Soc Test #3

question

Which of the following would most likely be characteristic of a society with a more open system of social stratification? social stratification based only on ascription endogamous marriage practices greater emphasis on meritocracy norms that reinforce the view that some groups of people are \”purer\” than others
answer

greater emphasis on meritocracy
question

A caste system is _________ than a class system. less open found in industrial societies more often found in agrarian societies less often more open
answer

less open
question

Which of the following would be considered a source of income? debts earnings from work real estate stocks and bonds
answer

earnings from work
question

How do sociologists define the concept of wealth? the value of income, all other assets, minus the value of all outstanding debts the value of potential intergenerational inheritance, and salary the value of charitable contributions, occupation, and home value how much income a person earns
answer

the value of income, all other assets, minus the value of all outstanding debts
question

According to Davis and Moore, what benefits come from social stratification? Stratification encourages the oldest people to have more power and wealth. No one benefits from social stratification, in their opinion. Only egalitarian societies experience productive efficiency. Linking rewards to the functional importance of positions promotes a society’s productivity and efficiency.
answer

Linking rewards to the functional importance of positions promotes a society’s productivity and efficiency.
question

Why is health closely related to social standing? Poorer people are more likely to describe their health as excellent. Because poorer people live in less stressful environments, they live longer. Richer people live healthier and longer because they eat more nutritious food and receive better medical care. Fewer babies are born to wealthy people, so they experience lower infant mortality.
answer

Richer people live healthier and longer because they eat more nutritious food and receive better medical care.
question

What makes defining classes in U.S. society so difficult? Although people believe the United States does not have a caste system, it does in fact have a very rigid one. The controlling class does not want to be classified for fear of sparking political revolt. U.S. society has a relatively low level of status consistency so the boundaries between class levels are not very clear. People believe themselves to be in a higher class than they really are.
answer

U.S. society has a relatively low level of status consistency so the boundaries between class levels are not very clear.
question

Over the past several decades, what has happened to the level of economic inequality in the United States? Economic inequality has increased slightly. Economic inequality has increased dramatically. Economic inequality has declined. Economic inequality has remained about the same.
answer

Economic inequality has increased dramatically.
question

Max Weber viewed social stratification as involving three distinct dimensions of inequality: class, status, and power. True False
answer

True
question

Compared to high-income people, working-class people tend to be __________ controversial patterns of behavior in others. less tolerant of more tolerant of indifferent to encouraging of
answer

less tolerant of
question

Karl Marx believed that a __________ system would replace __________ and provide for the needs of all people rather than just the needs of an elite few. communist; democracy socialist; capitalism capitalist; communism democratic; socialism
answer

socialist; capitalism
question

Manufacturing jobs lost in the United States since 1960 have largely been replaced by __________ jobs. service professional farming technical
answer

service
question

Which of the following social classes accounts for the largest percent of the U.S. population? the upper class the lower class the middle class the upper middle class
answer

the middle class
question

In 2011, women in the United States who worked full time earned __________ as much as men who worked full time. 87 percent 57 percent 97 percent 77 percent
answer

77 percent
question

All systems of social inequality create ________, the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more. absolute poverty affluence wealth relative poverty
answer

relative poverty
question

A change in social position that occurs during a person’s lifetime is known as _________. lateral social mobility status inconsistency intragenerational social mobility intergenerational social mobility
answer

intragenerational social mobility
question

In high-income societies, when people switch from one job to another, they typically experience __________. downward mobility horizontal mobility intergenerational mobility upward mobility
answer

horizontal mobility
question

Ramone’s parents graduated from high school and worked for a local hotel. Ramone graduated from college and teaches high school biology. Ramone has experienced __________. structural social mobility no social mobility upward social mobility downward social mobility
answer

upward social mobility
question

How would the Davis-Moore thesis explain the fact that physicians earn far more money than do bus drivers? Physicians tend to be part of a dominant social elite and they limit the access of minority members to the resources needed to become a physician. In so doing, physicians are able to maintain the income, power, and prestige that accompany their occupation for members of the dominant group. The occupation of physician carries with it a great deal of stress, which means that physicians have a much shorter life span than do bus drivers and hence a much shorter period of time in which to earn money. The large amount of income that doctors earn therefore compensates them for their shorter work life. People tend to develop much closer relationships with their physicians than they do with bus drivers. Because patients tend to like, respect, and trust physicians, they are willing to pay them large amounts of money to maintain these relationships. The occupation of physician is more highly valued than that of bus driver and requires much more ability and sacrifice in terms of education and training. Providing physicians with greater rewards draws talent to that position and ensures that some people will be willing to make the sacrifices needed to become physicians.
answer

The occupation of physician is more highly valued than that of bus driver and requires much more ability and sacrifice in terms of education and training. Providing physicians with greater rewards draws talent to that position and ensures that some people will be willing to make the sacrifices needed to become physicians.
question

Michelle Johansen, a single mother living just outside of Chicago, Illinois, earns approximately $36,000 a year from her blue-collar job as an auto mechanic. Michelle is proud that the modest home in which she lives is in the same neighborhood where she grew up. Although she enjoys her work, she finds the constant supervision of her bosses to be stifling and worries because the job does not provide a pension. Compounding her troubles is how to tell her daughter that she will not be able to afford the university her daughter has talked about for the past year. Into which social class does Michelle Johansen most likely fall? the lower class the working class the average-middle class the upper-middle class
answer

the working class
question

Jasmine is a single mother, making just above minimum wage at her job, trying to support her two children after having run through her social assistance benefits the year before. The fact that women such as she are at high risk of being poor reflects the trend called __________. intragenerational social mobility losing cultural capital the feminization of poverty the new middle class
answer

the feminization of poverty
question

After studying the ideas of ________ in her political science class, Lakeisha felt that private ownership of property and class structures are oppressive. Davis and Moore Spencer Plato Marx
answer

Marx
question

What evidence exists to suggest that horizontal social mobility (such as changing from one job to another that is similar) is more characteristic of society than other forms of social mobility? The overall social standing of most people remains much the same over the course of their lifetime. Social standing tends to reflect personal talent and effort. Most children achieve a higher social standing during their lifetime than that held by their parents. Wealth is always easier to achieve than power or prestige.
answer

The overall social standing of most people remains much the same over the course of their lifetime.
question

Sociologists use the term \”feminization of poverty\” to describe __________. the increasing earnings gap between men and women the trend by which women make up an increasing proportion of the poor the disproportionate number of female sociologists who conduct research on issues surrounding poverty the disproportionate number of women who work as social caseworkers for the poor
answer

the trend by which women make up an increasing proportion of the poor
question

The Census Bureau reports that, in 2011, $60,974 was the poverty level for a family of four. lowest amount of income needed to be in the richest 20 percent of all families. annual amount a worker on minimum wage could make. median U.S. family income.
answer

median U.S. family income.
question

What argument did Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore present to support their beliefs that social inequality has beneficial consequences for the operation of society? Some form of social stratification has been found in every known society. Later generations always progress further toward equality than earlier generations. It always takes time for nonmaterial culture to catch up with material culture. All people in a society have a psychological need to judge themselves better than those around them.
answer

Some form of social stratification has been found in every known society.
question

The town of Durkheim, New Hampshire, creates a new youth baseball league for teenagers aged 13 through 17, and the response is tremendous. Because the emphasis of the league’s creators is on fun rather than competition, none of the games played by the teams during their four-month season is scored. At the end of the season, all of the players on the league’s twelve teams receive a small trophy with the inscription, \”You’re #1!\” Following the Davis-Moore thesis, which of the following would be the most likely result of the town’s new youth baseball program? Far fewer of the best teenagers sign up to play baseball the following year for this team, looking elsewhere for a chance to excel; those that do sign up are the first season’s weaker players, leading the league’s creators to rethink their procedures. Many of the town’s best players in its youth soccer and youth football leagues leave their leagues to play baseball. A majority of the players show a remarkable improvement in their baseball skills by the end of the season. The officials of the town’s soccer and football leagues restructure their procedures to resemble those of the baseball league.
answer

Far fewer of the best teenagers sign up to play baseball the following year for this team, looking elsewhere for a chance to excel; those that do sign up are the first season’s weaker players, leading the league’s creators to rethink their procedures.
question

Even though a caste system has a fairly negative image in the eyes of individuals who don’t live in one, how do the elements of a caste system that exist in a meritocracy actually provide benefits to a more open class system? Caste elements provide more equitable reward for performance. Caste systems encourage significantly greater productivity. Caste systems encourage social mobility among the entire range of stratification. The norms of caste system instill a certain amount of order and social integration within society.
answer

The norms of caste system instill a certain amount of order and social integration within society.
question

A high level of mobility is what we would expect in a(n) a static stratification system. a \”closed\” stratification system. industrial class system. caste system.
answer

industrial class system.
question

What happens when intragenerational social mobility occurs? An expansion of the U.S. economy pushes up living standards for everyone. Individuals change their social position during their own lifetimes. Children are upwardly or downwardly socially mobile in relation to their parents. Long-term changes in society occur that affect young people.
answer

Individuals change their social position during their own lifetimes.
question

What was Marx’s main criticism of capitalist laws that define property ownership? Capitalist societies did not do enough to ensure that wealth and power stay in the hands of a few as \”a law of the marketplace.\” They ensure that money stays within the same families from one generation to the next. They did not consider any form of inequality as just. They did not do enough to limit the meritocratic aspects of capitalist societies.
answer

They ensure that money stays within the same families from one generation to the next.
question

What evidence exists to indicate that wealth is distributed more unequally in the United States than income? The percentage of wealth owned by the poorest 20 percent of families is roughly equivalent to the percentage of all U.S. income earned by this group. The richest 20 percent of U.S. families own a much larger percentage of the nation’s wealth than they earn of the nation’s income. The richest 20 percent of U.S. families own a much smaller percentage of the nation’s wealth than the percentage they earn of the nation’s income. The percentages of wealth and income attributable to the richest 20 percent of U.S. families are far lower than the percentages attributable to the remaining 80 percent of U.S. families.
answer

The richest 20 percent of U.S. families own a much larger percentage of the nation’s wealth than they earn of the nation’s income.
question

Compared to white-collar jobs, blue-collar jobs typically require ________ schooling. more about the same amount of less no
answer

less
question

Which of the following factors explains why lower-class families tend to be larger than middle-class families? Lower-class couples tend to marry earlier and women make less use of birth control. Lower-class families are less likely to conform to conventional norms. Lower-class families have greater cultural capital. Lower-class couples tend to be more egalitarian in all aspects of life and to express greater intimacy.
answer

Lower-class couples tend to marry earlier and women make less use of birth control.
question

__________ is to the upper-upper class as achievement is to the lower-upper class. Conspicuous consumption Income Birth Opportunity
answer

Birth
question

Some people would argue that teachers actually contribute more value to society than does someone like Kim Kardashian, and yet teachers are paid significantly less than Kardashian. These people would be critical of the Davis and Moore thesis. increased opportunities for everyone to develop their abilities. the idea of meritocracy. the social conflict approach.
answer

the Davis and Moore thesis.
question

Yelena grew up as a rural peasant in the Soviet Union, but with the country’s rapidly expanding industry, Yelena, along with thousands of other peasants, found a job working in a factory. What do sociologists call this type of shift in the social position? meritocracy caste wealth redistribution structural social mobility
answer

structural social mobility
question

According to Max Weber’s analysis of social stratification, the single, most important dimension of difference between people in industrial societies is __________. age prestige power class or economic inequality
answer

class or economic inequality
question

Winning the lottery is to upward social mobility as __________ is to downward social mobility. birth winning a spelling bee losing a best friend losing a job
answer

losing a job
question

The movement of many high-paying industrial jobs overseas has been accompanied here in the United States by an expansion of low-paying jobs in the __________. sales industry service industry manufacturing industry trades industry
answer

service industry
question

Frieda, who was raised in a middle-class family, has just dropped out of college midway through her freshman year, and now she is living in a rundown apartment, working the third shift at a convenience store. This move is an example of horizontal mobility. structural mobility. downward mobility. upward mobility.
answer

downward mobility.
question

When it comes to the means of production, Marx believed most people either own the means of production or they are better off than those owners. believe that private ownership of property is wrong. will refuse to participate in production. provide labor for those who do.
answer

provide labor for those who do.
question

As a member of the average-middle class, Aiden has built up a small amount of wealth. What would be the typical form this wealth would take? income-producing investments and rental properties real estate and precious metals such as gold a house and a retirement account stocks and bonds
answer

a house and a retirement account
question

Defining social categories in fluid class systems is much more difficult than the rankings in a rigid caste system. Why is this so? The inequality in income levels is much less pronounced in a caste system than in a class system. Caste systems have only two levels, whereas a class system has infinite levels. A person’s standing on one dimension may differ from other dimensions within a class system, making class boundaries unclear. Social status within a class system is unchangeable during a person’s life, whereas a person’s status may vary throughout life in a caste system.
answer

A person’s standing on one dimension may differ from other dimensions within a class system, making class boundaries unclear.
question

A meritocracy would be characterized by little change in social position. endogamous marriages. ascribed jobs. extensive social mobility.
answer

extensive social mobility.
question

How does a caste system set people’s social standing? A caste system lets people earn their own standing. A caste system has no social differences at all. A caste system includes individual achievements in social standing. A caste system ascribes social status to people at birth.
answer

A caste system ascribes social status to people at birth.
question

In India, families in each caste—Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Sudra—perform one type of work, as priests, soldiers, barbers, leather workers, street sweepers, and so on. Which caste would a farmer be in? A farmer could be in almost any caste because farming work is open to members of many castes. A farmer is an \”untouchable,\” who is not a member of any caste. A farmer must be of the Vaishya caste. A farmer must be of the Brahman caste.
answer

A farmer could be in almost any caste because farming work is open to members of many castes.
question

The most common pattern of social mobility in the United States is __________. downward social mobility horizontal social mobility upward social mobility vertical social mobility
answer

horizontal social mobility
question

Which of the following variables was the most important factor affecting the probability of who survived the sinking of the Titanic? marital status swimming ability social class age
answer

social class
question

Rita grew up in a working-class family, went to college, graduated from medical school, and married a U.S. senator’s son. With each change in her life, her social status improved. In what type of system would this scenario happen relatively often? agrarian society a class system with considerable meritocracy caste system aristocratic system
answer

a class system with considerable meritocracy
question

__________ are to the working class as __________ are to the upper middle class. Smaller families; larger families Expressions of greater intimacy; fewer expressions of intimacy Traditional gender roles; more egalitarian gender roles Friendships based on shared leisure pursuits; friendships based on mutual material assistance
answer

Traditional gender roles; more egalitarian gender roles
question

Dawn breaks, and a sleepy nine-year-old girl rolls off the mat she shares with her sisters in the family’s tiny hut. Stepping outside, she glances at the mountains that are a familiar sight in this South American landscape and wonders again if there might be anything beyond them. She smiles, thinking of the fun she will have this morning helping her mother and sisters gather nuts and wild berries for the family’s mid-day meal. She waves as she sees her father and brothers gather their hoes and digging sticks to tend to the family’s crops, then runs back inside to see if they have left her any breakfast. According to Gerhard Lenski’s model of sociocultural evolution, this girl most likely lives in a(n) __________ society, which has __________. horticultural; more pronounced social stratification than that found in hunting and gathering societies pastoral society; an intensity of social stratification higher than that found in agrarian societies hunting and gathering; the highest intensity of social stratification agrarian; the lowest intensity of social stratification
answer

horticultural; more pronounced social stratification than that found in hunting and gathering societies
question

Amanda teaches high school chemistry and earns about $60,000 a year, is building up her retirement account, and is paying off a mortgage for her home. Into what stratus of the U.S. class system would Amanda most likely fall? lower-upper class average-middle class upper-middle class working class
answer

average-middle class
question

Any particular system of social stratification typically continues over long periods of time due to the effects of class struggle. changes in productive technology. cultural values and beliefs that operate as supporting ideology. downward mobility.
answer

cultural values and beliefs that operate as supporting ideology.
question

Harold works as a medical transcriptionist working in an office in a local hospital. What type of worker is Harold? stockholder self-employed professional white-collar worker blue-collar worker
answer

white-collar worker
question

What is the main reason that some people engage in conspicuous consumption? to support the growth of the U.S. economy to make a statement about one’s social position to find an outlet for disposable income to buy better products
answer

to make a statement about one’s social position
question

Which of the following is recognized as a category of the U.S. class system? the meritorious class the unemployed class the untouchable class the working class
answer

the working class
question

Why do people with lower social standing experience less confidence in everyday interactions? Poor people are younger. They are more likely to have grown up in an atmosphere of strict supervision and discipline. They tend to be extremely tolerant of controversial behaviors. Others tend to view them as having greater importance.
answer

They are more likely to have grown up in an atmosphere of strict supervision and discipline.
question

Most of the wealth owned by the average family in the United States consists of __________ stocks and bonds investments inherited money and property a home and an automobile
answer

a home and an automobile
question

When looking at a map of the United States, in what region of the country do you find the greatest density of low-income counties? the upper Midwest New England states the Deep South the Pacific Coast states
answer

the Deep South
question

People in the United States tend to view the working poor in a more favorable light than they do other individuals who live in poverty. True False
answer

t
question

Social stratification is a system in which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy and which is supported by widely-held values and beliefs about what is fair. the same everywhere in the world. always completely controlled by the oldest people. almost always based on simply the amount of money a person has.
answer

supported by widely-held values and beliefs about what is fair.
question

Which of the following people best represents a category of the U.S. population whose rate of poverty has greatly decreased over the last fifty years? people over the age of sixty-five ten-year-old children female heads of household low wage workers
answer

people over the age of sixty-five
question

An analysis guided by the __________ approach would likely include the following statement: \”Endogamy is an important feature of caste systems because it helps to ensure that members of a particular caste have limited interaction with other castes.\” structural-functional symbolic-interaction sociobiology social-conflict
answer

structural-functional
question

Why are parents of higher social standing more likely to encourage children to develop their creativity? The odds are that more privileged children will have jobs that require them to follow rules. They tend to value traditional gender roles more. They pass along a \”cultural capital\” that encourages their children to express their individuality because the jobs they are likely to have require creativity. The more children that parents have, the more they can develop their children’s talents and abilities.
answer

They pass along a \”cultural capital\” that encourages their children to express their individuality because the jobs they are likely to have require creativity.
question

Which of the following factors explains why the middle class has a tremendous influence on our culture? They control the most wealth in the United States. They have a larger share of the U.S. population than any other category. They are the most cohesive and least ethnically varied of the four categories of the U.S. class system. The other classes simply defer to them because of their social confidence and power.
answer

They have a larger share of the U.S. population than any other category.
question

Families that are members of the upper class earn at least $205,000 a year. According to data provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, upper-class families represent about what percentage of the total U.S. population? 5 percent 20 percent 10 percent 1 percent
answer

5 percent
question

Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the symbolic-interaction approach to social stratification? Social position is a matter of meanings, which reflect the quantity and quality of products that we consume. Social position is a reflection of the way in which society divides valued resources. Social position is a reflection of individual talents and abilities in a competitive economy. Social position is a reflection of a system that rewards some people and punishes others.
answer

Social position is a matter of meanings, which reflect the quantity and quality of products that we consume.
question

What did Kai Erikson claim based on his study of the Massachusetts Bay Puritans? Deviance is a result of powerlessness. Deviance is relative. Deviance depends on a relative opportunity structure. Deviance is a necessary resource for the operation of society.
answer

Deviance is a necessary resource for the operation of society.
question

According to feminist theory, gender influences how we define deviance because people commonly __________. see women in a more powerful role use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females use similar standards to judge the behavior of males and females see women as requiring less control compared to men
answer

use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females
question

Which of the following individuals is the most likely to engage in deviance, according to Travis Hirschi’s control theory? Russell, a married man who works 14 hours a day to support his family Blake, an angry boy with few friends who has lived with his older sister since his parents divorced Monique, a young girl who comes from a wealthy home and wants to get into a good college Kelsey, a teenage girl who lives with her mother and plays in the marching band after school
answer

Blake, an angry boy with few friends who has lived with his older sister since his parents divorced
question

Why is only a small share of property crime reported to the police? Because it costs money to report property crimes. Because police discourage reporting. Because the victim’s loss is often relatively small. Because people have limited time.
answer

Because the victim’s loss is often relatively small.
question

Which explains a limitation of the biological approach to deviance? It focuses on society as a whole, ignoring the individual. Most deviant behaviors, including crimes, are carried out by biologically normal people. The range of deviance cannot be correlated to a specific biological signature. None of the other responses is correct.
answer

Most deviant behaviors, including crimes, are carried out by biologically normal people.
question

All crimes are composed of two elements: the act itself and __________. the context the perpetrator the victim criminal intent
answer

criminal intent
question

The problem of illegal drugs in the United States is an issue of _________. price fixing supply and demand little importance. national security
answer

supply and demand
question

From the symbolic-interaction point of view, definitions of deviance and conformity are __________. one and the same rigid highly variable based on conformity
answer

highly variable
question

Emile Durkheim’s basic insight was that __________. deviance is much more common than most people think deviance blurs the line between right and wrong deviance does not cause as much suffering as we tend to think there is nothing abnormal about deviance because all societies create it and it has positive functions for the operation of society
answer

there is nothing abnormal about deviance because all societies create it and it has positive functions for the operation of society
question

Thoughts and actions become deviant __________. when the criminal justice system becomes involved only in relation to the norms of a particular setting, group, or society just by being observed only when the actions are harmful
answer

only in relation to the norms of a particular setting, group, or society
question

Interpreting someone’s past in light of some present deviance is a process sociologists call __________. stigmatizing projective labeling retrospective labeling prospective labeling
answer

retrospective labeling
question

By 2012, the federal government and _____ states had enacted legislation that increased penalties for crimes motivated by hatred. 45 just one all 50 9
answer

45
question

The strategy in which a judge orders a convicted offender to prison for a short time but then suspends the remainder of the sentence in favor of probation is called __________. shock probation parole probation recidivism
answer

shock probation
question

According to the social-conflict approach, deviance is ___________. socially constructed highly variable shaped by power universal
answer

universal
question

Researchers use __________ to ask people whether they have been the victims of crime. small group surveys victimization surveys police reports online surveys
answer

victimization surveys
question

The attempt by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior is called __________. conformity social control mind control behavioral regulation
answer

social control
question

A legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant’s admission of guilt is called __________. protective bargaining deterrence plea bargaining retribution
answer

plea bargaining
question

According to victimization surveys, the overall crime rate is _________ official reports indicated. more than twice as high ten times higher than considerably lower than the same as
answer

more than twice as high
question

The rate of handgun deaths in the United States is about _____ times higher than the rate in Canada. seven two five three
answer

seven
question

\”An eye for an eye\” describes this justification for punishment. rehabilitation retribution societal protection deterrence
answer

retribution
question

According to Steven Spitzer, who is at the most risk of being labeled \”deviant\”? rich people who commit white-collar crimes people with weak consciences and a low tolerance for frustration people who play along with \”the system\” poor people who threaten the livelihood of the rich
answer

poor people who threaten the livelihood of the rich
question

In the __________, people began to think of humans as calculating and rational individuals who will not break the law if they think the pain of punishment will outweigh the pleasure of the crime. 19th century 21st century 18th century 20th century
answer

18th century
question

Changes in U.S. attitudes toward the death penalty are reflected in the fact that __________. rates of capital punishment have risen steadily since 1990 there have been no executions in the past five years the number of executions has been decreasing in recent years the death penalty is now outlawed in all but five states
answer

the number of executions has been decreasing in recent years
question

According to Italian physician and prison worker Cesare Lombroso, a person with a low forehead, prominent jaw and cheekbone, protruding ears, a hairy body, and unusually long arms is noted in the chapter as an example of __________. an adulterer a highly sensitive individual a criminal an abused child
answer

a criminal
question

Which of the following is an example of white-collar crime? bank robbery shoplifting selling marijuana on the campus embezzlement
answer

embezzlement
question

In 2009, people between the ages of ________ represented just 14 percent of the U.S. population but were responsible for 38 percent of all arrests for violent crimes and 46 percent of arrests for property crimes. 25 and 34 35 and 44 12 and 15 15 and 24
answer

15 and 24
question

Which of the following is an example of informal social control? arresting a woman for driving under the influence teasing a friend because he listens to Justin Bieber’s music sentencing an innocent man to 10 years in prison giving a driver a ticket for speeding
answer

teasing a friend because he listens to Justin Bieber’s music
question

The biological and psychological approaches have limited value in explaining deviance because psychological factors are hard to define. wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society. wrongdoing results from individual moral failing. biological factors are difficult to measure.
answer

wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society.
question

Regarding the death penalty, which country carries out the most executions annually? the United States China Saudi Arabia Iran
answer

China
question

According to Merton’s strain theory, an alcoholic who chooses to live by himself, quits his job, and stops talking to his friends would fall into which category of deviance? ritualism rebellion retreatism innovation
answer

retreatism
question

According to __________, the widespread belief that norms and laws are natural and good masks their political character. the structural-functional approach the social-conflict and feminist approaches subcultural theory labeling theory
answer

the social-conflict and feminist approaches
question

The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions is the basis of labeling theory. strain theory. feminist theory. conformity theory.
answer

labeling theory.
question

According to Steven Spitzer, which of the following would most likely be considered deviant in our society? a corrupt businessman a landlord charging high rents to poor tenants a corrupt politician a labor organizer opposing efforts to keep workers from forming unions
answer

a labor organizer opposing efforts to keep workers from forming unions
question

Robert Merton asserts that the type of deviance categories of people engage in depends upon whether society provides the categories of people with means to achieve cultural goals. their exposure to stressful life conditions. the perceived role of conflict, or strains, in their life. their upbringing and family structure.
answer

whether society provides the categories of people with means to achieve cultural goals.
question

Attachment, opportunity, involvement, and belief are the four different types of labeling advocated by Szasz. advantages offered by medicalization theory. social control to which Hirschi links conformity. social control to which Sutherland links differential association.
answer

social control to which Hirschi links conformity.
question

Which of the following is an example of deterrence? Sandy is arrested for DUI but goes to court and is acquitted of the charge. A teacher disciplines Colin in front of the class to make an example out of him. Andy is shoplifting but is not caught. Amelia backs into her neighbor’s car and has to pay him the cost of the damage.
answer

A teacher disciplines Colin in front of the class to make an example out of him.
question

According to Albert Cohen, people typically form delinquent subcultures because they want to show their personal toughness. are frustrated with themselves. have rejected conformist behavior. are cut off from legitimate opportunity to gain success.
answer

are cut off from legitimate opportunity to gain success.
question

A 2003 study of 400 boys conducted by researchers at the University of Wisconsin concluded that __________ are strong predictors of adult crime and violence. personality factors a combination of genetic and environmental factors physical features especially large body types with prominent facial features
answer

a combination of genetic and environmental factors
question

White-collar crime is best represented by which of the following? gun running breaking and entering securities fraud armed robbery
answer

securities fraud
question

Instruments used by researchers to collect information about people’s experiences with crime are called FBI crime statistics. victimization surveys. open-access online surveys. police reports.
answer

victimization surveys.
question

____________ is a legal negotiation where a defendant receives a lesser charge in exchange for admitting guilt. Retribution Plea bargaining Shock probation Deterrence
answer

Plea bargaining
question

Kyle, who is a member of a street gang, has had frequent conflicts with teachers and the police. This situation is example of Walter Miller’s delinquent subculture characteristic of trouble. a belief in fate. a desire for freedom. toughness.
answer

trouble
question

According to Erving Goffman, people who acquire __________ may develop a deviant career involving stronger commitment to deviant behavior. a stigma differential associations retribution social control
answer

a stigma
question

Which of the following approaches states that even when the powerful engage in deviant activities, they still have the resources to resist deviant labels? social-conflict structural-functional labeling theory symbolic-interaction
answer

social-conflict
question

Gary is angry to find that a coworker took his food out of the office fridge. In retaliation, he takes the coworker’s lunch. Gary is engaging in an act of deterrence. retribution. societal protection. rehabilitation.
answer

retribution
question

Which of the following is an example of secondary deviance? Sanjay was arrested for child molestation and spent 10 years in prison. Now that he is free, he has to register as a sex offender wherever he lives. Carol is 15, and most of her friends have children. She wants a child of her own and begins having unprotected sex with her boyfriend. Elliot is an honor student at school. After he is caught using recreational drugs by his father, he stops going to school, loses many of his friends, begins to take drugs every day, and is hostile toward members of his family. Jake sees his high school friends drinking at a party and joins in. Driving home, he crashes his car into a tree and vows never to drink again.
answer

Elliot is an honor student at school. After he is caught using recreational drugs by his father, he stops going to school, loses many of his friends, begins to take drugs every day, and is hostile toward members of his family.
question

Hirschi’s control theory states that social control leading to conformity depends on people anticipating and caring about the consequences of their behavior. differential association, or peer group pressure. strong enforcement of laws. individuals’level of social privilege.
answer

people anticipating and caring about the consequences of their behavior.
question

__________ is a tactic used by a judge to show a convicted offender the seriousness of his or her crime by initially imprisoning the offender but ultimately issuing probation. Capital punishment Parole Recidivism Shock probation
answer

Shock probation
question

Which of the following countries has the highest violent crime rate? India Germany Japan the United States
answer

the United States
question

In what way does labeling theory distinguish how gender influences the way we define deviance? We use similar standards to judge the behavior of males and females. We see women in a more powerful role. We see women as less deviant. We use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females.
answer

We use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females.
question

What is one important reason that crime rates have fallen in the United States since the 1980s? More criminals have been sent to prison in the last 30 years than ever before. The younger population has increased in size since 1985. The popularity of street drugs such as crack cocaine has increased. The practice of community policing faded out in the 1990s.
answer

More criminals have been sent to prison in the last 30 years than ever before.
question

Ali is sent to prison for car-jacking and released two years later. Statistically speaking, is he likely to repeat his crime? Yes; recidivism rates are about 70 percent in the United States. No; the United States has one of the lowest recidivism rates in the world, at a mere 7 percent. No, only about 30 percent of people released from prison are arrested again within three years. No; only major crimes such as first-degree murder are likely to be repeated.
answer

Yes; recidivism rates are about 70 percent in the United States.
question

As odd as it seems, snowball fights are legally banned in Topeka, Kansas. This is an example of variationin norms and deviance based on cultural differences. powerful members of the community setting the standards for society. cultural norms that shape societal inequality. universal moral boundaries that affect definitions of deviance.
answer

variationin norms and deviance based on cultural differences.
question

The violation of a society’s formally enacted law is called delinquency. social control. crime. deviance.
answer

crime
question

Why have many states moved away from seeking sentences of capital punishment? There is a high financial cost to the states of prosecuting capital cases. In 2008, the Supreme Court ruled that a life sentence without possibility of parole should be substituted in most cases. There is a lack of public support, as about 63 percent of people now oppose the death penalty. A 2008 Supreme Court decision classified all executions as unconstitutional.
answer

There is a high financial cost to the states of prosecuting capital cases.
question

In his classic study of the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay, Kai Erikson discovered that even though the offenses changed, the proportion of people the Puritans defined as deviant __________ over time. declined increased dramatically increased remained steady
answer

remained steady
question

Which of the following is an example of a hate crime? beating a spouse out of anger drawing swastikas on Jewish gravestones breaking a neighbor’s mailbox embezzling money from clients
answer

drawing swastikas on Jewish gravestones
question

______ now incarcerates a larger share of its population than any other country in the world. Germany The United States China India
answer

The United States
question

As of 2012, the federal government and ______ of the states had enacted legislation that increased penalties for crimes motivated by hatred. 25 only one all 50 45
answer

45
question

What do critics argue is the downside to hate crime legislation? It reaffirms the majority’s power over the criminal justice system. It fails to take into account the motives behind these types of crimes. It punishes people for their beliefs, not just their actions. It divides people into categories, when all should be equal under the law.
answer

It punishes people for their beliefs, not just their actions.
question

For every one handgun death in Canada, there are ____________ in the United States. four two seven five
answer

seven
question

\”Young people are more likely to engage in behavior, including delinquency, if they believe their peers encourage it.\” The previous statement closely supports the Sutherland’s differential association theory. Goffman’s concept of a deviant career. Hirschi’s control theory. process of projective labeling.
answer

Sutherland’s differential association theory.
question

Which of the following theoretical approaches takes a micro-level approach to the issues of deviance? feminist social conflict structural-functional symbolic interaction
answer

symbolic interaction
question

Armed robbery is an example of a __________ crime. property victimless violent senseless
answer

violent
question

Bob learns that his coworker was arrested for car theft. Now that he thinks about it, he swears he once saw his coworker eyeing his car in the parking lot and feels relieved that he always kept his car locked. Bob is engaging in the process of retrospective labeling. prospective labeling. stigmatizing. projective labeling.
answer

retrospective labeling.
question

To avoid labeling people as mentally ill when they are simply engaging in behavior we don’t agree with, the psychiatrist Thomas Szasz advocates increasing the availability of psychoactive medications. taking the time to do a lengthy psychiatric profile. employing different methods for psychological analysis. abandoning the idea of mental illness.
answer

taking the time to do a lengthy psychiatric profile.
question

What do all instances of deviance have in common? They involve a negative behavior. They involve intentional action. They involve a violation of society’s laws. They are characterized by a differencethat causes the deviant person to be viewed as an outsider.
answer

They are characterized by a differencethat causes the deviant person to be viewed as an outsider.
question

What was Karl Marx’s perception of the law? Law is used to ensure justice. Law exists to protect the interests of powerful people. Law exists to establish norms. Law is used to give men greater power than women.
answer

Law exists to protect the interests of powerful people.
question

What is the basic circumstance under which any thought or action may become deviant? when it is discovered by many people whensome audience concludes that it violates particular norms when it results in harmful consequences when the criminal justice system becomes involved
answer

whensome audience concludes that it violates particular norms
question

Which sociologist argued that deviance performs essential social functions, such as clarifying boundaries and encouraging social change? Karl Marx Jean Piaget Emile Durkheim Max Weber
answer

Emile Durkheim
question

_________ is a form of punishment that renders an offender incapable of further offenses through imprisonment or execution. Rehabilitation Deterrence Retribution Societal protection
answer

Societal protection
question

The illegal distribution of alcohol during Prohibition was an example of street crime. organized crime. a hate crime. a victimless crime.
answer

organized crime.
question

According to social-conflict analysis, the people we tend to label as deviant are typically those who are relatively powerless in society biologically abnormal discouraged by peers from conforming the most harmful to society
answer

relatively powerless in society
question

The two major types of crime that make up the FBI’s \”crime index\” are violent crimes and victimless crimes. crimes with complaint and crimes without complaint. violent crimes and crimes without complaint. violent crimes and property crimes.
answer

violent crimes and property crimes.
question

According to the symbolic-interaction approach, the definitions of deviance and conformity are applied uniformly and rigidly. variable from situation to situation. one and the same. based on a society’s moral code.
answer

variable from situation to situation.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member