Sociology Chapter 5 Answers

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Macy’s church youth group is on a mission trip in Costa Rica. While at dinner, she is served plantains, a food she did not want to try. After all of her friends eat their plantains, she hesitantly decides to eat them too. Sociologists refer to this as
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social influence.
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In general, most people want to conform to group expectations. Therefore, we follow two things: _____ (doing the things we’re supposed to do) and _____ (avoiding the things we’re not supposed to do).
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prescriptions; proscriptions
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The Asch experiment, which found that most people gave incorrect answers to factual questions when a group of people endorsed those answers beforehand, illustrates the concept of
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group conformity.
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A student who writes a paper for an anthropology class even though he or she would rather not is exemplifying conformity due to
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compliance.
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Eli and Kendra have been friends since preschool and they do everything together. In second grade, they become friends with Holly and now the three of them do everything together. Your textbook’s discussion of group dynamics suggests that the new triad should be _____ than the dyad of Eli and Kendra.
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more stable
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A boss tells her employee, “If you don’t get me those figures in the next five minutes, you’re fired!” This is an example of which type of power?
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coercive power
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According to sociologist Diane Vaughan, the Challenger shuttle disaster may have been caused by scientists failing to take seriously weaknesses in the shuttle’s design. This exemplifies
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groupthink.
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What did Charles Horton Cooley define as having great cooperation, face-to-face interaction, and the most profound effect on its members?
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primary groups
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As a student and fan of the University of Chicago, Magda views other University of Chicago students as her
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in-group.
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The professor who cares only about student grades, and isn’t concerned with his students’ personal well-being or morale, is demonstrating
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instrumental leadership.
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According to Max Weber, a bureaucracy
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has a clear hierarchy.
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The local Walmart was just remodeled. Now, there are seven automated self-checkout lanes. The replacement of people with automated self-checkout lanes at supermarkets is one example of
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McDonaldization.
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A group is most efficient when its members put the group’s needs before their personal needs and think of the team goals before their own. This exemplifies
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social identity theory.
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_____ form lasting social relations while _____ do not.
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groups; aggregates
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A larger and more impersonal group that is usually organized around a specific goal and is often temporary is called a/an
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secondary group.
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The principle of “six degrees of separation,” which suggests that everyone in the world is connected to everyone else within six steps, exemplifies which concept?
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social ties
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You and your family, friends, peers, colleagues, teachers, and coworkers constitute a/an
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social network.
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Which of the following are groups? Select ALL that apply.
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a. high school booster club b. classroom of children c. Kappa Alpha Theta sorority
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Max Weber identified organizational traits that help bureaucracies operate smoothly. Select ALL that apply.
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b. rules and regulations d. hierarchy e. impersonality f. specialization
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people who share one or more attributes but who lack a sense of common identity or belonging. (127)
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category
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a collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations. (127)
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aggregate
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the people who are most important to our sense of self; members’ relationships are typically characterized by face-to-face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging. (127)
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primary groups
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a temporary gathering of people in a public place; members might interact but do not identify with each other and will not remain in contact. (127)
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crowd
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the web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect the individual. (128)
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social network
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a collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other. (127)
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group
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larger and less intimate than primary groups; members’ relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary. (127)
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secondary groups
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a two-person social group. (134)
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dyad
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connections between individuals. (128)
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social ties
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a three-person social group. (134)
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triad
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“normlessness”; term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change. (129)
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anomie
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the patterns of interaction between groups and individuals. (134)
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group dynamics
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a group that one identifies with and feels loyalty toward. (135)
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in-group
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social groups whose interactions are mediated through information technologies, particularly the internet. (131)
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virtual communities
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exerting group control over others’ decisions. (137)
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social influence
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in very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement. (137)
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groupthink
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the sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong. (137)
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group cohesion
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the murder of a family member – usually female – who is believed to have brought dishonor to her family. (139)
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honor killing
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a group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves. (135)
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reference group
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the phenomenon in which as more individuals are added to a task, each individual contributes a little less; a source of inefficiency when working in teams. (142)
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social loafing
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power that is supported by persuasion. (142)
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influential power
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the legitimate right to wield power. (142)
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authority
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power that is backed by the threat of force. (142)
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coercive power
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authority based in custom, birthright, or divine right. (142)
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traditional authority
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a theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of individual members to feel a sense of belonging. (142)
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social identity theory
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authority based in laws, rules, and procedures, not in the heredity or personality of any individual leader. (142)
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legal-rational authority
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the ability to control the actions of others. (142)
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power
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a type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, rules and regulations, impersonality, and formal written communication. (143)
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bureaucracy
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the application of economic logic to human activity; the use of formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns. (145)
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rationalization
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George Ritzer’s term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in efficiency and dehumanization. (145)
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McDonaldization
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authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader. (142)
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charismatic authority
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leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group. (143)
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expressive leadership
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leadership that is task or goal oriented. (143)
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instrumental leadership
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_____ have a sense of common identity while _____ do not.
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groups; crowds
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When Carlos started on his school project, two other students worked on it with him. As the semester continued, three more students were assigned to work on the project with the group. Although a total of six students were ultimately responsible for completing the project, Carlos felt that two of them did the majority of the work and “carried the weight” of the group. This is an example of
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social loafing.
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What is Durkheim’s term for a state of normlessness?
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anomie
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When Veronica started high school, she made the junior varsity basketball team. Immediately, she felt a strong connection to other junior varsity players in her new school. They shared a practice schedule and after-school responsibilities. Given these details, a sociologist would likely study this group using what theoretical perspective?
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structural functionalism
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McDonaldization is a term used to describe the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and its effects. True or false?
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True
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Identify ALL of the following that are groups.
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a. YMCA Parent Club b. classroom of children d. Weight Watcher’s Online
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Social influence, or peer pressure, results in different types of conformity. Select ALL that apply.
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a. compliance c. internalization d. identification

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