Silberberg Chem 101 unit 1 Flashcard

Matter
Anything that has mass and volume
Composition
The types and amounts of simpler substances that make it up.
Properties
The Characteristics that give each substance its unique identity.
Physical Properties
Properties that a substance shows by itself, without changing into or interacting with another substance.
Physical Change
When a substance alters its physical form, not its composition.
Chemical Properties
Properties that a substance shows as it changes into or interacts with another substance (or substances).

Chemical Change

(Chemical Reaction)

Occurs when a substance (or substances)is converted into a different substance (or substances).
Solid
Has a fixed shape that does not conform to the container shape.
Liquid
Conforms to the container shape but fills the container only to the extent of the liquid’s volume
Gas
Conforms to the container shape also, but it fills the entire container.
Energy
Oftern defined as the ability to do work.
Potential Energy
Energy due to the position of the object.
Kinetic Energy
Energy due to the motion of the object.
Observations
These are the ideas that our ideas must explain.
Data
Pieces of quantitative information.
Natural Law
When the same observation is made by many investigators in many situations with no clear exceptions, it is summarized, often in mathematical terms.
Hypothesis
A proposal made to explain on observation.
Experiment
A clear set of proceural steps that tests a hypothesis.
Variables
Quantities that can have more than a single value.
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Theory
A formulated conceptual model based on experiments rather than speculation.
Element
Consists of only one kind of matter.
Substance
An element of one kind, whose composition is fixed.
Molecule
An independent structure consisting of two or more atoms chemically bound together.
Compound
A type of matter composed of two or more different elements that are chemically bound together.
Mixture
A group of two or more substances (elements or compounds) that are physically intermingled.
Atom
Tiny indivisible particles of an element that cannot be created or destroyed.
Proton
One of two components to an atomic nucleas, which possesses a positive charge.
Neutron
One of two components of an atomic nucleas, which possesses a net zero charge.
Electron
An atomic component that orbits the nucleas of an atom and possesses a negative charge.
Mass Number
The total number of Protons and Neutrons in the neucleas of an atom.
Isotopes
A differing amount of neutrons between different samples of the same element that result in a different Mass Number.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
1/12 the mass of a Carbon-12 atom.
Isotopic Mass
The mass of an isotope relative to the mass of the standard carbon-12 isotope.

Atomic Mass

(Atomic Weight)

The average of the masses of its naturally occuring isotopes weighted according to their abundances.
Periods
Horizontal rows of the periodic table of elements.
Groups
Vertical columns on the periodic table of elements.
Main Group Elements
The eight A Groups (two on the left and six on the right)
Transition Elements
The ten B Groups located between 2A(2) and 3A(13)
Metals
Appear in the large lower-left portion of the periodic table.
Nonmetals
Appear in the small upper-right portion of the periodic table.
Metalloids
Elements that have properties between those of metals and nonmetals.
Alkali Metals
Group 1A(1), with the exception of hydrogen.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2A(2) on the periodic table.
Halogens
Group 7A(17), are highly reactive nonmetals.
Noble Gases
Group 8A(18), are relatively unreactive.
Oxygen Family
Group 6A
Ionic Compounds
Transferring electrons from the atoms of one element to those of another.
Covalent Compounds
Sharing electrons between atoms of different elements.
Binary Ionic Compounds
Composed of just two elements.; It typically forms when a metal reacts with a nonmetal.
Cation
A positively charged ion.
Anion
Negatively charged ions.
Monotomic Ion
A cation or anion that is derived from a single atom.
Covalent Bond
A pair of electrons mutually attracted by the two nuclei.
Polyatomic Ion
Which consist of two or more atoms bonded covalently and have a net positve or negative charge.
Law of Mass Conservation
The total mass of substance does not change during a chemical reaction.
Law of Definite Composition
No matter what its source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass.
Law of Multiple Proportions
If elements A and B react to form two compunds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.

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