctorate ever awarded by Harvard University to a person of color?
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William Edward Burghardt DuBois
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Which early US sociologist studied the African American community and served as a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)?
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William Edward Burghardt DuBois
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The social-conflict approach sometimes receives criticism for:
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ignores unity in society
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Which of the following examples illustrates a micro-level focus?
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how personalities develop due to society
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Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?
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symbolic-interaction approach
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Which founding sociologists urged sociologists to understand a social setting from the point of view of the people in it?
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Max Weber
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A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it:
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risks overlooking the widespread influence of culture, class, gender, and race
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Encouraging people to compete and strive for success are two of the _______ of sports.
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functions
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Racial discrimination in professional sports is evident today in:
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salary and position
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Using the symbolic-interaction approach, sports becomes:
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an ongoing process rather than a system
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Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations:
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do not carelessly apply any generalization to everyone in a category, make sure generalizations square with facts, and offer generalizations fair mindedly, with interest of the truth

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