Rusenko 442 nuclear chemistry

Flashcard maker : Roy Johnson
fuel rods in a nuclear reactor are made of
uranium
What is used as a coolant inside the nuclear reactor
water
how does the nuclear plant create electricity?
using a turbine
What is SCRAM

Emergency shutdown of a nuclear reactor

 

Stands for : Safety Control Rod Axe Man

What color of light has the most energy?
violet
What color of light has the least energy
red
Light is given off when 
an excited electron goes back to a ground state electron
 radiograph

picture taken using gamma radiation

 

– can be used to detect a defect in a weld

Speed of different frequencies

– same

 

– all frequencies and wavelengths travel at same speed

 

– gamma rays  radio waves – same speed

 

how do the energy of different frequencies compare?

higher frequency -> more energy

 

gamma rays – most energy

radio waves – least energy

relationship between frequency and wavelength

inverse

 

higher frequency – shorter wavelength (gamma)

 

lower frequency – longer wavelength (radio)

half life
amount of time it takes for a radioactive sample to decrease by half
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle
can never know the location and momentum of an electron
Schrodinger

developed mathematical equation to predict most probably position of an electron

;

– describes these probable positions as an electron cloud

protons and neutrons can be broken down further into particles called

;

leptons (lighter weight);

;

and;

;

hadrons (heavier);

;

both are unstable – exist only in nuclear reactions

after one half-life has gone by
50% of the radioactive material will remain
after a second half life

25% of the radioactive material will remain

;

1st half life: 100% -; 50%

;

2nd half life: 50% -; 25%

;

3rd half life: 25% -; 12.5 %

control rods moderate the nuclear reaction by
absorbing neutrons
Is Uranium a naturally occurring element?
yes

which has more energy:

;

violet light or ultraviolet light

ultraviolet light
alpha radiation

4

;;;; He

2

;

;

ie.;;;;;;;;;; 238;;;;;;;;;; 234;;;;;;;;;;; 4

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; U; —>       Th    +    He

                92             90            2

 

Beta radiation

  0

      e

   1-

 

 

   ex.   14          14        0

             C —>     N   +   e

            6           7        1-

  0

      e

   1-

 

 

   ex.   14          14        0

             C —>     N   +   e

            6           7        1-

 

beta radiation

4

     He

2

 

 

ie.           238           234            4

                   U  —>       Th    +    He

                92             90            2

 

alpha radiation
gamma radiation

γ

high energy photon

ex.     60                60             0

              Co —>       Co  +       γ

          27                27             0

γ

high energy photon

 

ex.     60                60             0

              Co —>       Co  +       γ

          27                27             0

 

gamma radiation

0

     e

1+

 

ex.    25             25          0

           Al —>       Mg  +     e

        13             12         1+

positron

0

     e

1+

 

ex.    25             25          0

           Al —>       Mg  +     e

        13             12         1+

positron
electron capture

 

 

ex.      18         0           18

              F   +    e  —>    O

            9        1-            8

 

notice – electron in the reactants!

ex.      18         0           18

              F   +    e  —>    O

            9        1-            8

 

notice – electron in the reactants!

electron capture
fission

 – starts when neutrons hit a heavy element and splits it into 2 smaller elements and extra neutrons

 

ex.  235          1            90        144          1

           U   +     n   –>      Rb  +     Cs  + 2  n

        92          0            37          55          0

 

 

 – starts when neutrons hit a heavy element and splits it into 2 smaller elements and extra neutrons

 

ex.  235          1            90        144          1

           U   +     n   –>      Rb  +     Cs  + 2  n

        92          0            37          55          0

fission
fusion

“fusing” or combining 2 small nuclei into 1 larger nuclei

 

 

 

ex.         2                 4

           2  H       —>    He

             1                 2

 

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member