Soc: Chapter 7 (social class)

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false
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T/F: In America, all citizens have equal chances of obtaining significant wealth during their lifetime.
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c
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Which person is likely to confer the greatest status in the United States? a. a black male b. a black female c. a white male d. a white female
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slavery
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This system of stratification is based on the legal ownership of people.
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caste
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This system of stratification is based on status and family history. It cannot be changed.
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social class
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This system of stratification is based on access to key resources such as wealth, power, and property.
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a
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Consider the three major theoretical perspectives routinely explored throughout the text. Which theorist explores the ways in which poverty serves a purpose in our society by providing jobs to many people in the social service sector? a. structural functionalist b. conflict theorist c. symbolic interactionist
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b
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T/F: General predictions can often be made about a person’s life chances based on their socioeconomic status. In general, people of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to encounter the criminal justice system.
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a,b,c,d
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Social mobility is the movement of an individual within social class. Select the different types of mobility that can exist in a society at any given time. (Choose all that apply.) a. intergenerational b. intragenerational c. horizontal d. vertical e. circular
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social stratification
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– the division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy – a characteristic of society; it persists over generations and is maintained through beliefs that are widely shared by members of society
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criteria
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Every society has some form of stratification, but societies stratify people according to a variety of _____ (such as race, class, and gender).
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social inequality
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the unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society.
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slavery
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– the most extreme form of social stratification and is based on the legal ownership of people – Slaves aren’t even considered to be people—they are considered the property of the slave owner. This is an extreme form of stratification because the individuals who are slaves have no access to pursuing the resources available in society and no opportunity for social mobility
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caste system
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a form of social stratification in which status is determined by one’s family history and background and cannot be changed
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examples of cast system
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India, Apartheid
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Apartheid
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– the term for the system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa between 1948 and 1991 – legally classified into four main racial groups: white (English and Dutch heritage), Indian (from India), \”colored\” (mixed race), and black.
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social class
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refers to a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and prestige. Sociologists often refer to it as socioeconomic status (or SES).
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upper class in the U.S.
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– Wealthiest people in a class system – Make up about 1% of the U.S. population – Possess most of the wealth of the country
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upper-middle class in U.S.
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– Professionals and managers – Make up about 14% of the U.S. population
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middle class in U.S.
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– \”White-collar\” workers – Have a broad range of incomes – Make up about 30% of the U.S. population
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working (lower-middle) class in U.S.
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– \”Blue-collar\” or service industry workers – Less likely to have college degrees – Make up about 30% of the U.S. population
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lower class in U.S.
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– Many poor people, who typically have lower levels of literacy than other classes – Make up about 20% of the U.S. population
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Karl Marx
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– believed that there were two main social classes in capitalist societies: (a) Capitalists (or bourgeoisie), who owned the means of production (b) Workers (or proletariat), who sold their labor for wages – believed that the classes would remain divided and social inequality would grow
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conflict
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Marx was a ______ theorist, meaning that he was interested in the conflict between these two classes. He believed that eventually the workers would revolt against the capitalists because of the oppression they felt.
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Max Weber
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– offered a similar model to Marx that also included cultural factors. – He argued that class status was made of three components: (3-pronged image of power) (a) Wealth (or privilege) – money and investments (b) Power – political, or ability to make change in a system (c) Prestige – social honor people are given bc of their membership in well-regarded social groups
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structural-functional theory
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– Suggests that the system of stratification that has emerged is functional to society in many ways: (a) Certain roles are more important for the functioning of society, and these roles may be more difficult to fill, so more incentive is needed. (b) Greater rewards are necessary for work that requires more training or skill.
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functionalist
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The _____ perspective helps to explain the existing system of social stratification and its persistence, but it still leaves us with questions about the structured inequalities that the system continues to reproduce.
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social reproduction
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More recently, Pierre Bourdieu attempted to explain _________, the tendency for social-class status to be passed down from one generation to the next.
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cultural capital
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social reproduction occurs because each generation acquires ______ which helps us to gain advantages in society.
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cultural capital
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– tastes, habits, expectations, skills, knowledge – either helps or hinders us as we become adults – For instance, it is very helpful for business people to know how to play golf, as many important business deals are struck on a golf course. Growing up in a family that can teach you that how to play golf can give you some cultural capital that will be very advantageous
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symbolic interactionsts
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examine the way we use status differences to categorize ourselves and others
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Erving Goffman
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pointed out that our clothing, speech, gestures, possessions, friends, and activities provide information about our socioeconomic status
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true
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T/F: Belonging to a certain social class has profound consequences for individuals in all areas of life, including education, employment, and medical care
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social mobility
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the movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchical system of social classes
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closed system
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one in which there is very little opportunity to move from one class to another
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open system
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one with ample opportunities to move from one class to another
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open
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America technically has an ______ system (it is legal and permissible for people to move between classes), but we can notice structural patterns where people tend to stay very close to the class they were raised in.
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intergenerational mobility
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the movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next ex. a plumber who has a daughter who becomes a doctor. There was class movement between generations
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intragenerational mobility
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the movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual’s lifetime ex. a man who is a secretary but then goes back to school to become a lawyer. The mobility in that situation would be within his own lifetime and would likely change his social class.
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horizontal social mobility
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the occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class ex. a therapist who shifts careers so that he can teach college experiences horizontal mobility.
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vertical social mobility
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the movement between social classes and, depending on the direction, is often called either upward mobility or downward mobility ex. therapist marries a president of a large corporation, he might experience upward mobility.
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structural mobility
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refers to changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society ex. Women entering the workplace during World War II
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downward social
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During periods of economic recession, we may see ____ _____ mobility for many people at once due to layoffs and company closures.
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federal poverty line
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– an absolute measure of annual income – frequently used to determine who should be categorized as poor
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poverty
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Residential segregation, political disenfranchisement, and the use of law enforcement to control the homeless can make ____ invisible to many Americans.
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relative deprivation
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– a relative measure of poverty based on the standards of living – People are considered poor if their standard of living is less than that of other members of society
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absolute deprivation
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an objective measure of poverty that is defined by the inability to meet minimal standards for food, shelter, clothing, or health care
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absolute deprivation -vs- relative deprivation
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comparing your salary to the cost of living -vs- comparing your salary to the salary of others
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culture of poverty
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refers to learned attitudes that can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to accept their fate rather than attempt to improve their situation
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culture of poverty
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criticism of ______ theory: it tends to blame the victims of poverty for their own misfortune while failing to take into account the structural factors that shape culture
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the American Dream
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anyone can achieve material success if he or she works hard enough
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the American Dream
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The ideology of the _____ explains and justifies our social system, but it has been criticized for legitimizing stratification by implying that everyone has the same opportunity to get ahead.
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meritocracy
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theory that hard work is justly rewarded; the American Dream supports this
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a
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T/F: Every society has some form of stratification.
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c
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The tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as social class status is passed down from one generation to the next is called a. cultural capital. b. social prestige. c. social reproduction. d. class consciousness.
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c
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The tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as social class status is passed down from one generation to the next is called a. cultural capital. b. social prestige. c. social reproduction. d. class consciousness.
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a
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We call entrenched attitudes that can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to accept their fate a. the culture of poverty. b. the just-world hypothesis. c. disenfranchisement. d. social welfare.
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d
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Max Weber argued that there were several important components of social class. Which of the following is NOT one of the components? a. prestige b. power c. wealth d. morals
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a
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What percentage of the population do you think makes over $250,000 per year? a. 1% b. 10% c. 25%
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c
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What percentage of the population do you think makes under $22,000 per year? a. 1% b. 10% c. 25%

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