Sociology 201 – Review Chapter 5 – Groups and Organizations

question

social group
answer

two or more people who identify with and interact with each other
question

primary group
answer

a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
question

secondary group
answer

a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
question

expressive leadership
answer

group leadership that focuses on the group’s well-being
question

instrumental leadership
answer

group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks
question

groupthink
answer

the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in an narrow view of some issue
question

reference group
answer

a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
question

in-group
answer

a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
question

out-group
answer

a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
question

dyad
answer

a social group with two members
question

triad
answer

a social group with three members
question

network
answer

a web of weak social ties
question

formal organizations
answer

large secondary groups organized to achieve their goals efficiently.
question

utilitarian organizations
answer

pay people for their efforts (examples include businesses or government agencies).
question

normative organizations
answer

have goals people consider worthwhile (examples include voluntary associations such as the PTA).
question

coercive organizations
answer

are organizations people are forced to join (examples include prisons and mental hospitals).
question

organizational environment
answer

factors outside an organization that affect its operation; All formal organizations operate in an ______ _______ that is influenced by technology, political and economic trends, current events, population patterns, and other organizations.
question

tradition
answer

values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
question

rationality
answer

a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
question

rationalization of society
answer

Weber’s term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
question

social network
answer

question

bureaucracy
answer

an organizational model designed to perform tasks efficiently; seen by Max Weber as the dominant type of organization; is based on specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules and regulations, technical competence, impersonality, formal, written communications.
question

problems of bureaucracy
answer

-bureaucratic alienation -bureaucratic inefficiency and ritualism -bureaucratic inertia -oligarchy
question

the evolution of formal organizations
answer

conventional bureaucracy; more open, flexible organizations; and the changing nature of work are all examples of
question

bureaucratic ritualism
answer

a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization’s goal
question

bureaucratic inertia
answer

the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves.
question

oligarchy
answer

the rule of the many by the few
question

scientific management
answer

the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member