Sociology Chapter 7 (Global Stratification)

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Social Stratification
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groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative property, power, prestige
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Why is social stratification significant?
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affects our life chances, from access of possessions to day we will die Bonded labor: a system where someone sells his body for a certain amount of time in an arrangement close to slavery, except somewhat voluntary
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• Describe and provide examples of the four major systems of social stratification.
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Slavery: some individuals own other people -causes: debt, crime, and war but they weren’t looked as inferior Caste system: birth determines status, cannot change – endogamy: marriage of own group to prohibit marriage of different castes – India systems: 5 castes, bottom is the untouchable – South Africa: apartheid: separation of races Estate: stratification system of medieval Europe, with 3 estates: nobility, clergy, commoners -nobility: wealthy rulers -clergy: church’s power -commoners: belonged to the land -women belonged to the estates of their husbands Class: open not rigid like the others, based mainly on the possession of money or other possessions -can change their social class -social mobility: movement up or down the class ladder
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• Discuss the relationship between gender and social stratification.
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because of gender, people are put in categories and have diff access for good things – men paid more, more dominant
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• Describe the major points of disagreement between Karl Marx and Max Weber regarding the meaning of social class in industrialized societies.
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Marx: means of production – social class depends on this – means of production: the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth – 2 classes, bourgeosie, and proletariat, overtake them – class consciousness: awareness of common edentity based on one;s position In means of production – false class consciousness: workers identifying with the interests of capitalists Weber: Property, power, prestige -property is only part of picture -Property: agreed with marx (managers can control means of production but not own it) -power: ability to control others, agreed that prop is source of power but not only one -prestige: admiring someone, prestige can bring property
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• As articulated by Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, list the functions that social stratification provides for society.
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1. for society to function, its positions must be filled 2. some positions are more important that others 3. the more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people 4. to motivate the more qualified people to fill these positions, they must offer greater rewards
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• Discuss rebuttal to Davis and Moore’s functionalist view of social stratification.
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Tumin rebuttles 1. How do we know positions with higher rewards are more important 2. Their beliefs lead to a meritocracy – postions rewarded on merit, which is not true because you are more likely to go to college because of money not merit 3. social stratification is not functional but dysfunctional, many could have been great if didn’t live in slums, dropped out of school
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• Explain the conflict perspective’s view of social stratification as it relates to class conflict and scarce resources.
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Mosca’s argument: -every society stratified by power 1. society needs to be organized, a leader to do that 2. leadership requires inequalities of power 3. humans are self centered, people in power will use their positions to create greater rewards for themselves Marxs argument: – workers will rebel – even union will fight against another union to get better things
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• Define ideology and understand how elite classes use it to maintain social stratification.
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Ideology: beliefs about the way things ought to be that justify social arrangements Divine right of kings: kings authority comes right from god -controlling peoples ideas (kids taught in school that their gov system is good) -control information -big brother technology: elite monitors citizens without them knowing
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• Identify the major characteristics associated with the Most Industrialized Nations, Industrializing Nations, and Least Industrialized Nations.
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Most industrialized: U.S Canada, Great Britain etc. – are capitalistic industrializing: former soviet union, eastern eurpe – lower incomes – some remain illiterate and poor least industrialized: small farms or villages – large families – barely survive
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• Describe and evaluate the major theories pertaining to the origins of and maintenance of global stratification.
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Colonialism: countries that industrialized first got the jump on the rest of the world – economic colonies: to exploit nations people and resources to benefit the mother country World system theory: industrialization led to four groups of nations – core nations: countries that industrialized first Modernization Theory

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