social psych

3 main areas of social psych

social influence
how we are influenced by others

social cognition
how we think about others

social interaction
how we interact with others

social cognition
mental processes people use to make sense of the world around them

tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea or situation

three components of attitude
1. the affective (emotional) component [i like country music]
2. behavioral component [ibuy country music cds]
3. cognitive component [country music is better than any other music]

how do we form attitudes
direct contact
direct instruction
interacting w/ other ppl
vicarious conditioning

direct contact [attitude]
with people, situation or idea
[i.e. eating veggies]

direct instruction [attitude]
from parents or others
[i.e. being told smoking is bad]

interacting with other people [attitude]
who hold a certain attitude
[i.e. peer group who like certain sports]

vicarious conditioning
watching actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, siituations [see mom afraid of dog]

attitude change: persuasion
process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading or explanation

key elements in persuasion
source of message
message itself
target audience

elaboration likelihood model
ppl either elaborate on the message or fail to do it

future actions of those who do elaborate more are _______
more predictable than those who do mot

cognitive dissonance
sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to their attitude

cognitive dissonance is lessened by
changing conflicting behavior/attitude, forming new attitude to justify the behavior

process of inferring the causes of mental states, behaviors, and events which occur to ourselves and others

external attributions
behavior due to the siutation

internal attributions
behavior reflects the person

fundamental attribution error
tendency to attribute someone else’s behavior to their person disposition and underestimate the effect of the situation

impression formation
forming of first knowledge a person has about another

primacy effect
first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary

social categorization
assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past

set of characteristics that ppl believe is shared by all members of a particular social category

social interaction
with others, positive or negative relationships between people

three types of interaction
aggression prosocial
prejudice discrimination

behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person

fustration-agression hypothesis
aggression is a reaction to fustration

konrad lorenz saw aggression as an ____________
instinct for fighting to promote the survival of our species

biological influences on aggression may include genetics,
the amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels

social role
pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position

prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself

prosocial behavior
social desirable behavior that benefits others

for altruism, _________ is larger in individuals who make altruistic choices
temporoparietal junction

bystander effect
effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not

diffusion of responsibility
person failz to take responsibility for an action or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility

five steps in making a decision to help [diffusion of responsibility]
defining an emergency
taking responsibility
planning a course of action
taking action

which part of the brain are involved in various aspects of emotion?
other subcortical and cortical areas (core affect network)
-frontal lobes
-anterior cingulate cortex
-lateral orbitofrontal cortex

common sense
a stimulus leads to an emotion which then leads to bodily arousal
(snarling dog, conscious fear,ans arousal)

james-lange theory
a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion (snarling dog, ans arousal, conscious fear)

cannon-bard theory
physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time (snarling dog, brain activity, ans arousal / conscious fear)

cognitive arousal theory
both physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced

facial feedback hypothesis
facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion

cognitive mediational theory
stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction

emotional regulation
modulation of one’s emotional response when it is inappropriate, unwanted or excessive, so as to ensure goal relevant behavior

we can regulate emotional responses using
cognitive effort; reppraisal works but suppressing emotions does not

three special methods used in developmental research
-longitudinal design
-cross-sectional design
-cross-sequential design

different participants of various ages studied at one time

same participants studied at multiple time points

combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal [start cross-sectional with two groups and follow-up with longitudinal]

influence of our inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

behavioral genetics focuses on
nature vs nurture

tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA

section of DNA having a certain sequence or ordering of chemical elements

behavioral genetics
field investigating the relative contributions to development of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture)

development is a product of an interaction between __________
nature and nurture

polygenic inheritance
combinations of genes working together

dizygotic twins are formed when the motehr’s body
releases multiple eggs and at least two are fertilized, or when another ovulation occurs even though the mother was already preggers

geminal period
first two weeks of pregnancy in which the dividing mass of cells move into the uterus

embryonic period
begins at 2 weeks after conception and ends at 8 weeks; vital organs and structures of the baby form during this period (critical one when teratogens may adversely affect the developement of those things)

fetal period
beginning of 9th week to birth; tremendous growth, length and weight increase, and organ become fully functional

four critical areas of adjustment for newborns
temperature regulation

the senses except for _____ are fairly well-developed at birth
vision; blurry and lacking in full color until 6 months of age

gross and fine motor skills develop at a fast pace during
infancy and early childhood.`

Piaget’s stages include
– sensorimotor stage
– preoperational thought
– concrete operations
– formal operations

sensorimotor stage
of sensory and physical interactions with the world

preoperational thought
where language becomes a tool of exploration

concrete operations
logical thought becomes possible

formal operations
abstract concepts are understood and hypothetical thinking develops

Vgostsky believed that children learn best when being
helped by a more highly skilled peer/adult

when a child is taught by a person of higher skill

zone of proximal developemnt
difference between the mental age of tasks the child performs without help and those the child can perform with help

stages of language development are
cooing, babbling, one-word speech (holophrases), telegraphic speech, and whole sentences

four types of attachment
– secure
– avoidant
– ambivalent
– disorganized-disoriented

unattached; somewhat swlling to explore, seek little contact with their mother and react little by her return

insecurely attached; clinging and unwilling to explore, protest mightily when mother leaves but hard to sooth or fight back with mother when she returns

insecurely attached and sometimes abused or neglected; undecided how they should react when mother returns

willing to play and explore comfortably with their mother present, visibly upset when she leaves and quickly calmed by her return

personal fable
believe they are especially unique and protected from ham

imaginary audience
convinced that everyone is paying attention to them

cellular clock theory
based on the idea that cells have so many times that they can divide (telomeres)
-division necessary for repair/replacement of tissue

wear-and-tear theory
repeated use and abuse of body’s tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage

free radical theory
molecules with an unpaired electron, created as a by-product of various biological processes, damage cell structures

attachment theory
special bond formed with caregiver early in life; create working models (basis for all future relationships); can change based on life experiences; unconscious expectations

trust vs mistrust
0-1 years
learn to trust/mistrust based on whether needs are met

unable to “mentally reverse” actions

tendency to focus on only on feature of some object rather then taking all of the features into consideration

see world only from their pov

physical decline in a woman’s reproductive system

less dramatic change in testosterone and other male hormones, beginning in the 40s

erikson’s crisis of young adulthood is
intimancy vs isolation

crisis of middle adulthood
generativity vs stagnation; where middle-aged adult help next generation through it’s crisis (by parenting,mentoring, or leaving some sort of legacy)

Baumrind proposed three parenting styles
authoritarian, authoritative, permissive

erikson’s final crisis
integrity vs despair; an older adult must come to terms with mortality

free-radical theory
states that oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go

five stages of reaction to death and dying are
denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance

trust vs mistrust, the infant must gain a sense of
predictability and trust in caregivers or risk developing a mistrustful nature

autonomy vs shame and doubt
toddler needs to become physically independent

initiative vs guilt
preschool child is developing emotional and psychological independence

industry vs inferiority
school-age children are gaining competence and developing self-esteem

kohlberg proposed three levels of moral development
– preconventional morality
– conventional morality
– postconventional morality

Erikson’s identity vs role confusion crisis
job of adolescent is to achieve a consistent sense of self from among all the roles, values and futures open to them

the thinking and attitudes of many who survived the Depression of the 1930s changed them for the rest of their lives. This is an example of
cohort effect

cohort effect
particular impact of a group bonded by time or common life experience

In _________ syndrome, the 23rd pair of chromosomes consists of an XXY pairing, resulting in reduced masculine characteristics and excessive height.

Which of the following represents the fertilization process for which monozygotic twins?
One egg is fertilized by one sperm and then splits.

What part of an infant’s body is said to stay in an immature state until needed to produce more cells?
stem cells

Based on today’s science and medicine, when does the age of viability begin?
between 22-26 weeks

Dr. Kahn measures how long baby Lydia looks at a particular stimulus. The technique is known as
preferential looking

At what are can the typical infant roll over?
2 months

Studies of the infant brain shows signs of what scientists call synaptic pruning. What occurs during this process?
Unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared out to make way for new cells.

In which of Piaget’s stages does the child become capable of understanding conservation?
concrete operations

Monique says “milk” when she wants her her milk from the kitchen counter. Subsequently, she says “milk” after she has had a drink. Using a single phrase to mean different things is an example of

In the Strange Situation, _________ babies would cry when their mother left the room but were happy upon her return.

What is a new explanation as to why teenagers and young adults may engage in risky and dangerous behavior?
Such behavior may be due to the incomplete development of the prefrontal cortex.

Samantha enters a classroom where two students are talking. When they stop their discussion, Samantha is certain they must have been talking about her. Such a belief is an example of
the imaginary audience.

What cognitive changes occurring during middle adulthood are the most noticeable?
Changes in memory begin to occur

Independence and self-reliance in the teenage years is the most likely due to ______ parenting.

The crisis of late adulthood, according to Erikson, is
integrity vs despair

Which theory of aging states that unstable oxygen molecules tend to steal electrons as they bounce around, thus causing damage to surrounding cells?
free-radical theory

Kip is worried that he is losing his mind because he finds himself angry at a friend who died in an automobile accident. Based on Kubler-Ross’s research, what might you tell him?
Anger is a normal reaction to death and not a sign of mental illness.

Asch used a set of comparison lines and a standard line to experiment with conformity,
finding that subjects conformed to group opinion about 1/3 of the time, increased as number of confederates rose to four, decreased if one confederate gave the correct answer

cross-cultural research found that collectivistic cultures show
more conformity than individualistic cultures

gender differences do no occur in conformity unless
the response is not private, in which women are more conforming than men

occurs when a decision-making group feels that it is more important to maintain group unanimity and cohesiveness than to consider facts realistically

minimizing groupthink involves
holding group members responsible for the decisions made by the group

group polarization occurs when members
take somewhat more extreme positions and greater risks compared to those made by individuals

when the performance of an individual on a relatively easy task is improved by the presence of others
social failitation

when performance of an individual on a relatively difficult task is negatively affected by the presence of others
social impairment

when a person who is lazy is able to work in a group of people, often performing less well than working alone
social loafing

when group members feel anonymous and personally less responsible for their actions

when a person changes behavior as a result of another person asking or directing a change

three common ways of getting compliance from others
foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, low-ball

people who join cults tend to be
under stress, unhappy, unassertive, gullible, dependent, idealistic, want to belong

young people are ______________ to join cults than older people
more likely

___________ use love-bombing, isolation, rituals, and activities to keep new recruits from questioning and critical thinking

changing one’s behavior at the direct order of an authoritative figure

milgram experiment
found that 65% of people obeyed an authoritative figure even if they believed they were hurting/injuring/possibly killing another person with electric shock

tendencies to respond positively or negatively toward ideas, persons, objects or situation

three components of an attiude
affective (emotional), behavior, cognitive

cognitive dissonance is lessened by
changing the conflicting behavior , changing conflicting attitude or forming new attitude to justify the behavior

implicit personality theory
form of social cognition in which a person has sets of assumptions about different types of people, personality traits, actions that are assumed to be related to each other

mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people (can be stereotypes)

process of explaining the behavior of others as well as one’s own behavior

situational cause
an explanation of behavior based on factors in the surrounding environment or situation

dispositional cause
explanation of behavior based on the internal personality characteristics of the person being observed

negative attitude that a person holds about the members of a particular social group

occurs when members of a social group are treated differently because of prejudice toward that group

people with whom a person identifies, whereas outgroups are everyone else at whom prejudice tends to be directed

refers to the tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence

social cognitive theory
views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling and other social influences

realistic conflict theory
conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination

social identity theory sees a person’s formation of a social sense of self within a particular group as being due to three things
social categorization, social identity, social comparison

social catergorization
may involve the use of reference groups

social identity
person’s sense of belonging to a particular social group

social comparison
which people compare themselves to others to improve their own self-esteem

stereotype vulnerability
the effect that a person’s knowledge of the stereotypes that exist against his or her social group can have on that person’s behavior

people who are aware of stereotypes may unintentionally come to behave in a way that
makes the stereotype real in a self-fulfilling prophecy

intergroup contact
more effective in reducing prejudice if the groups have equal status

prejudice and discrimination can be reduce when a superordinate goal that is large enough to override all other goals
needs to be achieved by all groups

prejudice and discrimination are reduced when people must
(jigsaw classroom)
work together to solve a problem because each person has an important key to solving problem, creating mutual interdependence

interpersonal attraction
refers to liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person

reciprocity of liking
people tend to like other people who like them in return

sternberg states that the three components of love are
intimacy, passion, commitment

romantic love
intimacy with passion

companionate love
intimacy with commitment

consummate love
contains all three components of love

aggression is behavior intended to
hurt or destroy another person in way that may be physical or verbal

biological influences on aggression may include
genetics, amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels

social roles
powerful influences on the expression of aggression

social learning theory
aggression can be learned through direct reinforcement and through the imitation of successful aggression by a model

prosocial behavior
behavior that is socially desirable and benefit others

latane and darley found that people who were alone were more likely to
help in an emergency than people who were with others

five steps in making a decision to help are
defining an mgenc
taking responsibility
planning action
taking action

social neuroscience
study of how biological processes influence social behavior

studies fMRI and other imaging techniques to
discover areas of the brain involved in social actions

Saul admits that he conforms so as to be liked by others. This is known as
normative social influence

Many businesses now require their employees to work in teams, believing that a group of four to five employees will accomplish more than four to five individuals working alone. This is an example of what concept?
social facilitation

Maria was approached by her neighbor asking her to adopt two to three kittens that were abandoned by their mother. While Maria refused to take in three kittens, she did agree to adopt one. what compliance technique did her neighbor use on Maria?

Follow-up studies to Stanley Milgram’s research have suggested that a teacher’s willingness to deliver potentially lethal shocks may be a product of _______ than of obedience.
social identity

The public service messages that encourage parents to sit down with their children and talk frankly about drugs are promoting which method of attitude formation?
direct contact

Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. The defendant was not very well spoken and came from a very poor background, but Sandy listened carefully to the evidence presented and made her decision based on that. Sandy was using _______ processing.

Which of the following should LaShonda avoid if she wants to reduce cognitive dissonance?
ignoring the conflict altogether

Gerard goes to a job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn T-shirt, and sandals. His hair is uncombed and he hasn’t shaved in a few days. Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about about
impression formation.

If behavior is assumed to be caused by external characteristics, this is known as
situational cause

Thomas like to “hang with the guys.” These people with whom Thomas identifies most strongly with are called a(n)

The “Robber’s Cave” experiment showed value of ______ in combating prejudice.
equal status contact

Vivian and Steve met at work. At first they were just friends, but over time, they found themselves falling in love – or as Vivian tells her friends, “Steve just grew on me!” According to research in interpersonal attraction in interpersonal attraction, the most likely explanation for their attraction is
mere exposure.

According to Strenberg, a couple whose love is based off of intimacy and passion but who are are not committed to a long-term relationship are in the form of love called ______ love.

The concept that aggression results from a social role is based on what psychological theory?

Cara knows that she can help people simply by dialing 9-1-1 on her cell phone if an emergency arises. Which step in the decision process for helping would Cara be at?
planning a course of action

Which of the following would the field of social neuroscience be most likely to study?
what parts of the brain influence social behavior

In Asch’s study, conformity decreased when
at least one confederate agreed with the participant.

Which of the following would not be effective in minimizing groupthink?
Caroline wants her team to openly vote by a show of hands either for or against her business plan.

One of the keys to deindividuation is

Conner needs just $20 more to go out with his friends. He asks his mother for $50 but she tells him he can have $30 instead. In the end, Conner ended with $10 more that he originally planned. What technique did Conner use?
door-in-the-face technique

Follow-up research to Stanley Milgram’s original study has found that ______ of “teachers” will deliver shocks up to the point of being lethal.
Over 60 percent

Studies have found that attitudes are primarily the result of
learned behavior.

Which of the following represents the affective component of an attitude?
“I love to go to clubs – it makes me so happy!”

Erin hates snakes, even though she has never been bitten or been close to one. She developed her feelings by seeing how scared her mother was when she came across them in the garden, or even when watching a movie or television show were there was a snake. Erin’s attitude toward snakes was most likely acquired through
vicarious conditioning.

As an attorney, you always recommend to your clients that they dress up in professional clothes for their day in court. What aspect of persuasion are you focusing upon?
the source

One of your friends tells you, “I didn’t like the environmental-awareness presentation today. First of all it was too long not to mention the person that gave it was drinking out of a polystyrene cup and drove away in a huge SUV.” What kind of processing might your friend be using?
peripheral-route processing

In the famous Festinger experiment, participants were paid either $1 or $20 to lie to a woman in the waiting room about how interesting a task really was. The participants who convinced themselves that the task was really fun were the ones who were
paid only $1.
Being paid only $1 is not sufficient incentive for lying and so those who were paid $1 experienced dissonance. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. Being paid $20 provides a reason for turning pegs and there is therefore no dissonance.

If you were to describe impression formation in just one word, what word would that be?

According to the phenomenon known as social categorization, what is the most influential in helping us form an attitude about someone or something?
Those things that happen first, also known as the primacy effect.

Kohanna thinks that everyone who smiles must always be happy and those people who are quiet must be naturally shy. Such assumptions are the bases for
implicit personality theory.

Caleb almost always shows up late for work. His friends attribute to Caleb’s laziness. This is an example of a ______ cause.

How might someone who unknowingly is committing the fundamental attribution error explain Stanley Milgram’s obedience study?
Subjects in that study must have been the kind of people that like to hurt others.

Prejudice is about ______ while discrimination is about ______.
attitudes; behavior

Jewell and Amie became friends while taking an evening class at the local community college. Jewell was later horrified to find out that Amie was actually a teacher at the college. Subsequently, Jewell stopped talking with Amie, thus ending their friendship. What theory of prejudice and discrimination might this be an example of?
in-group/out-group theory

In teacher Jane Elliot’s classic study, the most startling finding was the
test scores dropped for each group during their respective turn as the out-group.

Which of the following would be the most effective way to decrease prejudice?
Creative an environment of equal status, where groups must rely upon each other to solve a common problem.

The more you see someone, the more likely you are to like that person. Such a phenomenon is often due to
mere exposure.

What does the research say about the concept of opposites attract?
Studies do not support this idea but instead offer the explanation of complementary qualities.

In grade school, 12-year-old Chase does not know 12-year-old Corrine well, but starts to like her when he hears from her friends that she has a crush on him. This is an example of
reciprocity of liking.

According to Robert Sternberg’s three components of love, which component addresses the physical aspects?

According to Sternberg, when all three components of love are present, a couple possesses _________ love.

When people are unable to reach a goal, frustration may result, which can ultimately turn into

Increased levels of aggression in those who drink alcohol may be due to a decrease in what neurotransmitter?

Studies of the brain have found that the ______ is influential in the presence of ______ behavior.
temporoparietal junction; altruistic

Which of the following scenarios probably will not result in the bystander effect?
You come across someone lying on a walking path while you are walking alone at your local nature center.

Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision-making process is
taking responsibility

process by which activities are started, directed, and sustained so that physical and psychological needs are fulfilled

instinct approaches
propose that some human actions may be motivated by instincts, which are innate patterns of behavior found in both ppl and animals

drive-reduction approaches
state that when an organism has a need (such as hunger), the need leads to psychological tension that motivates the organism to act, fulfilling the need and reducing the tension

primary drives
involve needs of the body whereas acquired (secondary) drives are those learned through experience.

tendency of the body to maintain a steady state

need for affiliation
the desire to have friendly social interactions and relationships with others as well as the desire to be held in high regard by others

need for power
having control over others, influencing them, and having an impact on them; status and prestige is important

need for achievement
strong desire to succeed in achieving one’s goals, both realistic and challenging

self-theory of emotion
links the need fo achievement to the concept of locus of control

a belief in control over one’s life
leads to more attempts to achieve, even in the face of failure

those who believe they have little control over their life
more likely to develop learned helplessness

arousal theory
a person has an optimal level of arousal to maintain

people who need more arousal more than others are called
sensation seekers

in the incentive approach
an external stimulus may be so rewarding that it motivates a person to act toward that stimulus even in the absence of a drive

maslow proposed a hierarchy of needs, beginning with
basic physiological needs and ending with transcendence needs

based on maslow’s belief. more basic needs must be met before
higher needs can be fulfilled.

self-determination theory (SDT)
model of motivation in which three basic needs are seen as necessary to an individual’s successful development

SDT three basic needs
autonomy, competence, relatedness

intrinsic motivation
occurs when people act because the act itself is satisfying or rewarding

extrinsic motivation
occurs when people receive an external reward like money for the act

physiological components of hunger
signals from stomach and hypothalamus, increases secretion of insulin

when basal metabolic rate slows down
the weight set point increases and makes weight gain more likely

social components of hunger include
social cues for when meals are to be eaten, cultural customs and food preferences, and use of food as a comfort device or escape from unpleasantness

maladaptive eating may lead to

feeling aspect of consciousness and includes physical, behavioral, and subjective (cognitive) elements

plays a key role in emotional processing

physical arousal
tied to activation of sympathetic nervous system

James-Lange theory
states that a stimulus creates a physiological response that then leads to the labeling of the emotion

cannon-bard theory
asserts that the physiological reaction and the emotion are simultaneous, as the thalamus sends sensory information to both the cortex of the brain and the organs of the sympathetic nervous system

schachter and singer’s cognitive arousal theory
both physiological arousal and actual interpretation of that arousal must occur before the emotion itself is experienced; based on cues from environment

facial feedback hypothesis
facial expressions provide feedback to the brain about the emotion being expressed on the face, intensifying emotion

cognitive-mediational theory of emotion
cognitive component of emotion (interpretation) precedes both the physiological reaction and the emotion itself

cohort effect is the particular impact on development that occurs when
a group of people share a common time period or common life experience

nature refers to heredity
influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

nurture refers to the influence
of the environment on all of those same things and includes parenting styles, physical surroundings, economic factors, and anything that can have an influence on development not from the person

behavioral genetics is a field in the investigation of the origins of behavior
in which researchers try to determine how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to experience

pairs of chromosomes

most developmental psychologists agree that most likely explanation for most human development is based on
the interaction between nature and nurture

In a __________ design, one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages.

When sets of genes group together, the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait. This is best explained by the process known as
polygenetic inheritance.

zygote contains a total of ____ chromosomes

monozygotic twins
two babies from one fertilized egg

placenta and umbilical cord begins to form during
germinal period

germinal period is where cells begin to
differentiate; develop specialized cells in the human body

stem cells
stay in somewhat immature state until needed to produce more cells

stem cells can be used to
grow new organs and tissues for transplant or repair neurological damage

developing orgnaism

embryonic period last from
2-8 weeks; organs and structures are developed

critical periods
times during which environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
series of physical and mental defects including stunted growth, facial deformities, brain damage

fetal period, teratogens would most likely affect the
physiology of the organs rather than structure

when a miscarriage occurs, it is mot likely caused by a genetic defect in the way the embryo or fetus is developing that will not allow the infant to survive
in other words, the mother did nothing wrong or could not have been able to prevent the miscarriage

fertilization, zygote, twinning
fertilization to form zygote, 46 chromosomes

zygote divides through mitosis until baby forms

alterations in mitosis can result in twins, etc

germinal period (2- week period after fertilization)
zygote continues dividing and move to uterus;

cell differentiation results in specialized cells for various parts of body

embryonic period (2 weeks after conception to 8 weeks)
once attached to uterus, embryo is formed

cell specialization continues to develop bigger organs

vulnerable to diseases and substances ingested by the mom as it receives nourishment through placenta

fetal period (8 weeks to birth)
developing organisms now called a fetus; tremendous growth

organs continue to develop and fully develop

full-term birth occurs around end of 38 week

miscarriages (spontaneous abortion) most likely occur in first 3 months

When do most miscarriages occur?
first three months of pregnancy

preferential looking
looking assumes the longer an infant spends looking at a stimulus, the more the infant prefers that stimulus over others

tendency for infants (and adults) to stop paying attention to a stimulus that does not change

after birth, what happens?
respiratory system begins to function, blood circulates bc umbilical cord was cut; body temp is regulated w/ body fact and activity (fat provides fuel until it can get food on its own; thats why they lose weight first week after birth)

innate (existing from birth), involuntary behavior patterns; help infant to survive

motor development: from crawling to a blur of motion
infants manage a tremendous amount of development in motor skills from birth to 2 years old

synaptic pruning
unused synaptic connections and nerve cells are cleared away to make way for functioning connections and cells; necessary loss of neurons

by age 3, brain development
rapid and extensive growth of neurons occur as the brain triple in weight; increased caused by growth of new dendrites, axon terminals, increase number of synaptic connections

sense of touch is most well developed
for babies

taste is nearly fully developed
at birth, infants show preference for tastes

hearing is functional before birth
but may take a little while to reach its full potential after baby is born

vision is lease functional sense
complex organ, the eye, will take another 6 months to fully develop

relatively poor color perception when compared to sharply contrasting lights and darks until 2 months of age

infants’ preference for seeing things in three D suggests that
infants possess depth perception

cognitive development
development in thinking, problem solving, memory

Piaget’s theory: four stages of cognitive development


concrete operations

formal operations

children form mental concepts or _________ as they experience new situations and events

sensorimotor (birth – 2 years)
children explore the world with their senses and can move; develop object permanence and understand concepts and mental images which represent objects, people, and events

preoperational (2 to 7 years)
young kids can mentailly represent and refer to objects/events with words/p[ictures and pretend. they cannot conserve, logically reason, or consider many characteristics of an object

concrete operations (7-12 years)
children can conserve, reverse thinking, and classify objects in terms of their many characteristics. they can also think logically and understand analogies but only concrete events

formal operations (12 years +)
can use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events, logical possibilities, test hypothesis, examine; not everyone can do this

process of altering or adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences

in ____________ stage, infants use their senses and motor abilities to learn about the wolrd around them

at first, infants only have __________________ present at birth to interact with objects and people
involuntary reflexes

object permanence
knowledge of an object exists even when it is not in sight; end of sensorimotor stage

the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes but one’s own

anything that moves is alive

preoperational stage
children can now ask questions; not capable of logical thought; use simple mental concepts;

centration (i.e. 2 small pieces of pie > than one big piece)
focusing only on one feature of some opbject rather than taking all features into consideration

the ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its substance

preoperational thinking fail at conservation not only because they centrate but because they are also unable to “mentally reverse” actions

concrete operations stage
children are finally become capable of conservation and reversible thinking ; can ask logical questions

major limitation of concrete operations
inability to deal effectively with abstract concepts

abstract concepts
those that do not have physical, concrete, touchable reality

concrete concepts
kind of concepts understood by children of 7-12 (concrete operations) about objexts, written rules and real things; children need to see it, touch it, or in their head to understand

formal operations (12+)
abstract thinking is possible; thinking of possibilities/impossibilities, hypothetical thinking

adults who don’t achieve formal operations tend to
use more practical, down-to-earth kind of intelligence that suits their lifestyle

college students need formal-operational thinking to succeed in their careers bc
most colleges require critical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and abstract thinking

Vygotsky’s theory: importance of being there
importance of the role of social and cultural interactions with children, typically those highly-skilled

child-directed speech
the way adults and older children talk to infants and young children

at around 2 months of age, babies begin to make vowel-like sounds

about 6 months, infants add consonant sounds to vowels to make a babbling sound, cn sound like real speech.

deaf kids decrease babble after 6 months and increase use of hand signs/gestures

one-word speech
holophrases; one year age; real words, normally nouns that represent phrase or meaning

telegraphic speech
over a year age, toddlers string words together to form short and simple sentences

One way researchers study newborn development involves measuring how long infants continue to focus upon a nonchanging stimulus. This technique is referred to as

behavioral and emotional characteristics that are fairly well-established at birth

emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver

extremely important development in the social and emotional life of the infant, usually forming within the first 6 months

stranger anxiety
wariness of strangers

separation anxiety
fear of being separated from the caregiver

image you have of yourself and it’s based on your interactions with important people in your life

1. trust vs mistrust (infant; birth to 1)
infants learn basic sense of trust dependent upon how their needs are met

2. autonomy vs shame and doubt
(toddler; 1-3 years old)
successful in controlling their own actions develop independence

3. Initiative vs guilt
(preschool age; 3-5 years old)
learn to take responsibility for their own behavior as they develop self-control

4. industry vs inferiority
(elem school; 5-12 years old)
must learn new skills in both academic and social world; compare themselves to others to measure their success/failure

5. identity vs role confusion
(adolescence; 13-20s)
must decide who they are, what they believe, what they want to be as an adult

6. intimacy vs isolation
(early adulthood; 20-30s)
face the task of finding someone they can share their identity in an ongoing, close personal relationship

7. generativity vs stagnation
(middle adulthood; 40-50s)
find a way to be creative; productive person who is nurturing the next generation

8. ego integrity vs despair
(late adulthood; 60s+)
coming to terms with the end of life; reaching a sense of wholeness and acceptance of life as it has been

psychosocial development
involves development of personality, relationships, and a sense of being male/female; process begins in infancy and continues into adulthood

period of life from about age 13-20, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but not yet an independent adult

physical changes in both primary sex characteristics (sex organs) and secondary sex characteristics (boobs and body hair)

pituitary gland
master gland, when proper genetically determined age is reached; complex series of glandular activities

prefontal cortex of the brain
responsible for impulse control, decision making, and organization and understanding of information, does not stabilize in its development until we are in our 30s

personal fable
adolescents have spent so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings, they are convinced they are special, one of a kind, no one else held these thoughts and feelings before

imaginary audience
extreme self-consciousness

preconventional morality (very young kids)
morality of an action is based on consequences; actions that get rewarded are right and those that earn punishment are wrong

conventional morality (older kids, adolescents, most adults)
an action is morally right if it conforms to the rules of the society and wrong if it does not

postconventional morality (1/5 of adult)
morality is now determined by experiences and judgement of the person, even if that judgement disagrees with society’s rules

Changes in the body of young boys such as the appearance and growth of body hair is considered
a secondary sex characteristic.

activity theory
when an elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when remaining in some way

The structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces are called

cellular-clock theory
cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage; telomeres shorten each time a cell reproduces

wear-and-tear theory of aging
body’s organs and cell tissues simply wear out with repeated use and abuse

According to research, the reason many older people are no longer involved in their community is because
they are not asked to take part.

What stage might terminally ill patients be in if they refuse to write a last will and testament because they believe that in doing so, they are admitting they will die?

a requirement of some material that is essential for survival of the organism

drive-reduction theory
proposed just this connection between internal physiological states and outward behavior

acquired (secondary) drives
learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval

beliefs a person holds about his or her own abilities and relationships with others

internal locus of control
people who assume they have control over what happens in their life are considered internal in locus of control

external locus of control
people who feel their lives are controlled by powerful others, luck or fate

Which theory of aging is compared to the limited number of repairs you can have before your car’s warranty runs out?
cellular clock theory

People high in the need for __________ want to be liked by others and are good team players.

stimulus motive
one that appears unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation

three needs of SDT

need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals

need to be able to master the challenging tasks’s of one’s life

need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in relationships with others

happy feelings are associated for which part of the brain
left frontal lobe

negative feelings are associated at which part of the brain
right frontal lobe

display rules
learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings

James-Lange theory of emotion
a stimulus of some sort produces a physiological reaction (“I am nervous b/c my stomach flutters”); a stimulus and then a response which is interpreted as an emotion

cannon-bard theory of emotion
sensory info that comes from the brain is sent simultaneously by the thalamus to both cortex and organs of the sympathetic nervous system. fear and bodily reactions occur at the same time; not one after another

cognitive arousal theory (two-factor theory)
two things have to happen before emotion occurs: physical arousal and labeling of the arousal based on cues from surrounding environment; the two happen at the same time, resulting in the labeling of the emotion

example of cognitive arousal theory
snarling dog, label of fear and arousal in body simultaneously

cognitive-mediational theory
most important aspect of any emotional experience is how the person interprets the stimulus that causes the emotional reaction

in the cognitive mediational theory, cognitive appraisal …
mediates by coming between the stimulus and the emotional response to that stimulus.

example of cognitive mediational theory
snarling dog, not confined in cage so therefore it is dangerous, interpreted response as “fear”, thus arousal of emotion

common sense theory
snarling dog, conscious fear, body arousal of fear

facial feedback theory
arousal on face, interpreting facial expression, stimulates fear

physiological arousal is created by the
sympathetic nervous system and is associated with brain activity in specific areas (i.e. amygdala) and right/left hemisphere activity

In Maslow’s theory, how often do people reach a point of self-actualization?
not often

In Ryan and Deci’s self-determination theory, what is the key to achieving one’s needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness?
support of others

labeling process
retrieving memories of previous similar experiences, perceiving the context of the emotion and coming up with a solution; label is applied to a subjective feeling from learned response which is influenced by their language and culture

review motivation

snarling dog, body arousal, fear
stimulus produce a body reaction which leads to labeling of emotion

snarling dog, stimulus to brain, fear and body arousal
sensory information comes into the brain; simultaneously (by thalamus) to both the cortex and organs of the sympathetic nervous system; fear and body reaction are at the same time

cognitive mediational
interpreting a stimulus as fear before feeling body arousal after seeing snarling dog

weight set point
weight that the body tries to maintain; hypothalamus

hunger and eating behaviors are influenced by
social cues and convention (i.e. eating at certain times), culture, and gender

emotion is characterize by three elements
physical arousal, certain behavior that reveals feeling outside, inner awareness of the feeling

schachter and singer (cognitive arousal theory)
two things must happen before emotion occurs:
stimulus of snarling dog, thought of fear and body reaction, and then fear emotion

Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory
appraisal of threat, fear, body reaction

common sense theory “I’m shaking because I’m afraid”
snarling dog, conscious fear , ans arousal

james-lange theory (I’m afraid because I’m shaking)
snarling dog, ans arousal change in body, conscious fear

cannon-bard theory (i’m shaking and feeling afraid at the same time)
snarling dog, subcortical brain activity, ans arousal changes in body + conscious fear

schachter-singer cognitive arousal theory (this snarling dog is dangerous and that makes me feel afraid)
snarling dog, cognitive appraisal + ans arousal changes in body, conscious fear

facial feedback theory example
ans arousal in face, facial expression, cognitive interpretation of face motions, fear

lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory example
appraisal of threat, fear, body response

The phrase, “I’m embarrassed because my face is red” is best explained by which theory of emotion?x

changing one’s own behavior to more closely match the actions of others

normative social influence
the need to act in ways that we feel will let us be liked and accepted by others

informational social influence
cues of how to behave from other people when we are in a situation that is not clear or is ambiguous; behavior of other people provides info on how we should act and we conform to their actions

example of group think
sinking of the titanic; the idea that the ship is unsinkable and so people do not consider including enough lifeboats on board for all passengers

symptoms of groupthink
members may feel that the group can do no wrong, morally correct, and will always succeed (creating a sense of invulnerability)

groupthink: members exert pressure on individual members to
conform opinion, prevent those who may disagree from speaking up, and even censor themselves so that the group’s mindset will not be disturbed

characteristics of groupthink
lack of introspection
lack of disagreement

invulnerability (group think)
members feel they cannot fail

rationalization (group think)
members explain away warning signs and help each other rationalize their decision

group members in a groupthink tend to hold stereotyped views of those who oppose the group
causing members to think those who disagree have opinions not worthwhile

lack of introspection (groupthink)
members do no examine the ethical implications of their decision because they believe that they cannot make immoral choices

stereotyping (groupthink)
members stereotype their enemies as weak, stupid, unreasonable

pressure (groupthink)
members pressure each other not to question the prevailing opinion

lack of disagreement (groupthink)
members do not express opinions that differ from the group consensus

self-deception (groupthink)
members share in the illusion that they all agree with the decision

insularity (groupthink)
members prevent the group from hearing disruptive but potentially useful info from people outside the group

lowball technique
once commitment is made, cost of that commitment is increased (could mean time, effort, money, etc)

example of lowball technique
buying a car at a lowprice, but then there are extended warranties, additional options, taxes and fees, etc

ABC model of attitudes
affective, behavior, cognitive

central-route processing
people attend to the content of the message

peripheral-route processing
style of information processing that relies on peripheral cues (outside the message itself); such as expertise of message source, length of message, and other factors unrelated to message

implicit personality theory are sets of
assumptions that people have about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are all related and form in childhood

mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain “types” of people

actor-observer bias
people tend to explain the actions of others based on what “kind” of person they are rather than looking for outside causes (social influences or situations)

stereotype vulnerability
effect that a person’s knowledge of another stereotyped opinions can have on that person’s behavior

social identity theory
three processes are responsible for the formation of a person’s identity within a social group — categorization, identification and comparison

social learning theory
states that aggressive behavior is learned in a process called observational learning

Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision-making process is