Social system properties applied to families Essay

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In societal system, household is executing two maps which is child socialisation and stabilizes grownup personalities. The child socialisation happens to go through on the mores and values to the kid so that the kid will act in the manner that accepted by the civilizations. At the same clip, the personality of grownup was stabilized by sing good household function construction ( Parsons & A ; Bales, 1955 ) .

The most dramatic component of societal system that I perceive as most applicable to households is socialisation. Socialization is needed in societal system in which the integrating of parents into the household in order to keep system equilibrium. Socialization in societal system included erudite values, attitudes and behavior. In household, socialisation happens to socialise kids and stabilise grownup ‘s personalities. Individual socialized to value certain attitudes and thoughts in order to execute their functions in societal system. For illustration, parents socialize and convey some of import values to their kid and the kid will larn those values and convey it out to schools and workplace. Therefore, kid ‘s values and behavior is affected by their parents. Besides that, parents who are able to convey good values to their kids will see good function construction because of good socialisation in household. In add-on, this good organized household function construction aid to stabilise parents ‘ personalities by cut downing the struggles between them and keep their matrimony satisfaction. Good socialisation in household helps household able to make and keep equilibrium and map good to the society ( White & A ; Klein, 2008 ) .

Socialization in household promotes sense of ego, individuality and beliefs besides. For illustration, in most Asiatic civilization, they are focus on filial piousness, which emphasizes on love and regard for seniors ( Chen, Bond, & A ; Tang, 2007 ) . Parents will go through the civilization to kids through societal integrating to the societal system. When parents have good socialisation and convey good filial piousness to their kid, kids will hold high self-concept, show good manners and respects to the seniors. But from structural and functional positions, this theory claimed that atomic household needs to be integral for successful transmittal of household values ( Parsons & A ; Bales, 1955 ) . Therefore, for kids such as striplings from divorce household, they may hold low self-concept and engaged in maladaptive behavior ( Putnick, Bornstein, Hendricks, Painter, Suwalsky, & A ; Collins, 2008 ) . This is because of they have uncomplete household construction and lower internalisation of household values.

B. If a household deviates from the social norms, is it considered dysfunctional? Justify your reply.

Yes. If the household deviates from the social norms, it is considered dysfunctional. Harmonizing to ( Parsons T. , The Social System, 1951 ) , in order for society to last, the subsystem must work to advance care of household as a whole. In add-on, all systems that maps must simple and basic. Harmonizing to Structural and Functionalism theory, divorce household is uncomplete version of organisational construction ( White & A ; Klein, 2008 ) . Based on premises in this theory, household function construction needs to be differentiated specifically by gender. In “ normal ” atomic household, the basic household function for male parent is instrumental ( breadwinner for household ) while female parent plays an expressive function of being health professional for the household. Both male parent and female parent need to execute ain function in order to keep the equilibrium. If one ‘s partner has taken over the other function, the household is considered dysfunctional.

Presents, due to modernisation, many of the household are confronting “ dysfunctional ” even through the household are integral atomic. This is because of the force per unit area from urbanisation that put the households increase function specificity and diminution in affinity. Many of the matrimony twosomes have swap their functions. If compared to last clip, presents, adult females ‘s employment is increased and at the same clip, there are increased figure of father engagement in kid attention and family care. In some households, female parents are no longer executing their traditional function as being the health professional at place ; they are now taken over the instrumental function of male parent and being the breadwinner for household. On the other manus, male parents that supposed to be the supplier for household has swapped their function with female parent. Harmonizing to Parson ( 1951 ) , if male parents and female parents who are non able to transport their ain functions based on the social norms, the household is dysfunctional because of function confusion occurred.

Besides that, if the married woman ‘s pay rate is high and pass more clip on her work force, this will take to work-family struggle happen. If the struggle is consistent and unresolved decently, the household is consider dysfunctional and indirectly lead to disassociate.

In modern-day households presents, many of the households are dual-earner twosomes but this does non intend that the households are dysfunctional. Although both father and mother do non execute their ain traditional instrumental and expressive function, they still able to keep the household equilibrium. Therefore, Structural and Functional theory is non suited to use in society presents because of the theory is excessively stiff and conservative. It is non able to accommodate to the alterations in present yearss.


Chen, S. X. , Bond, M. H. , & A ; Tang, D. ( 2007 ) . Decomposing filial piousness into filial attitudes and filial passages. Asiatic Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 213-223.

Parsons, T. , & A ; Bales, R. F. ( 1955 ) . Family Socialization and Interaction Process. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

Parsons, T. ( 1951 ) . The Social System. New York: Free Press.

Putnick, D. L. , Bornstein, M. H. , Hendricks, C. , Painter, K. M. , Suwalsky, J. T. , & A ; Collins, A. W. ( 2008 ) . Rearing Stress, Perceived Parenting Behaviors, and Adolescent. J Fam Psychol, 22 ( 5 ) , 752-762.

White, J. M. , & A ; Klein, D. M. ( 2008 ) . Family Theories ( 3rd ed. ) . Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Question 3

Compare the Concept of Roles in both Symbolic Interactions and Structural Functional Theory. If a research worker wishes to analyze parental functions in polygamous household, which of the two theories serves as a better usher for the research?

In Symbolic Interaction Theory, a function is defined as normative outlooks that an person should follow harmonizing to their specific place in the society ( White & A ; Klein, 2008 ) . In add-on, the construct of function taking gives clear outlook for an single to execute their function in expected manner. Harmonizing to the premise of Symbolic Interaction Theory, when an person has greater perceived lucidity about the function outlook, the higher opportunities for an single to execute the function in a socially expectable manner. For illustration, it is easier for individual female parents to execute their function if the function of individual female parent is clearly defined by societal norms. However, if an single holding deficient resources to execute his/her function, function strain may happen. Besides that, when an single holding multiple functions, he/she may confront function struggle because of overload outlooks and can non execute the contrary functions at the same time.

In Structural Functional Theory, the construct of function is different from Symbolic Interaction Theory. In Structural Functional Theory, it concerns about the equilibrium of societal system and the function in household must be simple and basic. Fathers and female parents play traditional different functions. Harmonizing to the construct of function in this theory, male parents are playing instrumental function who is the breadwinner for household while female parents play an expressive function of being the health professional and concerns about the emotional demands of kids. Therefore, Structural Functional Theory is non suited for analyzing the parental function in polygamous household. This is because of the construct of function in Structural Functional is merely applicable to use in normal atomic household while polygamous household is perverts from the household that merely consists of one male parent, one female parent and kids.

So, in order to analyze parental functions in polygamous household, Structural Functional Theory is more suited and serves as a better usher for the research. Polygamous household is made up of one male parent, two female parents, and kids form both female parents. In polygamous household, male parent will play dramas different functions in each household because of holding two married womans and kids from two different married womans. So, the function pickings of male parent in the polygamous household is depends on the outlooks within the household memebers and from the social norms as good. In polygamous household, father demand to transport out the function eqaully for both households. For illustration, the male parent demand to supply resources like shlther, nutrient, fiscal and clip for both households. Therefore, taking multiple functions of being a male parent to two different households may add the individual to overload outlooks and make function strain. When there is deficiency of function lucidity and insuffient resouces for the male parent to execute the function good, hapless household operation may happen ( Nevo & A ; Krenawi, 2006 ) . This will impact the household relationship and lead to household struggle happen. Indirectly, kids well being will acquire affected by the intense household environment.

In polygamous household, function strain non merely found in male parent, but in female parent every bit good. Sometimes, female parents in polygamous household need to execute multiple functions as the male parent no longer primary male parent for the household. The married womans need to portion hubby and resources between one and another ( Krenawi, 1998 ) . Therefore, sometimes, the married womans will contend for love or deficient resources and function strain happens. Research found that kids polygamous household reported hapless wellness attention if compared with the normal integral household as both male parents and female parents holding deficient resources ( fiscal support ) . In amount, function strain will go on in both male parents and female parents in polygamous household.


Krenawi, A. A. ( 1998 ) . Family Therapy with a Multiparental/Multispousal Family. Family Process, 65-81.

Nevo, V. S. , & A ; Krenawi, A. A. ( 2006 ) . Success and Failure Among Polygamous Families: The Experience of Wifes, Husbands, and Children. Family Process.

White, J. M. , & A ; Klein, D. M. ( 2008 ) . Family Theories ( 3rd ed. ) . Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Question 4

Discuss the major critic of developmental theory. If a research worker wishes to research household kineticss within a measure or blended household, place suited constructs from this theory that can steer the survey

Developmental theory consists of patterned and systematic alterations that experienced by the households as they move through the household life class phases. In Developmental Theory, although single development is of import but the major focal point this theory is on the development of household as a group of interacting people that organized by societal norms.

One of the major critics of Developmental Theory is universality. Based on this premise, all households are sing the same changing procedure across the same phases and develop in the same manner ( Strong, DeVault, & A ; Cohen, 2008 ) . However, in fact, all households are alone and develop in different ways. Besides that, household development linked to the household phase and continuance of clip they have been in that phase. In add-on, household development is a procedure and the household groups are more societal and less focal point on the single ontogenetic development. Therefore, phase construct is non applicable to all types of households. For illustration, the theory failed to explicate for divorce households, individual households and measure or blended household because of these households may non follow the sequence of household development. Timing and continuance for passage of these households may change from normal atomic households ( Strong, DeVault, & A ; Cohen, 2008 ) .

Another major critic of Developmental Theory is the theory culturally irrelevant or sensitive to other lifestyle picks. Nowadays, there are assortment and much diverseness of household signifiers across civilizations. Every civilization is different among one another. So, this theory is non appropriate for household today and household is viewed harmonizing to the forms of household life.

Step household or blended household is a household system that one or both members of the twosome have kids from a old relationship. If a research worker wishes to research household kineticss within a measure or blended household, the constructs from developmental theory that suited to utilize in this research is passage ( White & A ; Klein, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to this theory, enter into measure household or blended household is the passage that shifts organize one household phase to another and can be explained by the “ on clip ” and “ off clip ” events between phases. In step household or blended household, the grownup twosome that remarriage may see giving birth to a new kid when the senior kid are go forthing place for university. This would be ‘off clip ” event as the event is perverts from expected timing. Besides that, in blended household, most of the clip, the parents may see another “ off clip ” event of they are still holding immature age kids when they are come ining retirement. This is due to holding new born after remarriage. In add-on, in step household or blended household, the kid that born after remarriage will usually holding coevals spread job with parents and other siblings besides. Most of the clip, they are fighting of holding aging parents and the issues of aging parent with immature kids may originate.

Another construct that can steer the survey is normative fluctuations and divergences. In step household or blended household, the grownup ‘s twosome usually remarries and get down to organize the new integral household by conveying in their ain kids. Step household or blended household are deviates from the normative calling sequence of acquiring married, organize household, holding first kid, parentage and retirement. In add-on, in step household or blended household, the normative household procedure is restart and the household members need to do accommodation in the household in order to do the new “ integral ” household map good.

Besides that, in most households, they do hold their ain internal household norms within the household members. ( White & A ; Klein, 2008 ) . This construct can use to steer for analyzing measure household or blended household. Each household creates a set of ain societal regulations that the household members need to follow in order for household operation. In step household or blended household, persons need to follow new set of regulations that created by the new household. If persons brought in the set of old household norms from old household and implement them to new household, struggles may happen within the members in new formed household. For illustration, usually, in step household or blended household, the kids are come from two different households. When they enter the new household, they need to follow new set of internal household norms. If the step-children are used to the old household norms and can non accommodate to the alteration, they may experience antipathy when the stepmother or stepfather makes them follow the new set of household norms or regulations.


Strong, B. , DeVault, C. , & A ; Cohen, T. F. ( 2008 ) . The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in a Changing Society ( 10th ed. ) . Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

White, J. M. , & A ; Klein, D. M. ( 2008 ) . Family Theories ( 3rd ed. ) . Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Question 5

How does the construct of “ self involvement ” differ or similar in Conflict Theory and Social Exchange Theory?

In Conflict Theory, it assumed that worlds are chiefly motivated by self-interest that rooted in the will to last, continue and asseverate. When one ‘s opportunism is conflict with the other individual ‘s opportunism, struggle will go on in order to accomplish their end ( White and Klein, 2008 ) . Whereas for Social Exchange Theory, it assumed that human being are motivated by opportunism and believing about the cost and wages. Based on the premise, single will weigh for the cost and wages to do picks that maximize the wages that good to his/her involvement.

The similarity for both Conflict Theory and Social Exchange Theory is recognized for the importance of human dissensions, differences and belligerencies ( White & A ; Klein, 2008 ) . However, what makes the construct of “ self-interest ” different in these two theories is Conflict Theory assumed that single makes determination harmonizing to their self-preservation, self-assertion and survival whereas for Social Exchange Theory, it assumed that single makes determination based on their reason and stress on cost and wagess.

Propose a research model utilizing struggle theory and highlight the usage of self involvement as a guiding construct.

By utilizing self-interest as a guiding construct, the proposed research subject is “ The relationship of Alcohol maltreatment and Domestic Assault of Women “ .

Alcohol Abuse

Domestic Assault of Women

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the survey “ The relationship of Alcohol maltreatment and Domestic Assault of Women “ .

In this research, the independent variable is alcohol maltreatment and the dependant variable is domestic assault of adult females in the household. Self-interest is used as the guiding construct and it is represented by the opportunism of the hubby in household to devour intoxicant and besides the self-preservation or endurance of adult females that abused by their spouse in household.

In two tierce of the matrimony relationship in US, domestic assault happen. Example of domestic assault included grabbed, throwing something at the victim, kicked, slapped, hit or threatened the victim with knife ( Straus, 1994 ) . In this survey, the sample survey will be choose the adult females who had suffered, or were still enduring, force from a spouse.

By utilizing self-interest construct as a usher in this survey, adult females that abused by their spouse may take to remain in the matrimony or go forth the matrimony because of self-preservation and endurance. Besides that, big measure of intoxicant showed to incresse single sense of power to others ( Bennett, 1995 ) . Therefore, a adult male who concerns about personal power and control more likely to be heavy drinkers and aggressive to their married woman. In add-on, the concepot of opportunism is adapted in domestic assault because of the self-assertion of the intoxicant maltreater.

Past research has shown that there is association between intoxicant maltreatment and domestic assault of adult females ( Galvani, 2004 ) . Alcoholism is the best forecaster for adult females abused. Heavy imbibing work forces are usually hostile, low self-consciouness, and more likely to imbibe for psychological ( Bennett, 1995 ) . In amount, domestic assault is wide-speard phenomena presents. The effects of intoxicant on the domestic assault of adult females depeends on the context of the subsatnce usage and besides belief system of those involved.


Bennett, L. W. ( 1995 ) . Substance Abuse and the Domestic Assault of Women. NAtional Association of Social Workers.

Galvani, S. ( 2004 ) . Responsible Disinhibition: Alcohol, Men and Violence to Women. Addiction Research and Theory, 12 ( 4 ) , 357-371.

Straus, M. ( 1994 ) . State-to-state differences in societal inequality and societal bonds in relation to assail on married womans in the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 25, 7-24.

White, J. M. , & A ; Klein, D. M. ( 2008 ) . Family Theories ( 3rd ed. ) . Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Question 7

Urie Bronfenbrenner proposed that the smallest unit of analysis in analyzing development is the couple, non the single individual. Describe this proposition in the context of delinquent behaviour.

Dyad is the interaction between two people in a group. Harmonizing to the premise that proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner, it stated that the smallest unit of analysis in analyzing development is the couple, and non the single individual. One of the illustrations of couple is parent-child relationship. Based on Bronfenbrenner ( 1979 ) , kid development is ever interactive with its immediate household. Socialization and interaction between parents and kid is of import in lending kids ‘s well-being.

Based on the proposition, parent-child relationship is of import in the context of delinquent behavior. Examples of delinquent behavior included hooliganism, running off, larceny and minor imbibing. Many of the past research found that delinquent behavior in adolescence are associated with the relationship between the striplings and their parents ( Campbell, 1995 ; Narusyte, Andershed, Neiderhiser, & A ; Lichtenstein, 2007 ) . Poor parent-child relationship such as rough parenting, parents ‘ negative behavior, negligence and rejection from parents may lend to delinquency among adolescents ( Narusyte, Andershed, Neiderhiser, & A ; Lichtenstein, 2007 ) .

Besides that, hapless parental supervising is related to delinquency behaviours among kids particularly for the male childs ( Narusyte, Andershed, Neiderhiser, & A ; Lichtenstein, 2007 ) . When the parents do non give quality supervising to the kid, kid may miss of cognition and failed to put regulations to guarantee that they are kept ( Narusyte, Andershed, Neiderhiser, & A ; Lichtenstein, 2007 ; Jang & A ; Smith, 1997 ) As the kid moves into stripling and parental influence begins lessening, closed supervising is needed for immature kids to organize the good parent-child bond, supply function theoretical accounts for the kid and besides provide basic foundation of cognition for the kid.

Research showed that quality of parent-child couple is of import in the survey of delinquent behaviour. If the parent-child relationship is strong, the kid will less likely engage in delinquent behavior. Research findings showed that fond regard during early childhood is of import to foretell delinquent behavior among kids ( Palmer, 2000 ) . Strong fond regard between both parents is associated with lower chance of perpetrating in delinquent behaviour ( Cauffman, Farruggia, & A ; Goldwebe, 2008 ; Palmer, 2000 ) . Some findings besides showed that positive parenting and warm parent-child relationship is related to self-reported delinquent behavior among striplings ( Palmer, 2000 ) . In add-on, strong father-child couple is one the most forecasters of delinquent behavior as the male parent ‘s traditional function of conveying good values and disciplinarian in households ( Johnson, 1987 ) .

As a decision, many of the past research and findings support the premises of Bronfenbrenner theory which proposed that the smallest unit of analysis is the couple, and non the person. Therefore, parent-child couple plays an of import function in stuying the development and wellbeing of chidlren.

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