Soc101-Ch.1-The Sociological Imagination

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sociology
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the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference
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sociological imagination
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an awareness of the relationship between who we are as individuals and the social forces that shape our lives
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private troubles
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obstacles that individuals face as individuals rather than as a consequence of the social position
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public issues
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obstacles that individuals in similar positions face; aka social problems (note that private troubles can become public issues)
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agency
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the freedom individuals have to choose and to act
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social inequality
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a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power
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science
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the body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation
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natural science
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the study of the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change
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social science
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the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change
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theory
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in sociology, a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior
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anomie
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the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
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macrosociology
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sociological investigation that concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations
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microsociology
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sociological investigation that stresses the study of small groups and the analysis of our everyday experiences and interactions
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functionalist perspective
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sociological approach that emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability
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conflict perspective
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sociological approach that assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power and resource, including housing, money, access to services, and political representation
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interactionist perspective
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sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
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personal sociology
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the process of recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act, and of taking responsibility for the impacts our actions have on others
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applied sociology
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the use of sociology w/ the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior or organizations
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clinical sociology
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the use of sociology w/ the specific intent of altering organizations or restructuring social institutions
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globalization
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the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas

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