Social Movements – Sociology

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collective action
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group of people going against social norms
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crowd collective action
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face to face (in the same room) interaction with group; everybody does it together
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mass collective action
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doing an action together but doesn’t require to be in the same room
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convergence theory
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people with similar ideas come together in the same place; doesn’t require planning ex: people rioting at a sports game
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contagion theory
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collective action tends to arise because of behaviors around us
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emergent norm theory
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key noters develop new norms based off of their behaviors
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alterative social movement
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focuses on a subgroup of the population and limited social change
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redemptive social movement
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focuses on a subgroup of the population with radical social change
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reformative social movement
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focuses on a limited change over a broad spectrum of society
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revolutionary social movement
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focuses on a broad change over a broad spectrum of society
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classical model
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social movements are a response to structural weakness within a society (racial inequality, unequal pay)
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resource-mobilization theory
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success of social movements depends on ability to acquire resources and use them
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political process model
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the success of social movements depends not only on the movement’s resources but on those of major social systems such as the state and how these are brought to bear in support or opposition
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emergence coalescence routinization decline
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4 stages of social movements
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structural strain
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Recognition of a tension between group ideals and existing social reality
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structural conduciveness
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objective conditions in the social structure that cause problems for people and allow for collective action
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spread of a generalized belief
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Shared explanation of the cause, effects, and solution to a problem
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precipitating factors
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An event triggers a collective response
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mobilization for action
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Leaders emerge and resources mobilized
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mechanisms of social control
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Both internal and external
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repression
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When authorities use measures to control or destroy a movement
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cooptation
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When movement leaders come to associate with authorities or movement targets more than with the social movement constituents
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emergence
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little to no organization, widespread discontent
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coalescence
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more clearly defined sense of discontent, focalized and collective, leadership emerges, strategies developed, organized
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routinization
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higher levels of organization, success in raising awareness, political power greater, trained staff to carry out functions
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decline
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repression or co-optation and success or failure
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social movement organizations
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Develop after institutionalization of social movements, recruit new members and coordinate participation, raise money, clarify goals, structure participation

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