SOC 204 Final

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The general trend of Americans’ attitudes toward the unmarried has been from an attitude of __________ to an attitude of __________.

Select one:
A. non-acceptance; acceptance
B. neutrality; non-acceptance
C. non-acceptance; neutrality
D. neutrality; tolerance

non-acceptance; acceptance
In the United States there appears to have been a broad cultural shift in the values Americans hold most dear. The general trend has been from an emphasis on ________ to _________.

Select one:
A. personal relationships; obligations
B. parenting; employee relationships
C. personal growth; service to others
D. parenting; self-fulfillment

parenting; self-fulfillment
The primary family unit in Western nations is

Select one:
A. the nuclear family living in the vicinity of extended kin.
B. the small, household-based single parent living with his or her children.
C. the small, household-based family of parents and children.
D. the small, household-based family of two adults.

the small, household-based family of parents and children.
Sociologists generally do not use experiments to prove or disprove relationships between two factors since ______ is seldom possible.

Select one:
A. hypothesizing
B. data collection
C. observation
D. randomization

randomization
If you want to determine how a family is adjusting to the daily expectations and changes of remarried life with children, the most effective sociological theory to employ would be

Select one:
A. post modern perspective.
B. conflict.
C. symbolic interaction.
D. feminist.

symbolic interaction
While the public family is about __________, the private family is about __________.
Select one:

A. caretaking and dependency/nurturing and intimacy
B. outsiders/insiders
C. government interference/husband and wife family unit
D. image and the media/the day-to-day living of family life

caretaking and dependency/nurturing and intimacy
From a(n) _______ perspective, people are viewed as rational beings who decide whether to exchange goods or services by considering the benefits they will receive, the costs they will incur, and the benefits they might receive if they chose an alternative course of action.

Select one:
A. exchange perspective
B. functionalist perspective
C. symbolic interactionist perspective
D. postmodern perspective

exchange perspective
Gender, the characteristics distinguishing men and women from each other, is thought to originate from __________ defined roles, according to feminist theorists.

Select one:
A. biologically
B. culturally
C. scientifically
D. naturally

culturally
To conduct ___________ studies, researchers may join the group they are interested in and live with them for a period of time.

Select one:
A. survey questionnaire
B. experimental
C. observational
D. random sample

observational
Of the following, which group would NOT fit the definition of a public family?

Select one:
A. A gay man caring for a partner with AIDS
B. A childless married couple with no dependents
C. A lesbian couple jointly raising a child born to one of them
D. A divorced mother and her children

A childless married couple with no dependents
In 2004, the state of _______________ became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage, joining the countries of Canada, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands.

Select one:
A. New York
B. Massachusetts
C. Vermont
D. California

Massachusetts
If you were concerned with the way families discipline their children, handle their disagreements, or share their affection, you would be focusing on the

Select one:
A. public family.
B. sexually based primary relationship.
C. external family.
D. private family.

private family
The best term to describe the attitude of many Americans toward marriage and family in the 2000s is

Select one:
A. reluctance.
B. ambivalence.
C. intolerance.
D. confusion.

ambivalence
Those most likely to view marriage as a socially constructed institution organized to maintain male dominance most likely subscribe to the principles of

Select one:
A. feminist theory.
B. conflict theory.
C. postmodern perspective.
D. exchange theory.

feminist theory
A state in which family members are unsure of who is and who is not in the family is referred to as

Select one:
A. assigned kinship
B. created kinship
C. boundary ambiguity
D. a public family

boundary ambiguity
The emergence of a protected, extended stage of childhood in the 1800s occurred as a result of

Select one:
A. legal restrictions on how children were treated.
B. a growing population of elderly (and therefore grandparents).
C. greater economic resources of parents.
D. the spread of schooling and a decline in child deaths

the spread of schooling and a decline in child deaths
Extended families (other relatives in the household besides husband, wife, and their children) were never predominant in the United States because

Select one:
A. affectionate and emotional ties to family were emphasized only recently in US history
B. life expectancy was short and made it improbable that grandparents lived with their children.
C. U.S. residents sought to reject the norms of their ancestors.
D. none of the above

life expectancy was short and made it improbable that grandparents lived with their children
Before the arrival of the Europeans, most Native Americans lived in

Select one:
A. small kinship groups.
B. extended families similar to the Europeans.
C. tribal societies based on lineages.
D. husband/wife conjugal units.

tribal societies based on lineages
The real responsibility of the True Woman as described by historian Barbara Welter was

Select one:
A. to help her husband economically.
B. to bear children to increase the population.
C. to share equally with men the struggle to survive.
D. to save men from immoral behavior and take over much of the day-to-day home tasks for men.

to save men from immoral behavior and take over much of the day-to-day home tasks for men
The primary job open to African-American and Mexican American women prior to the 1960s was

Select one:
A. file clerk.
B. domestic servant.
C. personal assistant.
D. secretary.

domestic servant
Informal marriage was common in all but which of the following groups

Select one:
A. Colonists in the Middle Colonies
B. Europeans
C. Mexican Americans
D. Chinese immigrants

Chinese immigrants
The family system in which descent is reckoned through both the mother’s and the father’s line is followed in the United States and is called

Select one:
A. unilateral kinship.
B. extended kinship.
C. multilateral kinship.
D. bilateral kinship.

bilateral kinship
The disruption of slave families was more severe in

Select one:
A. The upper North
B. The Appalachian area
C. The lower South
D. All areas

The Appalachian area
The mestizo group of Mexican American settlers

Select one:
A. were large landowners
B. arranged their children’s marriages with care and held elaborate ceremonies
C. were of pure Spanish decent
D. were farmers

were farmers
In the United States, levels of lifetime childlessness were higher for women who reached their peak child-bearing years in the __________ than in any other generation of women in the twentieth century.

Select one:
A. 1930s
B. 1950s
C. 1970s
D. 1990s

1930s
According to contemporary research, the breadwinner-homemaker family was:

Select one:
A. always dominant in U.S. history.
B. never dominant in U.S. history.
C. dominant only in the aftermath of the Depression and World War II in the 1950s.
D. basically only found among African Americans.

dominant only in the aftermath of the Depression and World War II in the 1950s
A benefit that may have resulted from women’s restriction to the world of home, and which may have laid the groundwork for subsequent women’s social and political movements, was

Select one:
A. the creation of a subculture of sisterhood.
B. the ability for women to set their own schedules.
C. their knowledge of children and home.
D. their isolation.

the creation of a subculture of sisterhood.
A form of polygamy in which a man is allowed to have more than one wife is also referred to as

Select one:
A. polyandry
B. extended family
C. polygyny
D. conjugal family

polygyny
A study of the history of family reveals that __________ family is as old as human civilization but that _______ family emerged much more recently.

Select one:
A. public; private
B. extended; nuclear
C. private; public
D. nuclear; extended

public; private
The American Revolution of 1776 brought about many changes including:

Select one:
A. strengthening the role of fathers.
B. children being seen as sinful.
C. mothers perceived as the worse parent.
D. increased autonomy of women within the family.

increased autonomy of women within the family
In sociological terms, gender is considered a __________ creation, while sex is considered a _________ creation.
Select one:
A. social/biological
B. biological/social
C. social/psychological
D. psychological/biological
social/biological
The play of boys and girls, even those who are older (fifth grade and above), differs in that boys are more likely to play __________, while girls are more likely to play __________.

Select one:
A. baseball; volleyball
B. in small groups with a goal; in large groups without a goal
C. in large groups with a goal; in small groups without a goal
D. alone; together

in large groups with a goal; in small groups without a goal
According to the interactionist approach, gender differences between men and women exist primarily because of

Select one:
A. inherent differences present from birth.
B. everyday behavior that reinforces gender distinctions
C. parental socialization.
D. rigid social structures that reinforce gender appropriate behavior.

everyday behavior that reinforces gender distinctions
The central mechanism of the socialization approach to explaining male/female differences is __________ while that of the interactionist approach is __________.

Select one:
A. internalization; learning
B. learning; behavior
C. activity; memorization
D. unconscious; conscious

learning; behavior
Of the following which is “gendered”?

Select one:
A. housework
B. child care
C. work for wages
D. all of the above

all of the above
Social science research provides evidence that most children develop a gender identity during

Select one:
A. middle school years.
B. high school years.
C. pre-school years.
D. infancy.

pre-school years.
Socialization research is focused on the affect of ________ on influencing children’s beliefs of proper behavior for boys and girls.

Select one:
A. the media
B. parents
C. peer groups
D. all of the above

all of the above
Psychologist Eleanor Maccoby suggests that same sex peer groups reinforce a(n) __________ interaction style in boys and a(n) __________ interaction style in girls.

Select one:
A. reserved; straightforward
B. dominance oriented; cooperative
C. cooperative; competitive
D. expressive; emotional

dominance oriented; cooperative
Sex chromosomes, reproductive organs, and physical characteristics are all __________ characteristics that distinguish us humans by __________.

Select one:
A. social; sex
B. social; gender
C. biological; gender
D. biological; sex

biological; sex
A consistent finding across all studies of the play behavior of young girls and boys is that

Select one:
A. boys, on average, show more competitive behavior than girls.
B. prenatal hormones affect how boys and girls behave.
C. only socialization affects their behavior.
D. only biology affects their behavior.

boys, on average, show more competitive behavior than girls.
The feminist-influenced branch of men’s studies believe that male aggressiveness is

Select one:
A. a social construct
B. a biological factor
C. an evolutionary factor
D. hormonally influenced

a social construct
The overwhelming predominance of _________ suggests that it is the typical manner in which people have made sense out of sex.

Select one:
A. the two spirit model
B. the gender transformation model
C. the two-gender model
D. the hermaphrodite model

the two-gender model
“Two-spirited” females were most likely to be found in societies

Select one:
A. where sex roles overlapped.
B. where there was a female-dominated lineage.
C. where homosexuality was tolerated and expected.
D. where men had less control over women.

where men had less control over women.
Hormone influences of the mother on her fetus in the second trimester of pregnancy can fully determine children’s behaviors.
Select one:
True
False
False
Two-spirit-like gender categories have been documented in many Native American cultures.
Select one:
True
False
True
When asked on surveys (such as the General Social Survey) to which class they belong, most U.S. residents respond that they are either

Select one:
A. lower class or working class
B. working class or middle class
C. middle class or upper class
D. lower class or middle class

working class or middle class
Upper class families in the United States are characterized by which of the following:

Select one:
A. They work part-time and tend increasingly to work in the service sector.
B. The wives tend to work outside of the home in high paying jobs.
C. They tend to be highly recognized as part of the social and cultural elite of their communities.
D. They don’t have employment stability.

They tend to be highly recognized as part of the social and cultural elite of their communities.
Studies in the United States suggest that husbands and wives may belong to different classes in ____________ of all two-parent, two-earner families.

Select one:
A. half
B. two-thirds
C. one-third
D. the majority

one-third
Since the 1970s, families whose income lies in the middle of the income distribution (of all U.S. families) have kept up with the cost of living primarily by

Select one:
A. having husbands take second jobs.
B. relying on parental “gifts” for purchases such as down payments on houses.
C. taking advantage of changes in the tax structure for married couples.
D. having wives take jobs outside the home

having wives take jobs outside the home
Which of the following is most likely to be married when they give birth?

Select one:
A. Women who didn’t graduate from high school.
B. Women with a high school diploma.
C. Women who attended college but didn’t graduate.
D. Women with a college degree.

Women with a college degree.
Kinship networks of the poor

Select one:
A. spread the burden of poverty
B. will share whatever they have even if they are poor
C. help others to get by day by day
D. all of the above

all of the above
Based on sociological studies, those kinship ties that engender the strongest feelings of obligation are

Select one:
A. horizontal kinship ties among siblings.
B. conjugal family ties.
C. vertical kinship ties including parents to children to grandchildren.
D. extended family ties.

vertical kinship ties including parents to children to grandchildren.
Which of the following is not a value emphasized by working class parents?

Select one:
A. good manners.
B. obedience to authority.
C. creativity.
D. conformity.

creativity.
All of the following are advantages that middle-class children gain from “the accomplishment of natural growth” except which?

Select one:
A. They are more assertive.
B. They are more verbal.
C. They are more physically fit.
D. They have a more independent sense of self.

They are more physically fit.
Working class compared to middle class parents differ in their choice of important childrearing values primarily because of

Select one:
A. different job experiences.
B. different educational backgrounds.
C. unequal access to resources.
D. the working class’ lack of time to spend with the children

different job experiences.
A group of people who share a common style of life and often identify with each other is called a/an

Select one:
A. class
B. cohort
C. status group
D. reference group

status group
Chances of divorce have been _______ for college graduates and ________ for people who did not graduate from high school

Select one:
A. increasing; increasing
B. declining; increasing
C. declining; declining
D. increasing; declining

declining; increasing
Income inequality among families has increased because of all but which of the following?

Select one:
A. the growing importance of education
B. the decline in number of children born in each family
C. the growth of single-parent families headed by women
D. globalization

the decline in number of children born in each family
The concept of status group was refined by the famous sociologist

Select one:
A. Max Weber
B. Karl Marx
C. Anthony Giddings
D. Andrew Cherlin

Max Weber
Of the following, the best example of an assortative marriage would be
Select one:
A. a Protestant high school graduate marrying a Catholic college graduate
B. a Protestant non high school graduate marrying a Protestant high school graduate
C. a Protestant college graduate marrying a Catholic college graduate
D. a Catholic high school graduate marrying a Protestant college graduate
a Protestant college graduate marrying a Catholic college graduate
When Barack Obama was born in Hawaii to an interracial married couple in 1961 at least ________ states had laws forbidding marriages between whites and non-whites.

Select one:
A. 11
B. 15
C. 22
D. 26

15 Correct
The number of births and deaths among American Indians did not change dramatically between 1970 and 1980. How would you explain the 72 percent rise in their population during this same time period?
Select one:
A. There was finally a category of Native American to check on U.S. Census forms.
B. There was a high immigration rate from South and Central America.
C. More people began to think of themselves as American Indian and reported themselves to the U.S. Census as that.
D. none of the above.
More people began to think of themselves as American Indian and reported themselves to the U.S. Census as that.
The number of middle-class African American families in the United States has been increasing, but one critical aspect that distinguishes them from middle-class white families is their

Select one:
A. education.
B. assets such as savings, investments, and homes.
C. salaries.
D. family support.

assets such as savings, investments, and homes.
Among Hispanics, the racial-ethnic group members who, on average, are the least likely to formally marry are

Select one:
A. Mexican Americans.
B. Cubans.
C. Puerto Ricans.
D. Guatemalans.

Puerto Ricans.
Family households in the United States most likely to marry a spouse of a different race are from the __________ racial-ethnic group.

Select one:
A. African American
B. Asian American
C. non-Hispanic white
D. Hispanic

Asian American
The decline in marriage among African Americans can be explained by the following phenomenon:

Select one:
A. most African American men marry white women.
B. increasing intermarriage between the different ethnic groups.
C. cultural reasons that de-emphasize marriage and children as an important step to forming a family.
D. the lack of suitable marriage partners for women due to job losses and incarceration among men.

the lack of suitable marriage partners for women due to job losses and incarceration among men.
To overcome their economic hardships, Puerto Ricans have used a system of __________, much as African Americans have used a system of __________.

Select one:
A. consensual unions; female-centered kin networks
B. grandfamilies; consensual unions
C. grandfamilies; female-centered kin networks
D. female-centered kin networks; consensual unions

consensual unions; female-centered kin networks
The _________ category has become an umbrella for an extremely diverse group of people that differ in language, religion, and physical features.

Select one:
A. African American
B. Hispanic.
C. Asian American
D. Both B and C

Both B and C
The economically disadvantaged position of American Indian families is most comparable to that of

Select one:
A. Puerto Rican families
B. African American families
C. Mexican American families
D. Asian American families

African American families
The first wave of Cuban-American immigrants, in contrast to most other major immigrant groups in the United States, arrived in _____.

Select one:
A. a political migration
B. a labor migration
C. a social migration
D. none of the above

a political migration
Statistics from 2006 show that ____ of American Indian births were to mothers who were unmarried.

Select one:
A. 32%
B. 36%
C. 54%
D. 65%

36%
One way mentioned by Cherlin in which Asian culture differs from American culture pertains to

Select one:
A. how to educate children
B. the responsibility assumed by adult children for their parents
C. he importance of mediating structures
D. the average age at first marriage

the responsibility assumed by adult children for their parents
When comparing African American and white families it can be said that black families are more likely to

Select one:
A. include an extended family member
B. have ties to a kin network
C. have a grandparent play a strong roles in children’s lives
D. All of the above

All of the above
The lowest poverty rates among Hispanic families are those of

Select one:
A. Mexican American
B. Puerto Rican American
C. Cuban American
D. Central American

Cuban American
In referring to “whiteness as an ethnicity” it can be said that

Select one:
A. there is not a heritage of kinship networks
B. it is not an inherent characteristic of people
C. nearly all whites descended from European immigrants
D. all of the above

all of the above
The fact that sexual identities have only recently emerged as a concept suggests that:

Select one:
A. they are socially constructed.
B. this is a new phenomenon.
C. this is a phenomenon not worthy of study.
D. we need to base everything on biology.

they are socially constructed.
Social constructionists would argue that sexual identities

Select one:
A. are effected by the environment
B. don’t have particular boundaries that are followed
C. vary from culture to culture
D. are not measured on a continuum

vary from culture to culture
The group most likely to show a link between biology and homosexuality would be

Select one:
A. siblings
B. siblings who were adopted
C. fraternal twins
D. identical twins

identical twins
Queer theory
Select one:
A. is based on science
B. explains that sexual life is artificially organized into categories that reflect the power of heterosexual norms.
C. is put forth by political activists that are homophobic
D. place sexual activities into a sharp split between homosexual and heterosexual
explains that sexual life is artificially organized into categories that reflect the power of heterosexual norms.
“Living apart together” (LAT), people who are intimately involved but live in separate households,
Select one:
A. has been studied extensively in Spain
B. has been widely studied in the United States
C. was first noticed in Europe in the late 1970s
D. represents about 10% of the population in Britain
was first noticed in Europe in the late 1970s
A significant development in the twentieth century that has changed the relationship between sex-as-reproduction to sex-as-pleasure is:
Select one:
A. the recognition of sexual identity.
B. modern methods of contraception.
C. the modern media.
D. the introduction of pornography.
modern methods of contraception.
The concept of sexual identity requires _____________ and ________________ that was not prominent until the late nineteenth century.

Select one:
A. self-consciousness; self-reliance.
B. self-reliance; self-examination.
C. self consciousness; self-examination.
D. selfishness; independence.

self consciousness; self-examination.
In several surveys of adult sexual activity, over __% of women and over ___% of men said that they had had no sex partners other than their spouses over the previous 12 months.

Select one:
A. 97; 94
B. 84; 60
C. 86; 65
D. 75; 72

97; 94
A person’s sexual orientation is a result of

Select one:
A. genetics
B. socialization
C. peer pressure
D. still undetermined

still undetermined
The Kinsey Report, a book published in 1948, shocked the nation because

Select one:
A. of the high number of men who admitted to have had sexual relations with other men.
B. the author’s claim that sexuality should be viewed as a continuum running from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual.
C. of the high number of men who admitted to sexual feelings toward other men.
D. all of the above

all of the above
The two categories of sexual activity prior to the late nineteenth century included the following

Select one:
A. premarital and marital.
B. marital and extramarital.
C. religiously approved and religiously disapproved.
D. socially approved and socially disapproved.

socially approved and socially disapproved.
Today, in general, couples in a marriage are most likely to

Select one:
A. be less likely to agree that extra marital sex was wrong than they were in 1972
B. have an “open” marriage
C. have had at least on extramarital partner during their marriage
D. practice sexual monogamy

practice sexual monogamy
Changes in sexual activity in the United States since the start of the century have served to:

Select one:
A. weaken the role of marriage as the core of family life.
B. strengthen the role of marriage as the core of family life.
C. reinforce the central focus of children as the core of family life.
D. decrease the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases.

weaken the role of marriage as the core of family life.
Cohabiting relationships of opposite or same sex couples would not be common without the increasing acceptance of sexual activity outside marriage.

Select one:
True
False

True
Both the Kinsey Report and the recent NSFG study show that sexual orientation appears to be one-dimensional.

Select one:
True
False

False
Historically in the United States, and in some developing nations today, __________ has/have played an important part in the selection of a spouse.

Select one:
A. parents
B. love
C. the couple itself
D. pregnancies

parents
Living together without marrying would be more common among the poor of a society primarily because

Select one:
A. of loose morals.
B. of different values.
C. it matters less who is morally or legally bound to whom.
D. there is less social stigma.

it matters less who is morally or legally bound to whom.
Dating

Select one:
A. shifted the balance of power in favor of women
B. was a system of exchanging goods for companionship
C. had its heyday from 1945-1970
D. was rare until 1920

was a system of exchanging goods for companionship
The breadwinner-homemaker model of marriage

Select one:
A. flourished in the 1950s, at least for middle class whites
B. was the norm between 1945 and 1975
C. still flourishes today
D. is all but extinct

flourished in the 1950s, at least for middle class whites
A marriage in which the emphasis is on self-development, flexible roles, and open communication is called

Select one:
A. institutional marriage
B. companionate marriage
C. individualistic marriage
D. companionable marriage

individualistic marriage
Courtship

Select one:
A. is a process that began in the 1900s in the United States
B. began with young men calling on young women in their homes
C. is publicly visible and has rules and restrictions
D. all of the above are true about courtship

is publicly visible and has rules and restrictions
With the emergence of adolescence as a recognized life stage for teenagers, the high school and college years gave young people

Select one:
A. a protected time relatively free of parental involvement.
B. an incentive to marry young.
C. an incentive to help the family economically.
D. more restrictions from parents.

a protected time relatively free of parental involvement.
After the 1900s, the key resource that young people in the United States gained, which changed a centuries-old system of courtship was:

Select one:
A. education.
B. land.
C. inheritance.
D. spending money.

spending money.
Burgess, a family sociologist,
Select one:
A. felt that the individualized type of marriage was the best form
B. did not foresee the dual-earner marriage overtaking the breadwinner-homemaker marriage
C. predicted that the bread-winner homemaker marriage model could not last
D. that men and women should have an equal share of the household chores
did not foresee the dual-earner marriage overtaking the breadwinner-homemaker marriage
Hooking up

Select one:
A. became common in the 2000s
B. does not always imply sexual intercourse
C. does not imply romantic attraction
D. all of the above

all of the above
Increasingly, people in American society enter into marriage because:

Select one:
A. they enjoy the openness, self-disclosure, communication, and mutual dependence that marriage brings.
B. of dissatisfaction with the dating scene.
C. they want to increase their level of personal satisfaction.
D. of the spiritual side of marriage.

they want to increase their level of personal satisfaction.
Which of the following was not a factor in changing the nature of marriage from companionship to individualization?

Select one:
A. a rise in the standard of living
B. increasing economic independence of young women
C. the exposure of women to new ideas beyond the home
D. the migration of large numbers of people to rural areas

the migration of large numbers of people to rural areas
The institutional marriage is marked predominately by

Select one:
A. equal sharing of household chores and childcare.
B. mutual respect.
C. an attachment based on love and caring.
D. strict roles dictating how one is to behave within the family unit.

strict roles dictating how one is to behave within the family unit.
Compared to women with less education and lower earnings, the specialization model predicts that women with more education and higher earnings are __________ likely to marry while the income-pooling model predicts they are __________ likely to marry.

Select one:
A. less; more
B. more; less
C. equally; more
D. equally; less

less; more
Recent studies suggest that cohabitation is

Select one:
A. an alternative way of being single
B. a testing ground for marriage
C. an alternative to marriage
D. all of the above

all of the above
Which of the following factors is not related to women’s increased participation in the labor force?

Select one:
A. expansion of manufacturing jobs
B. rising divorce rate
C. lower fertility rate
D. expansion of service jobs

expansion of manufacturing jobs
Tronto (1993) and others believe that we overvalue individualism and _________ and undervalue interdependence and __________.

Select one:
A. autonomy; work experience
B. caring; autonomy
C. autonomy; caring
D. caring; work experience

autonomy; caring
The percentage of Americans who work very long weeks (50 hours or more) is higher than in

Select one:
A. France
B. The United Kingdom
C. Germany
D. all of the above

all of the above
Face-to-face activity in which one person meets the needs of another who cannot fully care for herself or himself is called

Select one:
A. personal assistance.
B. nursing.
C. care work.
D. none of the above.

care work.
Presser (1999) reports that about 1/3 of all dual-earner married couples arrange for childcare by

Select one:
A. hiring nannies.
B. enlisting the help of relatives.
C. working different shifts.
D. receiving government aid.

working different shifts.
Most childcare assistance currently offered by U.S. business firms benefits

Select one:
A. women.
B. the working-class
C. men.
D. the middle-class.

the middle-class.
The most common and widely used employee benefit is

Select one:
A. job sharing.
B. flexible vacation schedules.
C. part-time work.
D. flextime.

flextime.
The first parental leave act passed by U.S. Congress in 1993 (and still in effect) provided parental leave under the following conditions

Select one:
A. 12 weeks unpaid leave in firms with more than 50 employees.
B. 12 weeks paid leave to all employed workers.
C. 12 weeks paid leave.
D. employees working in firms with less than 50 employees.

12 weeks unpaid leave in firms with more than 50 employees.
People who do paid care work

Select one:
A. earn less than people who do comparable work
B. have jobs that are devalued in the labor market
C. often are experiencing “free-riding” from others
D. all of the above

all of the above
In 2004, what percentage of all workers had evening, night, or rotating schedules?

Select one:
A. 8
B. 18
C. 22
D. 28

18
One of the most important twentieth-century developments for the family has been

Select one:
A. the decline of patriarchy.
B. the movement of married women into employment outside the home.
C. birth control innovation.
D. none of the above.

the movement of married women into employment outside the home.
Some observers have suggested that balancing work and family has become difficult for Americans because they are

Select one:
A. working longer hours.
B. working to hard.
C. earning less money.
D. receiving fewer benefits.

working longer hours.
By the mid-200s, what percentage of wage and salary workers telecommuted on an average day?

Select one:
A. 10
B. 15
C. 20
D. 25

10
The United States has been a frontrunner among industrialized nations in implementing family-friendly policies for U.S. workers.
Select one:
True
False
False
The proportion of housework done by husbands in the United States went up dramatically as wives enter the labor market.

Select one:
True
False

False
Of the three types of parenting styles that Baumrind researched, the __________ parenting style seems to produce children who are more socially competent.
Select one:
A. authoritative
B. permissive
C. authoritarian
D. good-enough
authoritative
The different manner in which parents treat male and female children can be attributed to ______, which have little to do with true biological differences.

Select one:
A. class roles
B. religious roles
C. gender roles
D. all of the above

gender roles
The major source of primary socialization for children in the United States is

Select one:
A. school.
B. church.
C. day care.
D. family.

family.
The best parents (that is, those who are most likely to produce children who are socially competent) perform three tasks well: they set clear standards, they enforce standards consistently without harsh punishment, and they __________.

Select one:
A. spend a lot of money on their children
B. provide substantial emotional support
C. put the marital relationship as a second priority to the parental relationship for many years
D. reason with their children

provide substantial emotional support
In the United States each class socializes its children to:

Select one:
A. fit the same kinds of job positions they themselves have.
B. respect conformity.
C. understand the value of obedience.
D. choose a different religious preference.

fit the same kinds of job positions they themselves have.
The changing nature of adoption is reflected in the fact that

Select one:
A. two-thirds of the children adopted have a disability
B. a significant portion of adopted children are foreign born
C. sixty percent of foreign-born children were from Asian countries
D. all of the above

a significant portion of adopted children are foreign born
Recent research on fathering suggests that:

Select one:
A. father involvement is inconsequential for the healthy development of children.
B. the greater increase in children born outside of marriage is related to the father role.
C. father involvement is correlated with positive development in both sons and daughters.
D. higher father involvement reduces the divorce rate.

father involvement is correlated with positive development in both sons and daughters.
In studies of white, middle-class families in Iowa who were under economic pressure, Elder and Conger found that fathers in these families

Select one:
A. served as the strength of the family.
B. were irritable and hostile toward their wives and children.
C. deserted their wives and children.
D. none of the above

were irritable and hostile toward their wives and children.
About half of the disadvantages of living in a single- parent family are due to

Select one:
A. the sense of relative deprivation these families experience.
B. lack of supervision.
C. low income.
D. inability to work for pay.

low income.
The few studies of children growing up in lesbian families compared to heterosexual families show that

Select one:
A. there are substantial differences between the two.
B. there are differences for boys but not girls in the homosexual families.
C. there are differences for girls but not boys in the homosexual families.
D. there is little significant difference between the two.

there is little significant difference between the two.
People surveyed in 2003 believed what percentage of children lived in poverty:

Select one:
A. 10%
B. 20%
C. 30%
D. 40%

30%
Socialization of children is closely correlated with:

Select one:
A. interest of the parents in the children.
B. cultural norms and values.
C. mothers working outside the home.
D. parents’ awareness of their children’s personality changes.

cultural norms and values.
Families that maintain continual contact with each other even though they live in different countries are called

Select one:
A. immigrant caregivers
B. migrant families
C. transnational families
D. immigrant families

transnational families
Children in America experience more changes to the compositions of their households than do children in any other Western nation.

Select one:
True
False

True
Single parents appear to be less capable of adequate parenting.

Select one:
True
False

False
As the twentieth century ended, the most common living arrangement among elderly women in the U.S. became

Select one:
A. living with a married daughter.
B. living with a married son.
C. living alone.
D. living in a nursing home.

living alone.
Most of the elderly, when asked in survey after survey, prefer to live out their old age __________.

Select one:
A. with their adult children
B. with siblings
C. in a retirement community
D. alone

alone
Today in the United States there are more than ______________ centenarians, people who live to be more than 100 years old.

Select one:
A. 25,000
B. 50,000
C. 75,000
D. 100,000

50,000
Which of the following factors has contributed to grandparenthood becoming a distinct stage of life?

Select one:
A. decline in adult mortality
B. decrease in fertility
C. increased standard of living
D. all of the above

all of the above
The most common generation linkage of kin in the United States is __________ generations.

Select one:
A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five

three
Based on current figures, you and your parents’ lives, on average, will overlap by about _____ years.

Select one:
A. 20
B. 30
C. 40
D. 50

50
Among the elderly, those most likely to be poor are:

Select one:
A. older
B. female.
C. African American or Hispanic.
D. all of the above

all of the above
The primary factor determining the amount and degree of contact among families is

Select one:
A. geographical distance.
B. previous relations.
C. health.
D. love.

geographical distance.
Which of the following relationships tends to be the most distant in middle and late life in the United States?

Select one:
A. mother-son
B. mother-daughter
C. divorced mother-children
D. divorced father-children

divorced father-children
Public awareness of nursing home care for the elderly has been influenced in recent years by numerous expose-type news articles and documentaries. This focus has had the perhaps unintended result of many U.S. citizens believing that _____ of the elderly live in nursing homes, when in fact, most of the elderly are cared for by _____.

Select one:
A. a minority; friends and neighbors who check in on them
B. a majority; government social programs
C. a minority; home-care nurses
D. a majority; members of their families

a majority; members of their families
Of the following living arrangements, which is the most likely one for elderly men today in the United States?

Select one:
A. living alone
B. living with other relatives
C. living with a spouse
D. living with other non-relatives

living with a spouse
The percentage of grandchildren living with grandparents has

Select one:
A. decreased
B. remained about the same
C. increased
D. diminished because grandparents are too old to take care of small children

increased
Skipped-generation households are created because of the following reason/s
Select one:
A. child abuse by parent
B. incarceration of parent
C. drug abuse or illness
D. all of the above
all of the above
Intergenerational ties are becoming more important because of

Select one:
A. the decline of the two-parent nuclear family.
B. the greater life expectancy of grandparents.
C. lack of public care of the elderly.
D. the increased importance of family in the U.S. society.

the decline of the two-parent nuclear family.
When the author uses the term the “family national guard” he refers to

Select one:
A. family social workers
B. family therapists
C. family doctors
D. grandparents

grandparents
Child abuse is least likely to occur in what type of family?

Select one:
A. families in which both parents are employed
B. low-income families
C. single-parent families
D. a family in which the husband is unemployed

families in which both parents are employed
“Situational couple violence” is typified by

Select one:
A. it usually escalates into serious violence
B. it arises from a particular incident
C. it is the result of the need for control
D. it is usually perpetrated by men

it arises from a particular incident
Female victims of violence in the United States face the highest risk of physical injury
Select one:
A. when they are pregnant.
B. from strangers.
C. if they are disabled in any way.
D. from someone they know well.
from someone they know well.
“Intimate terrorism” is characterized by
Select one:
A. it escalates into serious violence and injury
B. it is motivated by control
C. most perpetrators are men
D. all of the above
all of the above
The theory that aggressive behavior occurs when a person is blocked from achieving a goal is called

Select one:
A. social learning perspective
B. social aggression perspective
C. frustration-aggression perspective
D. social exchange perspective

frustration-aggression perspective
Most reports of rape in surveys of date rape reveal that rape was committed

Select one:
A. by strangers to the victims.
B. by college students.
C. while the victim was out late at night.
D. by someone the victim knew.

Which of the following characteristics would describe a young man who has committed sexual aggression against an acquaintance compared to a young man who has not?
Select one:
A. The one who has committed sexual aggression would show more hostility toward women.
B. The one who has committed sexual aggression would consider violence against women acceptable.
C. The one who has committed sexual aggression would show greater physiological arousal when presented with rape scenarios in psychology experiments.
D. all of the above
all of the above
Only ___ percent of men have reported experiencing a violent act by an intimate partner, while ____ percent of women have reported experiencing a violent act by an intimate partner.
Select one:
A. 5: 22
B. 10: 22
C. 15: 30
D. 15: 34
5: 22
The teacher of a required course on how to handle conflict and anger in a relationship would most likely be using a __________ approach to domestic violence.
Select one:
A. social exchange
B. social learning
C. frustration-aggression
D. psychological
social learning
Of the three types of relationships—dating, married, and cohabiting relationships—which has the highest incidence of physical assault?

Select one:
A. dating
B. married
C. cohabiting
D. all the same

cohabiting
In an experiment conducted by the Minneapolis Police Force in the early 1980s, _____ resulted in the lowest level of repeat violence.

Select one:
A. arresting the suspect
B. ordering the offender to leave home for 8 hours
C. trying to mediate the dispute
D. taking the woman (and children) into protective custody

rresting the suspect
The feminist movement in the United States had as its fundamental goal on the issue of domestic violence

Select one:
A. to treat the physical injuries of the victims.
B. to treat the personal problems of the perpetrator.
C. to remove the social supports for male violence in our culture.
D. to treat the emotional trauma of the victims.

to remove the social supports for male violence in our culture.
If a domestic violence advocate were operating under the political model, he/she would be most apt to support which of the following?
Select one:
A. increasing women’s pay to a level equal to men’s
B. counseling couples on how to control their anger
C. policies aimed at preserving the family unit
D. providing mental health services to men who abuse their partner
increasing women’s pay to a level equal to men’s
A 2004 study found that the elderly were most likely to be abused by

Select one:
A. their spouse.
B. their children.
C. a sibling.
D. a non-related caretaker.

their children.
Of the substantiated elder abuse cases in 2004, the most prevalent type was

Select one:
A. emotional or psychological abuse
B. physical abuse
C. caregiver neglect
D. sexual abuse

caregiver neglect
The typical waiting period for a divorce in the United States is _____, which is _____ than most other Western countries.
Select one:
A. one year or less; lower
B. two years; higher
C. five years; higher
D. three years; lower
one year or less; lower
According to research reported by Cherlin, which of the following individual risk factors increases the likelihood of divorce?

Select one:
A. premarital cohabitation
B. young age at marriage
C. being African American
D. all of the above

all of the above
Women’s employment in the United States has had the effect, overall, of

Select one:
A. reducing the likelihood of divorce.
B. keeping the divorce rate stable.
C. making divorce more likely.
D. not changing the divorce rate.

making divorce more likely.
One of the most consistent findings of the research into the effects of divorce is that
Select one:
A. mothers are often bitter and emotionally distraught.
B. children never recover.
C. fathers after divorce are not as involved with their children as they may have been before.
D. fathers resent paying alimony.
fathers after divorce are not as involved with their children as they may have been before.
The woman that is least likely to obtain a legal divorce after separation?

Select one:
A. an African American woman
B. a white woman
C. an Asian American woman
D. a Mexican American woman

an African American woman
Of the following couples, which one is the least likely to divorce in contemporary U.S. society?

Select one:
A. couples who married as teenagers
B. couples with the same religious background
C. couples where the wife is much older than the husband
D. couples with significant age differences

couples with the same religious background
On the basis of what we know of the currently available research reports, children of divorced parents

Select one:
A. experience a crisis period after the divorce.
B. resume normal development within two years after the divorce.
C. a minority of them may experience problems into adulthood
D. all of the above

all of the above
Historically, annulments were only granted in the following case(s)

Select one:
A. marriage between close relatives.
B. adultery.
C. if spouses had not engaged in sexual intercourse.
D. both a and c

both a and c
The arrangement whereby divorced parents coordinate their activities and cooperate with each other in raising their children is commonly referred to as

Select one:
A. joint legal custody
B. parallel parenting
C. coparenting
D. joint upbringing

coparenting
Single father families now represent ____% of single parent families

Select one:
A. 11
B. 13
C. 15
D. 20

15
Which of the following was NOT grounds for divorce during the era of divorce tolerance?

Select one:
A. mental cruelty
B. habitual drunkenness
C. failure to provide for one’s wife
D. irreconcilable differences

irreconcilable differences
In the era of restricted divorce, men were more likely to be granted a divorce based on adultery than women. This was due primarily to the fact that
Select one:
A. men were more jealous than women.
B. in an agricultural-based economy, men needed to control labor (children) by controlling sexual access to their wives.
C. the court system was male-dominated and thus biased in favor of men.
D. all of the above
in an agricultural-based economy, men needed to control labor (children) by controlling sexual access to their wives.
Which of the following was NOT grounds for divorce in the American colonies?

Select one:
A. adultery
B. desertion
C. extreme violence by a husband
D. financial difficulties

financial difficulties
In the era of restricted divorce, countries with that were predominantly __________ were more liberal about divorce.

Select one:
A. Catholic
B. Protestant
C. Anglican
D. Muslim

Protestant
All of the following were official reasons for divorce in the era of divorce tolerance, except

Select one:
A. mental cruelty
B. habitual drunkeness
C. emotional dissatisfaction
D. nonsupport

emotional dissatisfaction
Which of the following racial-ethnic group members are most likely, on average, to remarry after a divorce?

Select one:
A. African Americans
B. Native Americans
C. Hispanics
D. non-Hispanic whites

non-Hispanic whites
Cherlin describes life in stepfamilies as a(n) ______ social institution.

Select one:
A. nonexistent
B. ignored
C. incomplete
D. complete

incomplete
In all discussions of stepfamilies and step-relatives it is obvious, on the basis of current research findings, that the primary ingredient in making a stepfamily “work” in ways similar to the common conjugal unit is that someone

Select one:
A. adopts the children from a first marriage.
B. does the work of kinship.
C. attends counseling.
D. helps support the new family.

does the work of kinship.
The stepparent who is in a stable stepfamily is likely to

Select one:
A. show warmth toward and support of the stepchildren
B. not discipline the stepchildren
C. support the biological parent’s parenting style
D. all of the above

all of the above
Therapists suggest that the transitional period in forming new family systems for many stepfamilies is approximately
Select one:
A. 1 year
B. 2-4 years
C. 3-5 years
D. there is no agreement
2-4 years
Stepmothers who do not live with their stepchildren
Select one:
A. are more likely to take on a parental role
B. see themselves as friends of the stepchildren
C. find step-mothering less stressful
D. all of the above
see themselves as friends of the stepchildren
Among racial-ethnic groups, those who are least likely to remarry in the United States are
Select one:
A. African American.
B. non-Hispanic whites.
C. Hispanics.
D. Asian Americans.
African American.
One of the critical factors determining whether a child considers a stepparent a “real” parent is

Select one:
A. the sex of the child.
B. the sex of the stepparent.
C. the age of the stepparent.
D. the age of the child when the stepparent joined the household.

the age of the child when the stepparent joined the household.
For children living in stepfamily households, the effect best established in research literature is

Select one:
A. they leave their households at an earlier age than children in other types of families.
B. they stay in their households longer than children in other types of families.
C. boys tend to leave earlier than girls in stepfamily households.
D. none of the above.

they leave their households at an earlier age than children in other types of families.
Of the types of kinship ties, which is more likely to change over the course of a person’s lifetime?

Select one:
A. assigned kinship ties
B. created kinship ties
C. blood-relative ties
D. grandparent kinship ties

created kinship ties
The original Old English prefix “step” as in stepmother signified a relationship caused by

Select one:
A. desertion
B. separation
C. divorce
D. death

death
Remarriage rates tend to be lower for:

Select one:
A. the poor than the non-poor.
B. men than for women.
C. the young than the old.
D. the wealthy than the poor.

the poor than the non-poor.
The likelihood that remarriages that include stepchildren will end in divorce is ______ in comparison to those that do not.

Select one:
A. undetermined
B. equal
C. lower
D. higher

higher
The introduction of a stepparent into a household containing a young teenager is increasingly difficult due to the effects of ______.

Select one:
A. remarriage
B. adolescence
C. high school
D. peer pressure

adolescence
With the increasing numbers of remarriages and subsequent stepfamilies, the practices of the court system in the United States have been

Select one:
A. standing firm about the rights of biological parents.
B. evolving slowly about the rights of biological parents.
C. standing firm about the rights of stepparents.
D. evolving slowly toward recognizing some rights and responsibilities of stepparents.

evolving slowly toward recognizing some rights and responsibilities of stepparents.

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