Slime Design Lab Essay Example
Slime Design Lab Essay Example

Slime Design Lab Essay Example

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Sodium Borate, or borax, is frequently utilized in household items like creams, baths, and skin products.

The presence of borate ions in sodium borate enhances the performance and interaction of molecules in the formula.


The borate ions in sodium borate have the ability to create connections between poly (ethanol) chains. These connections trap water from both solutions within the polymer chains. These connections can be easily broken, creating a substance that exhibits qualities of both a solid and a liquid - commonly referred to as "slime."

The composition of the slime affects its physical properties, and different amounts of reactants result in different types of slime. To determine the effects of changing the slime's composition, you must create a lab experiment that provides reliable data using only the provided materials. Cases, E.

Z. "Chemistry Outreach Program:


Florida State University." Chemistry Outreach Program: Florida State University, n. D. Web.

28 Feb. 2013.

Research on Defining the Problem and Selecting Variables

Question: How does changing the concentration of sodium borate solution from 1% to 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% affect the viscosity of slime?

Hypothesis: Increasing the concentration of sodium borate will cause the slime to become stiffer, resulting in a longer time for the marble to reach the bottom of the beaker. This is because a higher concentration of sodium borate ions will lead to more cross-links with polyethylene chains, reducing cross-link breakage and creating a more solid slime.

The text explains the process of defining variables for an experiment centered around altering the concentration of sodium borate. At the beginning, there were 50 cams (units) of a 1% sodium borate solution and 50 cams of a 5% sodium borate solution. From the 5

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solution, 15 cams were separated. To form a 4% sodium borate solution, water was added to the remaining quantity of the 5% solution. The dilution was determined using this formula: Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (total) x Volume (total). For example, it was found that the volume (total) should be 43.75 cams. To achieve this volume, it was necessary to add 8.75 cams of water to the initial amount of 35 cams from the 5% solution.

The experiment involved varying the concentration of sodium borate solution by diluting it with different amounts of water, specifically changing from 5% to 4%, 4% to 3%, and 3% to 2%. The amount of water required for each change was measured: 8.5 for going from 5% to 4%, 9.55 for going from 4% to 3%, and 1.65 for going from 3% to %. To determine the stiffness of the slime, a dependent variable in the experiment, a marble was dropped into the slime and the time taken for it to sink was recorded. Three trials were conducted at each concentration and an average time was calculated. Various factors were controlled throughout the experiment including: volume of polyethylene used, volume and temperature of sodium borate solution, temperature of poly ethanol, type of marble and food coloring used, and kneading time. Controls were included using solutions with concentrations of both % and %.

15 cam of and 5% must be reserved in test tubes. The concentration can be changed by diluting the 5% sodium borate solution with water. This results in a 4% sodium borate solution, which should be kept aside in a labeled test tube. Repeat this process until

all concentrations from 1% to 5% are in labeled test tubes on a test tube rack.

The Variable Effect Method of Control may have influenced the slime's viscosity by allowing for a longer chain and expansion with an increased volume. The experiment consistently used the same volume of poly ethanol. Additionally, the viscosity of the slime may have been affected by the volume of the sodium borate.

Adding more sodium borate to the slime increases its thickness and causes it to expand by lengthening the chain. The experiment consistently used a fixed volume of sodium borate. Applying pressure to the slime leads to further expansion and increased thickness, indicating that it may also react similarly to heat. To ensure a constant temperature, the procedure was performed on the same day at room temperature for both the polyethylene and sodium borate solution.

The use of the same marble throughout the experiment is crucial as it determines the viscosity of the slime. If the mass of the marble were to increase, it would cause it to sink faster in the beaker, which would impact the overall results. Additionally, using different colors of food coloring may have affected the viscosity of the slime in an unknown way. However, we consistently used the same food coloring in our method. To create various concentrations of sodium borate solution, we followed these steps:

  1. Measure out 15 cm of 5% sodium borate solution using a CACM measuring cylinder.
  2. Set aside in a labeled test tube as 5%, placed on a test tube rack.
  3. Add 8.75 cm of water to the beaker containing the 5% sodium borate solution, using a CACM measuring cylinder.

To create the slime, follow

these steps:

1. Add 30 cm of polyethylene to a paper cup.
2. Stir in 3-4 drops of food coloring.
3. Add 15 ml of 1% sodium borate solution - stirring quickly and scraping the sides and bottom using a wooden craft stick.
4. Pour the entire contents of the cup into a plastic baggy.
5. Knead the slime and time how long it takes for a marble to hit the bottom of a beaker.
6. Make sure the marble is dropped from the same height each time.
7. Repeat these steps with the 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5% sodium borate solutions.

(This leads to the creation of a 4% sodium borate solution).
Measure out 15 cm of this solution using a CACM measuring cylinder and set aside in a test tube labeled as "4%", placed on a test tube rack.

Repeat steps above while adjusting percentages, such as changing from 4% to 3%. Measure out another batch containing
15 cm of now diluted sodium borate solution (with adjusted percentage) using CACM measuring cylinder, label it as "X%" and place it in another labeled test tube on your test tube rack.

Here is an alternative method for creating slime:
Add polyethylene (30 cm) into a paper cup, then stir in some food coloring (around three to four drops).
While stirring quickly and ensuring that you scrape both sides and bottom of your cup with wooden craft stick,
add small amount (15 ml) of diluted sodium borate solution which contains only one percent concentration.

Pour all content from this cup into plastic baggy, then proceed by kneading until desired consistency is achieved.
For further experiments, repeat all aforementioned instructions but substitute original one percent concentration with others,
such as two percent, three

percent, four percent, and five percent sodium borate solutions.Gather the following materials:
- 50 cm measuring cylinder
- Sodium borate solutions, at 1% and 5% (50 cm of each)
- 5 test tubes
- 1 test tube rack
- Pencil
- Disposable paper cup
- Poly (ethanol) solution, 4% (150 cm)
- Protective gloves
- Wooden sticks for stirring (ice lolly sticks)
- 100 ml beaker
- Food coloring (optional)
- Marbles
- Plastic sandwich bags
- Stopwatch

Developing a Method for Collection of Data

To measure the viscosity of the slime and its relationship to the concentration of sodium borate solution, follow these steps:

1. Fill a beaker with slime three times and time how long it takes for a marble to hit the bottom each time.
2. Record the results.

Processing Raw Data and Presenting Processed Data

The average time for the marble to hit the bottom of the beaker is as follows:
1. At 4.70 seconds with an uncertainty of ±0.Sass.
2. At 6.53 seconds with an uncertainty of ±0.Sass.
3. At 7.47 seconds with an uncertainty of ±0.Sass.
4. At 8.52 seconds with an uncertainty of ±0.Sass.
5. At 9.38 seconds with an uncertainty of ±0.Sass.

Sample Calculation to find the average time for the marble to hit the bottom using a sodium borax concentration at around or equal to one percent:

Average time = Total Time / Number of Experiments
Average time = (Time Experiment One + Time Experiment Two + Time Experiment Three + ... [remaining content is not provided]



The experiment's data supports the hypothesis that increasing the concentration of sodium borate makes the slime stiffer and increases the time it takes for the marble

to hit the bottom of the beaker. This occurs because a more diluted sodium borate solution weakens the bonds between sodium borate and polyethylene, resulting in fewer available sodium borate ions to form chains. Consequently, when chains are smaller, the slime becomes thinner, and vice versa. The positive gradient trend indicates that increasing sodium borate concentration also increases the time for the marble to reach the beaker's bottom.

Therefore, the higher the concentration of the sodium borate, the more stiff and viscous it becomes. Apparatus errors include: Timer uncertainty of ±0.05 seconds, Beaker uncertainty of ±5 cam, and Measuring Cylinder uncertainty of ±0.5 cam. The total amount of solutions measured by each apparatus is: Timer - 109.6 seconds, Beaker - 130 cam (polyethylene 0 CACM; sodium borate solution 0 100 cam), Measuring Cylinder - 104.95 cam (sodium borate solution 15+1 5+1 5+15+15 water). The errors of each apparatus are: Timer - 0.05%, Beaker - 3.85%, Measuring Cylinder - 0.48%

Evaluating and Improving the Investigation

During the experiment, variations in kneading time for the slime occurred, which is important as pressure causes expansion and thickening in slime consistency. If one sample was kneaded longer than another, it could have influenced overall results by increasing thickness. This weakness holds significance.

In future experiments, it is recommended to time the kneading process and maintain a consistent duration throughout the experiment, such as one minute. One systematic error observed was the use of sodium borate solution dilution, which resulted in precise numbers with two decimal places. However, these measurements were challenging to accurately record on a 50 cm measuring cylinder. Despite this minor limitation, it can be considered insignificant.

In future experiments, more

precise equipment could be used. For example, a 1 cam-measuring cylinder with decimal place markings would allow for more accurate measurements. Additionally, it would be beneficial to have access to 5 different concentrations of the sodium borate solution in order to minimize the potential for errors or weaknesses. One specific systematic error encountered was the difficulty in determining when the marble had reached the bottom of the beaker. While this weakness is insignficant, using a longer and slimmer container such as a CACM-measuring cylinder or a large test tube could alleviate this issue in future experiments.

To extend the time it takes for the marble to reach the bottom and improve visibility when stopping the timer, avoid adding food coloring to the slime. Additionally, to minimize random error in the experiment, use equipment with more frequent markings, such as replacing 100-ml beakers with a 1 ml measuring cylinder. To reduce systematic error, perform a trial run of the experiment.

Afterwards, make a record of successful and unsuccessful aspects, implement improvements, and repeat the experiment a second time to prepare the report.

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