SA: Chapter 1 ~ Drug Use- An Overview

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Meth, crack cocaine, ecstasy and glue sniffing were given as examples of media reports on
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the \”drug du jour\”
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One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use is that
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drugs, per se, are not good or bad
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One of the general principles of psychoactive drug is that \”the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on
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the individuals history and expectations
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The use of a substance in a manner, amounts or situations such that the drug causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring is
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abuse
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Drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority, causing members of a group to take corrective action where it occurs is
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*deviant drug use
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A drug that is unlawful to possess or use is defined in the text as
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*an illicit drug
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Drugs have played a significant role in human society
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*for thousands of years
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In the past 100 years the introduction of vaccines to prevent diseases and antibiotics to cure some types of infections laid the foundation for
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*our acceptance of medicines as the cornerstone of our health care system
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Must of our information about rates of drug use come from survey questionnaires. One important limitation of such questionnaires is
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*people might not answer honestly
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Despite the limitations of survey questionnaires, they can be especially informative
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*if they are done year after year, because we can then look for changes over time
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Among college students, fewer than ¼ have ever tried
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*hallucinogens
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Based on two large surveys, it appears that the percentage of young people reporting current marijuana use
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*is about half the percentage reporting current use in the late 1970s
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When we examine changes over the years in the percentage high school seniors who say they have smoked marijuana, we find a clear inverse (mirror-image) relationship to
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*perceived risk of harm in using marijuana
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The National Survey on Drug Use and Health revealed that current alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use
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*hasn’t hanged much in the past 15 years
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Factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as
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*risk factors
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Factors that are correlated with higher rates of drug use are known as
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*protective factors
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One of the most important risk factors for drug use is
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*having friends who use marijuana or other substances
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One of the most important protective factors for drug use is
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*believing that there are strong sanctions against substance use at school
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One very consistent finding is that students who report _____ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any type of illicit drug
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*having more involvement with religion
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According to results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana?
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*white
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Compared to young adults who finished high school only, those with college degrees
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*are must more likely to drink alcohol and much less likely to use tobacco
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One personality variable that has not been consistently associated with higher rates of substance dependence is
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*high impulsivity
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An example of a longitudinal study of drug use would be
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*following the same group of people at intervals over several months or years
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In one study, adolescents who smoked cigarettes were about twice as likely as nonsmokers to later use marijuana. For this reason, cigarettes have been referred to as
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*a gateway substance
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Some drugs have the effect that, every time you take the drug, you increase slightly the probability that you will take it again. The process is referred to as
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*reinforcement
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Which type of factor probably plays a bigger role in determining whether a person will try a drug in the first place, as opposed to determining which o htose who try it will become dependent?
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*social
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Suppose a person is prescribed an opioid medication (similar to heroin) to treat a painful injury. But after her injury heals, she takes the drug primarily to feel euphoria. Based on this info what term would you use to describe her drug use?
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*misuse

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