Sociology CH. 7-9

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The social class distinctions that exist in the US are shaped by
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education, wealth, and career choice, in addition to lifestyle and behaviors.
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All of the following characterize inmates on death row:
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1. almost all are poor 2. most are incarcerated in a few Southern states 3. an over-represented number are African American
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All of the following are functions of deviance:
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1. reinforcing group attachments 2. helping teach society’s rules 3. ensuring that others will not violate the same norm 4. defining group boundaries
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Caesare Lombroso used head shape and size to predict….
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deviant behavior
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Durkheim saw anomie as a condition of normlessness where cultural guidelines are
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weak
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….. ….. is primarily concerned with the attachment of an individual to others in soicety
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Control theory
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…. …… ….. is based on the idea that deviant and conforming behaviors are learned from others.
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Cultural transmission theory
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….. …. studies deviance in terms of how other people define and interpret deviant acts
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labeling theory
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… ….. note crime rates differ by social class because law enforcement discriminates more heavily against the poor
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conflict theorists
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the most urgent problem with the nation’s prisons at the present time is they are
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overcrowded
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Examples of the dysfunctions of deviance
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1. Causing confusion about society’s norms 2. undermining trust 3. diverting valuable resources within society
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An accurate profile of a white collar criminal would center on a person in position of authority and/or trust. He MIGHT be a minority member, but usually is not. He is likely to be …. …. years old …… a substantial prior criminal record.
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over 25 without
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Each of the following is true of deviance:
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1. it helps to maintain group boundaries 2. it helps to reinforce appropriate behavior 3. it provides a societal safety valve 4. it can be instrumental in affecting social change. It is NOT rare in highly-structured societies.
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It is 3 AM and Tracy is driving home from work when she comes to an intersection where the light is red. Although she can see no other cars on the road in any direction, Tracy waits until the light turns green. Sociologically, this is an example of internal means of
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Sociologically, this is an example of internal means of control.
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A university places a fraternity on probation because some of its members served alcoholic drinks to minors. The university in this case was using
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formal sanctions
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Psychoanalytic theory defines that part of the personality that represents the demands and restrictions of society as
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superego
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….. ….. of deviance are based on the idea that people adjust their behavior in response to the rewards and punishments they receive
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behavioral theories
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A social class is composed of a category of people with
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1. similar attitudes and behaviors 2. people with similar lifestyles 3. people with similar vocational positions.
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The working class is made up of:
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1. skilled laborers 2. semi-skilled laborers 3. factory employees 4. blue-collar workers
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According to Weber, each of the following is a criterion for stratification in a modern society:
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power, status, and wealth. He did not consider tradition to be a criterion.
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The Poverty Level for a family of four in 2004 was about
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$18,000
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The … … … refers to a trend in which females represent an increasing proportion of the poor
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feminization of poverty
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All of the following factors affect social mobility:
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demographic shape of the population, extent of economic expansion, level of education, AND type of stratification system in the society.
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All of the following are myths about the poor:
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most poor people are black and most black people are poor, most poor people live in inner-city ghettos, most people are poor because they are too lazy to work, AND most poor people live in female-headed households.
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Most of the growth in social insurance expenditures by the United States government has gone towards aiding the
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elderly
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The United States has been … successful in holding down poverty among the elderly.
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most
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The United States has such high rates of poverty among children because:
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many poor children are born to recent immigrants, children do not vote on poverty legislation, the number of children born to teens and unwed mothers has grown dramatically, AND American mothers have to return to work earlier after childbirth than European mothers do.
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Members of the upper class have great …, often going back for many generations.
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wealth
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In a class system, each member of a given class shares similar
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opportunities, lifestyles, attitudes.
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Regarding the Black Middle Class in America, Blacks often achieve middle class status because of
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income not assets AND today about 40% of all blacks can be considered middle class.
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Based upon family income distribution, in 2000, the richest fifth of U.S. families received approximately … (rounded) of the total income for the year.
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50%
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Poverty is more frequent among blacks and Hispanics than it is for
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whites.
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Never-married mothers tend to be poorer than divorced mothers because
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unwed mothers have less education AND are younger.
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One myth about the poor that many Americans hold is that the poor are poor because
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they do not have enough ambition.
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People who are born into a caste spend their entire lives within the caste,
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are restricted in their choice of occupation, are restricted in their choice for marriage, AND are restricted in their degree of social participation.
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Modernization theory assumes economic differences among countries are due to
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technological and cultural differences.
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…. … has the largest number of AIDS cases.
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Sub-Saharan Africa
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Malthus believed that populations will always grow faster than
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the available food supply.
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Most child deaths in developing countries are caused by
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infectious diseases
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Because of the strong preference for sons over daughters,
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sex selection abortions have taken place in some developing countries.
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Fertility rates are lower in urban compared with rural areas because:
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exposed to new consumer goods, people delay childbearing to increase incomes, the urban woman marries at least 1.5 years later than her rural counterpart, AND urban people face higher costs of raising children.
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The crude birthrate refers to the number of live births per 1000 people in a population in a given
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year.
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… refers to the process by which a population enters a country.
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immigration
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There are approximately 117 boys to every 100 girls in
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China
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In developing countries, breast feeding is the safest method of feeding infants during their first
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six months.
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The main feature of the second demographic transition is a
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below-replacement fertility rate.
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Sleeping under mosquito nets is the simplest way of preventing
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malaria in developing countries.
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Across the globe, parents speak of desiring a second child as a
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companion for their first child.
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According to Malthus, … … on population growth include celibacy and the delay of marriage.
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preventive checks
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The richest countries consume approximately … of the world’s resources.
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86%
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In order to decide whether a specific act is deviant, it is necessary to know exactly
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what the person did, who the person is, AND the cultural context of the act.
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All of the following is a characteristic of sanctions:
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they can be negative or positive, they can be formal or informal, AND they are part of external means of control.
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Honking your horn at someone who cuts into your lane in a dangerous fashion is an example of
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an informal negative sanction.
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Sheldon’s basic body types were
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ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph.
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Techniques of neutralization help people to justify
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deviants acts.
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The idea that deviance is culturally transmitted or learned in neighborhoods and through personal contacts is
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basic to differential association.
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All of the following are assumptions of labeling theory:
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deviance is relative, a violator’s social status is important in predicting whether they will be seen as deviant, to be labeled deviant you need only commit a single offense, AND labeling of primary behavior as deviant often leads to secondary deviance.
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Criminal offenses punishable by a prison sentence of a year or more are known as
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felonies
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Status offenses are acts that are criminal only because the person involved is
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a minor
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Durkheim saw anomie as
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a condition of normlessness.
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Carol engages in several acts of nonconformity that violate her community’s norms. Sociologists would call her actions
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deviance
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People conform to social norms because they have
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internalized the standards.
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Giving a child a hug for doing something right would be an example of
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an informal positive sanction.
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Historically the first attempts to scientifically explain deviant behavior focused on
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biological factors
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Psychoanalytic approaches to deviance are criticized because
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they cannot easily be tested.
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Theorists who view crime as individual choice state that crime is more likely to occur when benefits for committing crime are
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greater than for not committing crime.
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… is the term for an irrationally based negative or positive attitude toward certain groups and their members.
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prejudice
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A large percentage of the new upper-middle class:
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are two-income couples, are couples who are both college educated, are corporate executive executives or high governmental officials, AND are gentrifying run-down city neighborhoods.
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All of the following are characteristic of the lower class:
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little knowledge of world events, not involved in their communities, do not identify with other poor people, AND low voting rates.
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The level of poverty in rural areas of the United States is higher than that in
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the cities.
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Low birth weigh babies are those babies that weigh less than
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five pounds at birth.
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About 72% of educated women in developing countries are likely to use
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contraception
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The fastest growing segments of the population in many countries are
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the oldest old
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AIDS is the major cause of the decline in life expectancy in
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Zimbabwe
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Acute respiratory illness is a common cause of child death that could easily be treated with 25 cents worth of
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antibiotics
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Fecundity refers to the physiological ability to
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bear children
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By the year 2050, Europe will have the greatest percentage of persons
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65 and older
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the world’s population is doubling about every
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51 years
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All of the following factors puts an infant at higher health risk:
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if the mother is in her teens, if the mother has given birth more than seven times, AND if the interval between births is less than 2 years.
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All of the following is true with respect to how women’s education affects fertility
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in most countries children have a greater effect on women’s lives than men’s; more educated women have more opportunities, which may cause conflict with having children; AND education itself delays marriage.
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All of these factors contribute to the fact that families with higher incomes have fewer children:
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children are not needed as a form of old age security, children’s economic contributions become less important to the family’s welfare, AND alternative uses of time and the pursuit leisure activities become more attractive.
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High infant mortality rates promote
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high fertility
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When we look at infant and child health from a global perspective, we find that child death rates are highest in
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Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
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Comparisons of poverty levels among male-headed and female-headed households show that female-headed households are more apt to fall below the
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poverty level
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Statistics on poverty in the United States show that most poor people
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who can work are working AND unwed mothers are the largest single group of poor people.
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By far the largest amount of the federal government assistance budget goes to
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Social Security
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Means-tested assistance is
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based on need
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The US has been … successful in holding down poverty among children.
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least
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Modern conflict theory assumes people
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act in their own self-interests in a material world, says that social inequality emerges through the dominance of one group by another, AND contends that what are thought to be common values in society are really the values of dominant groups.
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A successful professional who has a college education, lives in an exclusive suburb, and has a savings reserve would be placed into the
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upper-middle class category
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People who hold down jobs involving unskilled labor, service, or household work and have little education would belong to the
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lower class
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Hector is a master electrician. He holds a high school diploma, and owns a modest home but can’t afford many luxuries. He considers himself conservative politically and fairly religious. Hector is most typical of
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the lower-middle class
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Each of the following is true:
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the poor of all races have lower life expectancies, babies born into poverty are significantly more likely to die in their first year, poor people are more likely to die violent deaths than people with higher incomes, AND lower class persons are sick more often than persons in other classes.
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A major criticism of poverty figures is that there is no geographic
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cost of living adjustment
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Criticisms of the official government poverty index include:
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it excludes non-cash income, it is based on income only, not on total assets, food costs less today than when the index was created, AND it should consider people’s relative position rather than some absolute level of poverty.
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The lower class in relation to the other social classes in the United States:
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have lower life expectancies, are more likely to spend time in a mental hospital, are more likely to be convicted of a crime, AND receive longer prison sentences.
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The … … is a closed system where social position is defined by law.
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estate system
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The U.S. Census Bureau’s projections indicate that, early in the next century death rates will exceed birth rates in
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the world’s more developed nations.
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Around the globe, rural lifestyles involving farming and herding tend to perpetuate
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high birthrates

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