sociology 1 final exam notes

question

While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to __________characteristics.
answer

biological
question

The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person’s sex is_________
answer

gender stratification
question

According to sociologists, why do men and women typically perform different types of work?
answer

It is a product of socialization and social control.
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In what society were women and men often considered social equals?
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hunting and gathering
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Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?
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men perform the most difficult and dangerous work in most societies
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Felix tends goats in Peru, while his wife, Maria, takes care of the family crops. John is a nurse in France and his wife , Sonia, is a midwife. Based on cross-cultural studies, whose work would be given more prestige in their respective societies?
answer

Felix’s and John’s
question

What is the practice of suttee?
answer

Burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband.
question

In Pakistan, Jordan, and Durdistan, a woman who has brought disgrace to her family is killed by a male relative, usually her brother or husband. This practice is called ________?
answer

honor killing
question

What act did members of the National Women’s Party engage in to gain the right to vote in 1917?
answer

They picketed the White House
question

The fact that nearly 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates the phenomenon of ______?
answer

gender tracking
question

Comparing the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between man and women over their lifetimes?
answer

among college graduates
question

What is the term for gender discrimination against women who miss the work experience while they care for children at home?
answer

the child penalty
question

Marketing, sales, and production positions are considered___________that lead(s) to the top of a company.
answer

pipelines
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Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she had directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates________?
answer

the ‘glass ceiling’
question

Which group of men do women fear the most as potential rapists?
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strangers
question

Why do most acquaintance rapes go unreported to authorities?
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the victim feels partially responsible because she knows the perpetrator
question

The major theories on the origin of patriarchy point to the social consequences of human reproduction.
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true
question

Sexual harassment was not recognized as a social problem until the 1970’s.
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true
question

defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.
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false
question

status inconsistency is common for winners of multimillion-dollar lottaries, especially when the status of their new wealth exceeds the status of their education and occupation.
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true
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Bill Gates, Donald Trump, and others whp have made a fortune in business, the stock market, entertainment, and sports in the 20th century are classified as being ‘blue bloods’.
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false
question

People in the capitalist class are more likely to experience mental health problems because of the excessive stress associated with managing high powered jobs.
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false
question

Lower class parents encourage their children to be creative while they grow up, while middle class parents focus on having their children defer to authority.
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falso
question

Based on the average of 60 nations, what 3 occupations enjoy the highest prestige ratings?
answer

College president, Supreme Court justice, astranaut
question

Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the united states?
answer

Native American
question

The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called the __________.
answer

Feminization of poverty
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____________ are the most likely segment of the poplulation in the United States to experience poverty today.
answer

college president, Supreme Court judge, astronaut.
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There was much-publicized myths of the late 1800s that centered around the rags-to-riches exploits of fictional boy heroes. These myths were perpetuated by their author, ____________.
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Horatio Alger
question

Prejudice describes __________, while discrimination describes ___________.
answer

attitudes; actions
question

The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Jazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Twanda are all examples of _____________.
answer

genocide
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The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during WW II are examples of ______.
answer

direct transfer
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When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion and give up their customs. This was a classic example of _____________.
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forced assimilation
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What is another name for multiculturism?
answer

pluralism
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What is the largest minority group in the United States today?
answer

Native American
question

The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from white was called ____________.
answer

Jim Crow law
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In American history, who were the white ethnics?
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They were immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the original White Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
question

What are two ways a group becomes a minority?
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The expansion of political boundaries and migration.
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In sociology, what term is used to identify the majority group?
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the social elite
question

Accurate statement regarding the meaning of race?
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Race varies, depending upon the society in which it’s meaning is constructed.
question

What is the relationship between level of education and births to single mothers?
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The least educated (dropouts) have the highest percentage of single mother births.
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As described in the text, what are considered myths of race?
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One race is superior to another; pure races exist.
question

What is the formula to determine one’s wealth?
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the total amount of all financial assets, minus any debts
question

What are the four features that jobs with a high prestige all share?
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they pay more. they require more education. they entail more abstract thought. they offer greater autonomy.
question

When used by sociologists, the term ‘wealth’ refers to _____________.
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the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person.
question

What were the four social classes identified by Erik Wright?
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capitalists, petty bourgeoisie, managers, and workers
question

What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?
answer

geographic location
question

If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of _____________ mobility.
answer

exchange
question

Changes in society that cause large numbers of people to move up or down the class ladder, which cuases one class to increase while others decrease, is called____________ mobility.
answer

exchange
question

The belief by many Americans that they actual contribute to major governmental decisions through the power of their vote is referred to by Hellinger and Judd as _____________.
answer

democratic facade
question

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
answer

intergenerational mobility
question

The class recognized by Kahl and Gilbert as being the upper middle-class in America comprises approximately ________ percent of the U.S. population.
answer

15%
question

What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?
answer

the South
question

What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make big decisions in American society?
answer

the power elite
question

Of the three ideal types of authority, charismatic authority has the least formalized rules for succession of a new leader.
answer

true
question

Pluralism, the process that prevents any single group from gaining control of the government, is most aligned with the functionalist perspective.
answer

true
question

In a pure socialist economy, members of the central committee, supervisors, and factory workers are all employees of the government.
answer

true
question

In theory, socialists believe that profit is immoral and that capitalists create social inequality and exploit poorly paid workers.
answer

true
question

Although socialism is ideologically in conflict with capitalism, a number of programs operating in the United States could be classified as socialistic.
answer

true
question

What is authority?
answer

institutionalized and legal power
question

Describe the three types of authority
answer

question

What does ‘citizenship’ mean and where was this revolutionary idea first introduced?
answer

question

What are the similarities and differences between authority and coercion?
answer

question

What is the origin of the word ‘democracy’?
answer

question

What is the profile of the average U.S. voter?
answer

question

What is the primary cause of voter apathy?
answer

question

What theory argues that the three branches of the federal government serve as the checks and balances of power?
answer

question

Who coined the term power elite?
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C. Wright Mills
question

Who comprises the power elite?
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top people in the United States’ corporations, military, and politics who make the major decisions
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What are the three essential features of capitalism?
answer

question

What are the three essential components of socialism?
answer

question

How does democratic socialism differ from pure socialism?
answer

question

How do capitalists and socialists mutually criticize each other?
answer

question

What is convergence theory?
answer

question

What is the primary criticism of political action committees and lobbyists?
answer

question

Explain how the accumulation of surplus contributed to the growth of social inequality?
answer

question

Sociologist Peter Berger suggested ______________ was the ultimate foundation of any political state.
answer

question

Why is the transfer of authority in societies governed by traditional and rational-legal authority more stable than those governed by charismatic leaders?
answer

question

state capitalism
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an economic system in which individuals own the means of production but the state regulates many economic activities for the welfare of the population.
question

laissez-faire capitalism
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unrestricted manufacture and trade
question

lobbyists
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people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients
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convergence theory
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a hybrid of mixed economics that combines capitalism and socialism
question

routinization of charisma
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the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or rational-legal form of authority
question

representative democracy
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a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives who meet to discuss issues and make decisions on their behalf
question

oligarchy
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a form of government in which a small group of individuals hold power; the rule of many by the few.
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coercion
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power that people do not accept as rightly exercised over them.
question

socialism
answer

an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, central planning, and distribution of goods without a profit motive.
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conspicuous consumption
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Thorstein Veblen’s term for a shift from the sensibility of the Protestant ethic to an eagerness to show off wealth through the consumption of goods.
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authority
answer

power that people consider as being legitimate, as rightly exercised over them.
question

capitalism
answer

an economic system characterized by public ownership of the means of production, central planning, and distribution of goods with a profit motive.
question

power elite
answer

C. Wright Mills’ term for the top people in the United States’ corporations, military, and politics who make the major decisions.
question

direct democracy
answer

a system of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make the decisions.
question

citizenship
answer

the concept that birth and residence in a country impact basic rights.

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