SOC 100 Midterm

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What is the basic circumstance under which any thought or action may become deviant?
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When it violates particular norms
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According to Albert Cohen, people form delinquent subcultures because they
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are cut off from legitimate opportunity to gain success
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Biological abnormality is the main, underlying cause of deviant behavior.
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False
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\”Young people are more likely to engage in behavior, including delinquency, if they believe their peers encourage it.\” The previous statement is an example of __________.
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Sutherland’s differential association theory
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The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions is the basis of _________________.
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labeling theory
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As odd as it seems, snowball fights are legally banned in Topeka. This is an example of ________.
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variations of deviance based on cultural norms
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Which of the following countries has the highest violent crime rate?
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US
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which sociologist argued that deviance performs essential social functions clarifying boundaries and encouraging social change?
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Emile Durkheim
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_____ now incarcerates a larger share of its population than any other country in the world
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The US
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What do all instances of deviance have in common?
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All deviant actions are characterized by a different that causes a person to be viewed as an outsider
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Bob learns that his coworker was arrested for car theft. Now that he thinks about it, he swears he once saw his coworker eyeing his car in the parking lot and feels relieved that he always kept his car locked. Bob is engaging in ___________.
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retrospective labeling
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According to Steven Spitzer, which of the following would most likely be considered deviant in our society?
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a labor organizer opposing efforts to weaken unions
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In what way does labeling theory distinguish how gender influences the way we define deviance?
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we use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females
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_________ is a form of punishment that renders an offender incapable of further offenses through imprisonment or execution.
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societal protection
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Elijah Anderson explains that in poor neighborhoods, most people reject conventional or \”decent\” values.
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False.
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According to social-conflict analysis, the people we tend to label as deviant are typically those who are ________.
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relatively powerless in society
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According to Merton’s strain theory, an alcoholic who lives by himself, quits his job, and stops talking to his friends would fall into which category of deviance?
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retreatism
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What is one important reason that crime rates fallen in the United States since the 1980s?
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More criminals have been sent to prison in the last 20 years than ever before
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is a tactic used by a judge to show a convicted offender the seriousness of his or her crime by initially imprisoning the offender but ultimately issuing probation.
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shock probation
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Robert Merton asserts that the type of deviance people engage in depends upon _____.
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whether society provides the means to achieve cultural goals
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Ali is sent to prison for car-jacking and released two years later. Is he likely to repeat his crime?
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yes; recidivism rates are 60-80% in the US
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Which of the following approaches states that even when the powerful engage in deviant activities, they still have the resources to resist deviant labels?
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social-conflict
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Armed robbery is an example of a _____ crime.
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violent
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Which of the following is an example of deterrence?
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Colin disrupts his high school class and is assigned detention.
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The illegal distribution of alcohol during Prohibition is an example of __________.
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organized crime
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Which of the following is an example of secondary deviance?
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Elliot takes recreational drugs occasionally with his friends. After he is caught by his father, he loses many of his friends, begins to take drugs every day, and is hostile toward members of his family.
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Gary is angry to find that a coworker took his food out of the office fridge. In retaliation, he takes the coworker’s lunch. Gary is engaging in ____________.
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retribution
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Why have many states moved away from seeking sentences of capital punishment?
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There is a high financial cost of prosecuting capital cases.
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What was Karl Marx’s perception of the law?
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Law exists to protect the interests of powerful people.
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is a legal negotiation where a defendant receives a lesser charge in exchange for admitting guilt.
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plea bargaining
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What is an example of informal social control?
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Teasing a friend because he listens to Justin Bieber’s music
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According to the symbolic-interaction approach, the definitions of deviance and conformity are ____ .
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variable
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Hirschi’s control theory states that social control depends on _____.
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people anticipating and caring about the consequences of their behavior
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Which of the following theoretical approaches takes a micro-level approach to the issues of deviance?
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symbolic-interaction
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White-collar crime is best represented by which of the following?
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securities fraud
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The various symbolic-interaction theories all see deviance as a process.
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True
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Attachment, opportunity, involvement, and belief are the four different types of _________________.
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social control to which Hirschi links conformity
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The biological and psychological approaches have limited value in explaining deviance because _____.
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wrongdoing has more to do with the organization of society
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According to Erving Goffman, people acquire __________ as they develop a deviant career involving stronger commitment to deviant behavior.
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a stigma
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\”An eye for an eye\” describes this type of punishment.
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retribution
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Which of the following is an example of white-collar crime?
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embezzlement
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Changes in U.S. attitudes toward the death penalty are reflected in the fact that _______.
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there were only about half as many death sentences imposed in 2009 as there were in 1999
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A legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant’s admission of guilt is called _____.
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plea bargaining
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The strategy in which a judge orders a convicted offender to prison for a short time but then suspends the remainder of the sentence in favor of probation is called _____.
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shock probation
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Interpreting someone’s past in light of some present deviance is called ______.
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retrospective labeling
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The rate of handgun deaths in the United States is about ___ times higher than the rate in Canada.
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five
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According to victimization surveys carried out in 2008, the overall crime rate was about _________ official reports indicated.
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two times higher than
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The attempt by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior is called _______.
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social control
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According to Karl Marx, the law is the means by which powerful people protect their interests.
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True
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Emile Durkheim’s basic insight was that _______.
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there is nothing abnormal about deviance because all societies create it
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All crimes are composed of two elements: the act itself and _____
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criminal intent
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From the symbolic-interaction point of view, definitions of deviance and conformity are
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highly variable
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The problem of illegal drugs in the United States is an issue of _________.
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supply and demand
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Thoughts and actions become deviant_____.
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only in relation to the norms of a particular group or society
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Most of the actions and conditions that we define as deviant are carried out by people who are biologically abnormal in some way.
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False
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According to labeling theory, gender influences how we define deviance because people commonly _____.
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use different standards to judge the behavior of males and females
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According to Steven Spitzer, who is at the most risk of being labeled \”deviant\”?
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Poor people who threaten the livelihood of the rich
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Which of the following individuals is the most likely to engage in deviance, according to Travis Hirschi’s control theory?
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Blake, an angry boy with few friends who has lived with his older sister since his parents divorced
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Why is only a small share of property crime reported to the police?
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Because the loss is often relatively small.
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Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between primary and secondary groups?
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These are ideals, and actual groups fall somewhere on a continuum between the two ideal types.
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Which choice is an example of how population patterns affect organizations?
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A company develops geriatric vitamins to sell to aging baby boomers.
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How was Asch’s line study similar to Janis’s study of groupthink?
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Both found that members of a group tend to conform, even when it goes against individual beliefs
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Yardly University and Smithington College have a strong rivalry that spans decades. When their football teams meet to play each other, thousands of fans from both schools come to cheer on their team. Which of the following is true of the group dynamics among the fans?
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The Yardly fans see themselves as an in-group and see the Smithington fans as an out-group.
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A(n) ________ is the rule of the many by the few.
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oligarchy
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In the United States, which of the following industries has the largest pool of low-wage workers?
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fast food
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According to the Census Bureau and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, non-Hispanic white men in the United States constitute about one-third of the population and hold about ____ of all management jobs
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63
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_____ refers to an organization’s rules and regulations becoming an end in themselves, so much so that they interfere with accomplishing the organization’s goals.
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Bureaucratic ritualism
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Studies have shown that, when comparing male and female leaders, men are more flexible and typically give their employees more freedom.
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False
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The principles of scientific management suggest that operational control over the workplace should reside with _____
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owners and executives
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Bureaucracies usually take the form of a(n) ________________
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pyramid, with few people at the top and many at the bottom
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The GBB Motor Company is quickly becoming a world leader in automotive manufacturing. The company operates on two basic principles: All employees should be treated equally, and employee loyalty to the company is paramount. The GBB Motor Company is most likely based in which country?
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Japan
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Which of the following is an example of a utilitarian organization?
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the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
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Failure to speak out in opposition to the opinions of others possibly led to the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs in 1961. This situation is an example of ______________.
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groupthink
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To a business owner, which type of formal organization is the business?
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utilitarian
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Which of the following is the best example of a network?
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a college’s alumni
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Samuel Stouffer showed that soldiers in low-promotion units were more optimistic about being promoted than were soldiers in high-promotion units. How could the results of Stouffer’s study relate to a competitive swimmer’s expectations of success?
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A swimmer on a low-excelling team will see a possibility of doing well since someone has to be the best on the team, whereas a swimmer on a high-excelling team is likely to believe that there is just too much competition for him or her to ever stand out.
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Historically, many white people in the United States have viewed people of color as a(n) _____
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out-group
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Many jobs in the information age are characterized by ______
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greater flexiblity
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Roman Catholics are correctly considered to be an example of a ____
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category
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The McDonaldization thesis states that rational organization ______.
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is coming to define our way of life
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Bureaucracies are based more on rationality than on tradition.
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True.
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A social group includes ________.
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two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
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Today’s post-industrial economy has created highly skilled, creative work as well as __________
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service work that requires far less skill
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According to Max Weber, a key element of bureaucracies is their adherence to the tradition of favoring relatives over strangers.
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False
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A work picnic is different from a family picnic in that the work picnic’s attendees form a _______.
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secondary group
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\”Quality circles\” in Japanese work organizations served to _____________________.
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involve workers in discussing decisions that affect them
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A ____is an example of a primary group
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family residing together
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Why are Presbyterians considered a category and not a social group?
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Although they follow similar religious beliefs, most Presbyterians are strangers to each other.
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According to Irving Janis, people participating in groupthink limit________, resulting in a narrow view of the issue
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additional points of view
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Community service clubs, political parties, and religious congregations are all examples of ______
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normative organizations
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Kristina sees her friends Amanda and Gabrielle in the hallway before class. Kristina likes their hair and asks them where they had it done. Amanda replies that they went to the local salon, where the hairdresser explained that she often modeled hair styles after those of celebrities she sees in magazines. Kristina decides that she, too, would like to get this haircut.
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Amanda and Gabrielle
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In the early 1900s, the Ford Motor Company followed the principles of _______
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scientific management
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Why would Frederick Taylor’s concept of scientific management not work well now, even though it was successful in the early 1900s?
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Many jobs in today’s postindustrial period require more creativity and flexibility than those of the early 1900s.
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What is the main benefit of open, flexible organization for a technology company?
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the ability to adapt quickly
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Why can groupthink be a problem within a business?
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What starts out as the most popular solution might not turn out to be the best solution.
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Robert Michels believed that hierarchy weakens democracy because officials often use their access to information and other resources to promote their own personal interests. What did Michels call this assertion?
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The iron law of oligarchy
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Within formal organizations, people are most likely to have primary relationships
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False
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Due to _______, members of organizations sometimes try to look busy when they do not really have much work to do.
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bureaucratic intertia
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Curtis attends a local college where he studies sociology. During the week, he works at the school library and attends classes. On the weekends, he enjoys hanging out with his close friends from high school and going out with them sometimes meeting other people at clubs. Which of the following would be considered Curtis’s primary social group?
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his friends
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Our society is becoming \”McDonaldized,\” meaning that our culture __________.
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has adapted many procedures similar to those of McDonald’s restaurants
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In the United States, the postindustrial economy emerged around _______.
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1950, during the post-World War II recovery
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Primary and secondary social groups differ according to _____.
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their members’ degree of personal concern for one another
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It is in the world’s best interest to curb bureaucracy because bureaucracy rarely leads to efficiency
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False
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Why is a collection of people in an airport a crowd instead of a group?
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They are a crowd because they are a loosely formed collection of people with very little interaction.
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Scientific management was developed to ____
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increase the efficiency of businesses
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Factors that affect an organization’s operation, such as declining regional population or a new state governor, are called the __________.
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organizational environment
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The policies of Japanese organizations in the 1980s encouraged more _____ than did those of organizations in the United States
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loyalty and cooperation
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For whom would a high school be most like a coercive organization?
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the students
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The more diverse a group is, the more likely its members are to ________.
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interact with people who are different from themselves
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The Cedarville High baseball team is doing poorly. The team members do not get along, and it shows on the field. Their main pitcher recently experienced a death in the family and has not been able to get a strikeout in weeks, while their shortstop is currently out for the season after tearing a ligament in his leg. Between the constant bickering and personal problems, the team is last in the league. How would an instrumental leader go about pulling the team out of the gutter?
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He or she would give players orders, plan specific plays, and reward or punish players depending on their efforts.
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An authoritarian leader typically _________.
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takes personal charge of decision making
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Which of the following actions is an example of expressive leadership?
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The department manager notices that Joe is looking a little down and asks him if everything is all right.
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The \”McDonaldization\” of society rests on the principles of efficiency, predictability, uniformity, and control.
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True
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Carrie is a member of a project team at work. Once a week, her team meets to discuss challenges and goals. Outside of the office, Carrie rarely sees her coworkers, and she does not mind when a few of them switch to a new project team. The team that Carrie is a part of can best be described as ___________.
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a secondary group
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A problem with groupthink is that it results in _________.
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conforming, leading to a narrow view of an issue
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Once a week, Jenna sits down with her employees to see how things are going. She encourages them to voice their concerns, and together they brainstorm ways to overcome any challenges. Jenna also uses these sessions to resolve any disputes between coworkers or lend a sympathetic ear to an employee. Jenna’s leadership style is best described as __________.
answer

expressive
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The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s response to Hurricane Katrina as described in the text is an example of ______________________.
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bureaucratic inefficiency
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How does the phrase \”I owe you one\” relate to secondary groups?
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People in secondary groups tend to \”keep score\” regarding what they do for each other.
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Monique and Kevin worked at the same company for 5 years without knowing much about each other. One day at a company party they began talking and hit it off. They dated for a year before breaking up. Kevin left his job, and the two have not spoken since, although they both enjoy going on their own to see their city’s hockey team play. How did Kevin and Monique’s relationship transform over time?
answer

They began as members of a secondary group, developed into a primary group, and eventually became just faces in a crowd
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People typically form a subjective sense of their well-being by looking at themselves relative to specific reference groups
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True
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Although the postindustrial economy has created many highly skilled jobs, it has created even more ___ jobs.
answer

routine service
question

Which is better: instrumental leadership or expressive leadership
answer

Neither is better than the other overall; the situation often determines which type of leadership is needed.

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