Soc 2010 exam #3

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for most people in the U.S., social standing remains much the same over a lifetime
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true
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in the U.S., social position reflects simply a person’s talents and abilities
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false
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social stratification is found in most, but not all, societies
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false
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in class systems, social categories are more clearly and rigidly defined that they are in caste systems
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false
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encourage the commitment to long term labor required by agriculture
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caste systems
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assign social positions based on both birth and individual achievements
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class system
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in its pure form, would have an extremely high level of social mobility
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metiocracy
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refers to ideas that support social stratification
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ideology
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states that social stratification has beneficial consequences for society
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Davis-Moore thesis
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Davis and moore point out that stratification is not inevitable because it does not exist everywhere
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false
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saw stratification as a complex socioeconomic status hierarchy
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Weber
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saw social stratification as three distinct dimensions: economic class, social prestige, and political power
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Max Weber
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Weber agreed with Marx that a socialist revolution would promote social inequality
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false
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Kuznets curve shows that industrial societies have the greatest social stratification
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false
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Children receive their social position from
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family
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what means \”job\” with low status consistency?
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gap between higher education and wealth
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In to which type of society the Russian revolution at 1917 transformed an agrarian society?
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into state society
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The richest 20% of U.S. families earn ___ percent of all income, while the bottom 20% earn only ___ percent.
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54, 4
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jobs typically performed by women carry more prestige than those performed by men.
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false
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white collar occupants have more prestige than blue collar occupations.
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true
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___ is to make enough money to join the ranks of the lower-upper class.
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American dream
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the working class is sometimes referred to the
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lower-middle class
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in the U.S., some ___ million people are officially counted among the poor
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36-40
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intergenerational mobility refers to changes in social position within an individual’s lifetime
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false, intrageneratiional
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since the 1980s in the U.S., the most dramatic gains in income have been made by
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the richest people
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the U.S. age category most likely to be poor is
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children
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the feminization of poverty since about 1960 refers to the percentage of women who are poor.
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false
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is defined as a trend of women making up an increase portion of the poor
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feminization of poverty
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there are more poor whites than poor blacks in the U.S.
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true
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rural areas have a higher poverty rate than central cities
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false
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more poor families in the U.S. do not have a full time worker
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true
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societal factors that contribute to homelessness include
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low wages and lack of low income housing
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about 50 million people are homeless in the U.S. for some time during a given year
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false
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recent welfare reform has greatly reduced the poverty rate in the U.S.
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false
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which high income country has a highest income inequality
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U.S.
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about how many percent of the nation’s privately held wealth control the \”very rich\” families in the U.S.?
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60%
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is the upper-upper class result of birth or achievement?
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birth and inheritance
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how many percent of the U.S. population falls within the middle class?
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45%
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which class is more liberal on social issues?
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upper class
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gender refers simply to whether people are female or male
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false
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refers to a persons wealth, power, respect, and sex
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gender
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like race or social class, gender is a major dimension of social stratification
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true
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affects the opportunities and constraints each of us encounters throughout our lives
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gender
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females live longer than males
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true
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argued that gender was mostly a matter of culture than biology.
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Margaret Mead
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Margaret Mead argued that gender was mostly a matter of biology rather than culture
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false
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In her famous study, Margaret Mead investigated gender in three African societies
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false, New Guinea
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Since no society has been able to eliminate patriarchy, we must conclude that it is inevitable
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false
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most sociological research suggest that gender is socially constructed and thus is subject to change
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true
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most engineer, judges, and college presidents are
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men
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represent an increasing share of the U.S. labor force
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women
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In 2001, US women earned ___ cents for every $1 earned by men
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76 cents
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in 2009, women earned ___cent for every $1 a man earned
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78 cents
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in the U.S., a majority of bachelors degrees are earned by men
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false
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___ college degrees are earned by women
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56-59
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Talcott Parsons described gender in terms of power relationships.
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false
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a social conflict account of the history of gender stratification was developed by
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Fredrich Engels
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liberal feminism seeks the elimination of gender itself
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false
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gender is not just a matter of difference but also a matter of what?
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matter of wealth, power, and prestige
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What are the findings of Margaret Mead’s research on gender?
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gender is socially culturally learned
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What gender shapes for people?
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shapes feelings, emotions, behaviors, and attitudes
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How many percent of today’s U.S. women are working for income?
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60%
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What nation has the greatest political power for women?
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Norway
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in what term Talcott Parson described a gender?
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complementarity
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scientific research confirms the existence of biologically pure races
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false
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some white people have darker skin than black people
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true
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members of a minority typically have a distinctive identitiy
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true
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discrimination is an irrational belief about an entire category of people
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false
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prejudice and discrimination can reinforce one another
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true
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refers to the physical and social separation of categories of people
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segregation
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racial segregation has always been illegal in the U.S.
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false
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native americans immigrated to these shores about the time Christopher columbus came to the americas
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false
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have been the dominant category of the U.S. population through most of this nation’s history
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WASPs
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about ___ of african americans earn more than $50,000 each year
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1/3
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white ethnics are ___ of european ancestry
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non-WASPs
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todays immigrants to the U.S. are more likely to come from Latin America than from Europe
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true
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Robert Merton’s theory of \”prejudice and discrimination\” teaches?
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prejudice and discrimination don’t always happen at the same time but always reinforce one another
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According to Karl Marx, the differences in wealth and power between the capitalist and proletarians must lead?
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lead to class conflict
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According to Karl Marx, what means \”from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs\”?
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rewards separated from performance
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what is the explanation of importance of social stratification by social-conflict paradigm?
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believe the certification divides people into unequal groups making it unhealthy
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cultural heritage shared by a group of people (place of ancestral origin, language or religion)
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ethnicity
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an anthropological category of people who, because of a common biological traits, are socially categorized
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race
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state in which all racial and ethnic groups are socially distinct but have roughly equal social standing
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pluralism
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process by which members of minority groups gradually modify their ways of life to conform to the patterns of the dominant culture
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assimilation
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process by which members of a society blend together totally through intermarriage across all racial and ethnic lines
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amalgamation
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active bigot
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prejudice person who discriminates
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timid bigot
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prejudice person but does not discriminate
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fair weather liberal
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non-prejudiced person who discriminates
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all weather liberal
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non-prejudiced person who does not discriminates

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