SOC101: Sociology Flashcards Essay

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Sociology
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Systematic study of human action in social context.
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Microstructures
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Are patterns of intimate social relations formed during face to face interactions. Families, friendships , circles and work associations.
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Marcostructures
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Are patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circles of intimate acquaintances. Class relations and patriarchy, the traditional system of economic and political inequality between men and women in most societies.
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Global Structures
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International organizations , patterns of worldwide travel and communication and the economic relations between countries.
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Sociological Perspective
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While acknowledging that each individual is unique, we realize that society acts differently on various categories of people. Stresses social contexts in which people live.
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Idiographic
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Approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the item syncretic causes of a particular condition or event trying to . List all the reasons you choose to attend your particular university
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Nomothetic
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An approach to explanation And which we seek to identify a few casual factors that influence a class of conditions or events. Choosing two or three key factors that determine what university you choose
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Social Imagination
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The sociological perspective stresses the social contexts in which people live and how these contexts influence their lives. A way of looking at the world that links private problems of the world and important social issues. How people are influenced by their society.
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Agreement reality
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What we know as a part and parcel of the culture we share with those around us
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Dependent Variables
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A variable is assumed to depend on or because buy another if you find that an income is partly a function of amount of formal education income is being treated as the dependent variable
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Experiential reality
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What we know from personal experience and discovery
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Independent Variables
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Variable with values that are not problematic in any analysis but are taken as simply given an independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
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Attributes
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The defining characteristics of people or things
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Variables
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Logical groupings of attributes. The variable gender is mader up of the attributes male to female.
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Status Conferral
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The process of giving prominence to particular individuals by focusing media attention on them
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Narcotization
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Situation in which people so overwhelmed by the amount of information they received that they become none and do not act on the information.
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Cultural imperialism
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The extensive infusion of one’s national culture in other nations
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Resocialization
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Reocialization involves deliberately trying to install particular values and behaviors in people who are members of tightly net groups such as fraternities sports teams or of total institutions. Causes rapid change in people’s roles and values and self conception sometimes against their will
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Total Institutions
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Military covents prisons boarding schools psychiatric hospitals people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time
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Social Interaction
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is the process by which people act toward respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society
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Social Structure
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is a stable pattern of social relationships that exist within a particular group or society
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Social marginality
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this state of being part insider and park outsider in the social structure
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Status Set
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a term used to describe all the status is that a person occupies a given time
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Primary group (social )
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a small less specialized privilege members engage in face to -based interactions over extended time. Groups where norms, roles and statues are agreed upon not necessarily in writing. Family
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Secondary group (social)
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larger more specialized group in which the members engage in more in personal goal oriented relationships for limited time
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Social institution
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a set of organized belifs that rule and establish how society will attempt to meet its basic needs
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Mechanical solidarity
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Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion that exists in preindustrial societies in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and social
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Organic solidarity
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Emile Durkheim’s term for the social cohesion that exists in industrial and perhaps postindustrial society in which people perform specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence
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Social construction of reality
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the process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to experience
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Ethonmethodology
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The study of The common sense knowledge that people used to understand situations in which they find themselves
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Impression management
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a term for people’s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interest payments
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Functionalist Theory (Durkheim)
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Stresses that human behaviour is governed by stable patterns of social relations( Social structures) Shows how cycle structures can either maintain or undermine social stability Suggests social structures are based mainly on shared values of preferences Aruges that re-establishing equilibrium is best way to solve most social problems
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Conflict Theory (Karl Marx)
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focusues on a large macro-level structures Shows how major patterns of inequality circumstances and social changes in others Stresses how member of privileged construct laws and rule to retain their power
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Induction
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the logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations have it noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote liberal the protestants are you might conclude that the religious minorities in Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why this is being example of induction
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Deduction
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The logical model with specific expectations of hypothesis are developed on the basis of general principles starting from the general principle that all jeans are meanies you might anticipate that this will let you change courses this anticipation would be the result of deduction
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The Pre-Modern View
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this theory has guided most of human history I Early ancestors assumed that they saw things as they really were as humans evolved and became aware of their diversity they came to recognize that other did not we share their views on things
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The Modern View
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recognizes such diversity amongst people as legitimate a philosophical different strokes for different folks. Neither of us is right or wrong
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The Post Modern View
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nothing is real nothing exists although it’s really the images we get through our points of view put differently there’s nothing out there it’s all in here
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Theory
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a tentative explanation of some observed regularity
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Ethnography
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the detailed description of a particular culture our way of life for the written result of a participation observation study
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Main Methods of Sociology
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Field method city how individual interacted every day settings Surveys interviews focus group An Analysis of existing documents and official statistics
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Operationalize
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Measurement and procedure by which researchers this criteria for assigning values to variable how are you doing the concept would counsel would does not count
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Superilous relationships
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involve incorrect infrence about the casual relations between variables
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Self Administered Questionnaire
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a method of collecting information by having people over quite their own answers to preset questions
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Participant observation
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this study of social life involves the participation of the research and to varying degrees in the activities of the group under investigation ; attempts to give an insider’s account of the particular way of life and cultural system
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External validity
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is the generalizability other particular finding from the study group to a larger population the relevance of conclusions for a larger population or the ability to the further that the results of the study are represented to of a process operating in an broader population
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4 Functions of the media
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Surveillance Interpretation Socialization Entertainment
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Primary Socialization
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is the crucial learning process that occurs in childhood and initiate their entry into society (families)
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Secondary socialization
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To be a student, sponsor, parent learning a new job making new friends taking on new hobbies joining clubs I’ll involves socialization this kind of learning (schools)
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Socialization
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is the vital link between individuals and society including values/norms/roles
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Sigmund Freud First emergence of self
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Earlier thinkers believe that the self emerges naturally the way a seed germinates. A departure from previous thinking argues the only SOCIAL INTERACTION allows us to emerge
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Cooley – The Looking Glass Self
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Persons self grows out of society’s interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others people shape their self concept is based on their understanding of how people perceive. The social mirror there’s no sense of self self image emerges as a product of involvement in and groups and communication with others. Significant others followed by primary group
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Mead I & Me
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This subjective part of the self “I” and the objective part of the self “Me” The “I” acts The “Me” reflects on our actions through the lens of social norms, values and expectations . Taking the Role
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3 Stages in ” Taking the Role of the Other (Mead)”
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1st. Stage imitative stage children younger than two years old have no real conception of themselves their language skills are insufficiently developed to allow them to communicate effectively when they play they often acted the behavior associated with certain roles such as a mother father dancer or a firefighter for what they are doing is not true role-playing only mimicking her imitation 2. Stage Play Stage begin to adopt the roles of significant others there play shifts from imitative too imaginative. They learn to anticipate peoples reactions with out having to act of the situation. 3. Final Stage Game stage develop a generalized impression of behavior people expect an awareness of their own importance to the group need use the metaphor of the game to describe the complex behavior required at this stage there is a continual adjusting behaviors to meet the needs of the team
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The “Self”
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sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to others and to differentiate ourselves
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Pierre Bourdieu
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IMPACTS BEHAVIOUR ON AN UNCONSCIOUS LEVEL. HABITUS many of these different individual aspects that are shaped by our social environment will go unnoticed. Differentiate from habit in one important , habitus are not just the consequences of individual history but they also generative (outcomes). DISPOSITION
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Agents of Socialization
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Primary Socialization Secondary Socialization Peer groups mass media
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Peer Groups
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consists of individuals who are not necessarily friends but as of the same age group and of similar status. Groups
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Prescriptive norms
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What your excepted to do
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Proscriptive norms
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What your excepted NOT to do
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Feminist Theory
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claims that the patriarchy is least as important as class inequality in determining a perks’s opportunities in life. It hold that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity buy by structures of power and social convention.
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Symbolic Interactionism
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face-to-face communication of interaction in micro level social settings. It emphasizes an adequate explanation of social behavior requires understanding of the subjective meeting people attached to their social circumstances it’s just the people help to create their social circumstances and do not merely react them. It validates unpopular nonofficial viewpoints thus increasing understanding of tolerance of people who maybe
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External validity
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is the generalizability of a particular finding from the study group to a larger population
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Validity
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Is the relevance or accuracy of a measurement in relation to the theoretical concept that it is suppose to measure
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Objectivity
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And to minimize the effect of personal bias in recent results or the idea of impartiality that of “fair hearings”
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Ethnocentrism
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The tendency for a person to judge other cultures exclusively by standards of their own culture
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Aggregate
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A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but have little else in common
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The Bourgeoisie
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According to Marx’s one of the two main classes comprised of the owners of means of production
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Caste System
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Is a closed stratification system most common in India with strict rules regarding the which type of work members of different castes can do
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Class
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Overall position and economic hierarchy occupied by individuals or families is in access to her control over material resources
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Class Conflict
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According to Marx is the conflict between major classes within a mode of production it eventually leads the evolution of new mode of production
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Class consciousness
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According to Marx is the recognition of members of the class of their shared interest in opposition to members of the class
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Class Structure
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Is a relatively permanent economic hierarchy comprising different social classes
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Closed Stratification System
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Is a stratification system in which little or no social mobility occurs because most or all of the statuses are ascribed
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The Functionalist Theory of Stratification
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Views social organizations as analogues to a biological organism in which the parts exist because of the functions they perform maintaining the whole. In this theory ratification exist because of the vital functions of presenting performed maintaining social equilibrium
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Means of Production
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According to Marx are one of the main components of the mode of production consisting of the technology capital investment raw materials used in production
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Mode of Production
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According to Marx is a system of economic activity in a society comprising the means of production and the social relations of production ( The class system)
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Social Mobility
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Is a process whereby individuals families or other groups move up and down a status hierarchy
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Social Stratification
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Refers to persistent patterns of social inequality perpetuated by the way wealth power and prestige or distributed and passed from one generation to the next
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Proletariat
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According to Marx one of the classes of the capitalist mode of production of comprising workers in exchange for labor for way
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Open Stratification System
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is a stratification system in where merit rather then inheritance or ascribed characteristics determines social rank
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Network
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a web of social relationships that link one person and through them with more people that those people know. A set of nodes (network members) that are tied together by more then one set of relations
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Bureaucracy
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An organizational model characterized by hierarchy Authority clear division of labor explicit rules and procedures and and and personality in personal matters
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Formal Characteristics of Bureaucracy Weber
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Weber* Division of Labour Hierarchy of Authority Rules and Regulations Qualification based employment impersonality
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Informal Structure
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Informal structure
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Shortcomings of Bureaucracies
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Inefficiency and rigidity resistance to change perpetuation of gender race and class in
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Mcdonaldization
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Efficiency -optimum method of getting from one point to another Calculability – emphasis on quantitive aspect of product Predictability- assures the product will be the same Control standardized uniform employees and use of non-human technologies
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3 Formal Organizations
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Utilitarian – paycheck ( Large business, government) Normative – not for income but to peruse a moral goal ( volunteer, community based Org.) Coercive – Involuntary membership (prison)
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Dynamic nominalism
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domestic violence, child abuse, marital rape. Only objects of intervention once language to describe those phenomenon existed
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Cultural relativist perspective
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The belief that the behaviours and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the cultures own standards (opposite of ethnocentrism)
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Culture
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The knowledge, language and values customs and material objects that are passed from person to person from one generation to the next any human group or society

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