Social Problems, chapter 5

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Sociologists refer to inequalities, differences, segregation, or conflict between age groups as the generation gap. age discrimination. age stratification. the graying of America.
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age stratification.
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virtually identical to that of white/Anglo retirees. different because prior racial discrimination in the workplace has diminished the opportunities for minority group members to invest in pension plans or save large sums of money toward retirement. extremely limited because few have any pension plan or receive Social Security or other retirement benefits. similar for both women and men over age 65.
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different because prior racial discrimination in the workplace has diminished the opportunities for minority group members to invest in pension plans or save large sums of money toward retirement.
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Why is death associated with old age more than in the past? Modern scientific understanding allows us to understand when death occurs. Most major religious groups associate death with old age. Medical technology has advanced life expectancy. Political movements have contributed to this association.
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Medical technology has advanced life expectancy.
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Social analysts exploring opportunities for female actors over forty versus opportunities for male actors over forty are based in what perspective? ageist feminist functionalist symbolic interactionist
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feminist
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In regard to problems associated with age-based stereotypes, stereotypes apply only to the elderly. stereotypes overplay positive traits of the elderly. there are more stereotypes about physical and mental abilities of the elderly than other age categories. stereotypes avoid derogatory remarks about people’s age, race, gender, or sexual orientation because everyone has a constitutional right to freedom of speech.
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there are more stereotypes about physical and mental abilities of the elderly than other age categories.
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The view that age-based inequality is rooted in power differentials is from which perspective? ageist symbolic interactionist functionalist conflict
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conflict
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The line between childhood and adolescence first came into existence in the 18th century during the Industrial Revolution. True False
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False
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The study of the life course primarily involves an examination of the age-based categories through which people pass as they grow older. the biological, physical, and social aspects of being old. developmental processes in infancy and childhood. how the media portrays the elderly.
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an examination of the age-based categories through which people pass as they grow older.
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Concerning how people cope with dying, which approach identified three common stages of grief: the acute phase, the chronic phase, and the terminal phase? trajectories of grief approach stage-based approach task-based approach dying trajectory approach
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dying trajectory approach
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Most deaths of older individuals are from malnutrition. chronic illness or disease. violent crime. AIDS.
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chronic illness or disease.
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The life expectancy at birth in the U.S. is 72. 74. 76. 78.
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78.
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According to functionalist perspectives on aging and inequality, dramatic changes in such social institutions as the family and religion have influenced how people view aging. older people must deny the existence of old age by maintaining middle-aged lifestyles for as long as possible. aging itself is not a social problem. aging creates greater problems for some women than for men.
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dramatic changes in such social institutions as the family and religion have influenced how people view aging.
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According to social gerontologists, the primary reason most people deny they are aging is because they do not want their friends and children to think of them as “old.” do not feel “old.” associate old age with death and want to deny its reality. deny many things in life.
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associate old age with death and want to deny its reality.
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Wrinkles, gray hair, and other signs of the aging process that occurs in middle age are known as senescence. initial aging. secondary aging. tertiary aging.
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senescence.
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Which of the following statements most accurately describes later maturity in the United States? This stage of the life course does not differ dramatically from middle age. Many people in later maturity find themselves caring for people of their own age and older individuals, especially their elderly parents. Old age is considered to begin in this stage of the life course. None of these statements accurately describes later maturity.
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Many people in later maturity find themselves caring for people of their own age and older individuals, especially their elderly parents.
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Role and exchange theories are based on which perspective? functionalist symbolic interactionist conflict feminist
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symbolic interactionist
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The concept of life expectancy is based upon a mathematical mode. range. median. average.
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average.
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Social gerontology focuses on the biological and physical aspects of aging. True False
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False
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Which of the following is a reason that emerging adulthood developed as a life phase? Completing sufficient education is taking less time than ever before. Women feel less pressured to marry. The number of available entry-level jobs is at an all-time high. The drinking age in the U.S. remains at 21.
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Women feel less pressured to marry.
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According to the text, women and men don’t always experience middle age in a similar manner. True False
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True
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When AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) promotes and lobbies for certain legislation that will benefit senior citizens, the organization is participating in solutions for age inequality that are based upon which perspective? feminist symbolic interactionist conflict functionalist
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conflict
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Among the industries with the highest number of older employees are food and beverage companies. media companies. airlines, utilities, and insurance companies. government-sponsored companies.
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airlines, utilities, and insurance companies.
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Organizations that provide homelike or home-based care for the terminally ill are referred to as hospices. True False
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True
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Older people who live in communities that provide amenities such as housekeeping, dining facilities, and transportation services reside in congregate housing. nursing homes. primary housing. government-funded housing.
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congregate housing.
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What percentage of dollars spent on health care is spent on people age 65 and older? 25% 33% 50% 75%
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33%
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Ageism has diminished in the United States through media presentations that have brought a greater awareness of the talents and capabilities of older persons. True False
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False
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Many sociologists believe that elder abuse goes underreported because victims are afraid or ashamed to report their victimization. True False
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True
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Concerning how people cope with dying, which approach identified four common phases of grief as resilience, recovery, chronic dysfunction, and delayed grief or trauma? stage-based approach dying trajectory approach trajectories of grief approach task-based approach
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trajectories of grief approach
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Which of the following terms was introduced by sociologist Robert Butler to describe misconceptions and myths that lead to age-based discrimination? elder abuse ageism elderism oldism
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ageism
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The period of life between ages 18 and 25 is known as young adulthood. True False
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False
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Why won’t technology bring about greater equality and freedom for all older people? Technology has not advanced enough to provide more equality and freedom. Not all older people can pay for technological advances. Technology to aid older individuals is not being developed. Most older people living alone do not need home accessibility features provided by technology.
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Not all older people can pay for technological advances.
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The perspective that suggests that older people want to be released from societal expectations as they grow older is known as retirement theory. activity theory. disengagement theory. conflict theory.
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disengagement theory.
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The United States population is getting younger. True False
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False
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Among most African Americans and Latinos/as, the retirement process is virtually identical to that of white/Anglo retirees. different because prior racial discrimination in the workplace has diminished the opportunities for minority group members to invest in pension plans or save large sums of money toward retirement. extremely limited because few have any pension plan or receive Social Security or other retirement benefits. similar for both women and men over age 65.
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different because prior racial discrimination in the workplace has diminished the opportunities for minority group members to invest in pension plans or save large sums of money toward retirement.
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Which of the following statements is correct regarding government-funded health care for older persons in the United States? Medicare is a welfare program in which recipients of benefits often have not paid anything to be covered. Medicaid provides wide-scale coverage for older people that gives them unrestricted amounts of skilled nursing care and home health services. Medicare is an entitlement program in which recipients of benefits have paid something in order to be covered. Medicare and Medicaid are welfare programs that are facing large budget cuts.
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Medicare is an entitlement program in which recipients of benefits have paid something in order to be covered.
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Most people have left paid employment by which age? 60 65 70 75
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70
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Based on the conflict perspective on aging and inequality, we can infer that abolishing the capitalist system would reduce age-based inequalities in the United States. doing away with compulsory retirement would reduce income inequality typically experienced by older people. ending costly government programs such as Social Security and Medicare would benefit not only younger workers but older people as well. there should no longer be required roles for older people in industrialized, urbanized societies, thus providing them with greater opportunities to enjoy retirement.
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abolishing the capitalist system would reduce age-based inequalities in the United States.
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Why is the poverty rate for people 65 and over relatively low? Few elderly are mentally ill. The elderly population is increasing. The elderly population is decreasing. Government programs have reduced poverty.
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Government programs have reduced poverty.
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According to interactionist perspectives on aging and inequality, older people want to be released from societal expectations and they continue to be productive and competitive. disengagement is functional for society and for older persons. older persons who are active are happier and better adjusted than less active older persons. class constitutes a structural barrier to older people’s access to valued resources in society.
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older persons who are active are happier and better adjusted than less active older persons.
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Older people are more likely to be victims of violent crime than persons in other age categories. True False
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False

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