Sociplogy Chapter 8 Flashcards

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The type of social mobility people experience when they move from one social position of the same rank is called ___________ mobility.
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Horizontal
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moving to a higher social position or falling to a lower one is called
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vertical mobility
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which of the following statements about women in poverty are true?
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The percentage of women in poverty has risen since World War II. The increase in families with women as single heads of the household is a factor in the feminization of poverty.
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Social ________ is a system of social inequality that is based on a hierarchy of groups.
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stratification
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_____ is an inclusive term that encompasses all of a person’s material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property.
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wealth
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correct according to Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore’s view of stratification?
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social inequality is necessary
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functionalist believe that a stratified society is
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universal
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Marxist sociologists suggest that minimum-wage laws serve to
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pacify those who might otherwise rebel
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Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore’s view believe that positions in society must be distributed and that these positions must be filled by people with the appropriate
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talents and abilities
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conflict theorist see ______ as a major source of societal tension and conflict.
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stratification
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According to Gerhard Lenski’s sociocultural evolution approach, the _______ causes economic systems to change as they become more complex.
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level of technology
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which of the sociological perspective argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant economic, political, and social inequality?
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conflict theory
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Social scientists have found that inequality exists in all societies, even the
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what are the four general systems of stratification
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castes social classes slavery estates
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caste
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rigid, immobile system
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social classes
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more movement from one stratum to another
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slavery
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people are owned by other people
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usually dictates one’s hereditary rank in a caste system?
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religion
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people whose income places them below the standard of living of their society as a whole are said to live in
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relative poverty
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not characteristic of a caste system?
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flexible mobile
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characteristic of a caste system?
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immobile fixed
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the basis of the estate system was the nobles’ ownership of the
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land
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according to max weber the word class refers to a group of people who
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who have a similar level of wealth and income.
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plays the most critical role in social mobility.
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education
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Based solely on the idea of life chances, which group would have the greatest chance of survival in times of danger?
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wealthy and powerful people
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an economic system in which the mans of poroduction are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic acitivity is the accumulation of profit is called
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capitalism
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A woman who begins work as a teacher’s aide and eventually becomes superintendent of the school district experiences upward ____ social mobility.
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intragenerational
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in many societies the consequences of social stratification are made evident by which of the following?
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mortality rates of impoverished communities unequal distribution of wealth and power
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not one of the social classes in modal proposed by Daniel Rossides
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lower-lower class
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Daniel Rossides
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Used a 5-class model to describe the class system of the U.S.: the upper class, the upper-middle class, the lower-middle class, the working class, and the lower class
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In Daniel Rossides’s five class model, the most politically active are those who occupy the which class?>
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upper-middle.
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Thorstein veblen called purchasing obviously expensive automobiles and building very large houses with excessive rooms
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conspicuous consumption
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criteria used by sociologists to objectively measure people’s social class?
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income education occupation place of residence
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The movement if individuals or groups from one social class position in a society’s stratification system to another is called
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social mobility
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______ refers to a floating standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of a society, regardless of their lifestyle, are judged to be disadvantaged in comparison with the nation as a whole.
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Relative poverty
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According to Herbert Gens, the poor perform several positive economic, political, and social functions for more affluent members of society, which of the following are functions that Fens highlights?
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Within a relatively hierarchical society, the existence of poor people guarantee the higher status of the more affluent. the identification of the poor as deviants upholds the legitimacy of conventional social norms regarding hard work, thrift, and honestly. because of their lack of political power, the poor often absorb the costs of social change.
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Social class standing in the US is heavily dependent on family and ascribed factors such as race and ethnicity
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true
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the estate system was associated with feudal societies during what period of history?
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Middle Ages
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Social _____ is the result of certain groups having more power and standing in the social hierarchy.
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inquality
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according to sociological studies, which of the following groups has had greater occupational mobility?
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males
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the working class is
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declining in size
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sociological perspectives focuses on an entire society and global issues?
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macrosociological
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people’s social class can affect which of the following?
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child rearing religious affiliation formal schooling
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The international women count network seeks to give a monetary value to
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women’s unpaid work.
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A social system in which competition is encouraged and class is largely determined by one’s achieved status.
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open system
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Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which is binding on all members of the United Nations, prohibits slavery in all its forms.
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true
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Women in the United States are more likely than men o be \”trapped\” in which of the following?
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poverty
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According to Daniel Rossides’s, which class makes up the largest percentage of the populations?
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working class
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Which of the following group benefited the most in terms of increased wealth between 1980 and 2010
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the upper class
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According to Karl Marx, which of the following was the crucial determinant of economic, political, and social inequality.
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class differentiation
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in terms of false consciousness, Karl Marx worried that the worker would adopt which of the following viewpoints?
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individualistic viewpoint
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socialogists use term_______ to describe the long-term poor who lack training and skills
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underclass
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the bourgeoisie is also called the
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capitalist class
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interactionists seek to explain society as a whole by studying
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the everyday forms of social interaction
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according to max Weber, ________is the ability to exercise one’s will over others and is the third major component of stratification.
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power
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not described the proletariat according to Karl Marx?
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those who subsist on welfare
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A social system allows little or no possibility of individual social mobility is called a(n) __________ system.
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closed
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classes has a long history of direct involvement with the labor movement of the United States.
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working class
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what category of sociologists would be most interested in the way that social class shapes individual lifestyles?
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interactionists
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statements about wealth distribution in the United States in the early twenty-first century is true?
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The wealthiest 1 percent have more wealth than the combined wealth of the bottom 90 percent.
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contributed to the end of the estate system in Europe?
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urbanization.
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ways can a person raise to what ever could call a higher status group?
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gain membership in an influential group.
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According to Marx, what inevitably lead to the destruction of the capitalist system?
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exploitation of the proletariat
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According to Karl Marx, the working class must develop ______ to bring about social change.
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class consciousness
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According to Weber, minimum-wage earners constitute a social class because they share the same.
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economic position

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