Quality management final Essay

question

A__________ is a tool for identifying and organizing the possible causes of a problem in a structured format (Hint: also called a Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram).
answer

Cause-and-Effect Diagram
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True or false: In the NEJM article “What is Value in Health Care,” the author describes that for any medical condition, only a single outcome measure is needed to capture the results of care.
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False
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According to Philip Crosby, quality should be defined as:
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Conformance to requirements
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According to Brian Joiner, what is the key to success for any organization that wants to implement quality improvement?
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Teamwork
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lean spaghetti diagram
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helps establish the optimum layout for workspace based on observations of distances traveled by customers
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Root-cause analysis (RCA)
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represents a “post hoc” approach to evaluating a process deployed in response to a problem or error
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Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)
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mean of evaluating a process prospectively to prevent errors before the occur; has become a wildly used tool in
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SMART
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defines criteria to implement solutions to remedy underlying causes problems
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In the past few years, the healthcare industry has discovered that teams only play a minor role in improving performance and ensuring safe and high-quality care.
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False
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Quality Improvement in healthcare improves the processes of delivering care thereby increasing customer satisfaction with:
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Service outcomes, Clinical outcomes, Reducing costs (i.e., cost outcomes)
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CMS has put forth a number of measures that are used in its continuing effort to ensure quality care for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. Which one of the following measures for patients aged 18 years and older with stroke and stroke rehabilitation is INCORRECT:
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percentage with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke whose time from symptom onset to arrival is less than 6 hours who were considered for t-PA administration.
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The run chart is a good way to display departmental statistics because staff can see trends.
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True
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Which country ranks 37th among developed nations for infant mortality rates:
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United States
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After gathering data using a check sheet, what CQI tool(s) can be used to illustrate the data?
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Histogram, Pareto chart, and Run chart
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QI may help improve patient care but also:
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Enhances performance and processes, Prioritizes departmental activities, Saves money; reduces waste
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Fill in the blank: In the NEJM article “What is Value in Health Care,” the author states: “There is no substitute for measuring actual _____?_____, whose principle purpose is not comparing providers but enabling innovations in care. Without such a feedback loop, providers lack the requisite information for learning and improving.”
answer

outcomes
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Two Institute of Medicine (IOM) studies have demanded provider action about medical errors, clinical quality and patient safety. The first, To Err is Human (1999), emphasized the surprisingly large scale of the ___?___, while the second, Crossing the Quality Chasm, focused more on ___?___.
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problems (e.g., medical errors); solutions (e.g., evidence-based guidelines)
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This team tool follows a process similar to brainstorming, but the goal is not to increase the number of ideas under consideration but to bring the list under more control. It provides a method for making a long list of alternative ideas more useful by removing duplicates and combining similar ideas.
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list reduction and multivoting
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Although it may seem intuitive for a quality professional, healthcare practitioners often have a hard time recognizing that all work in health care can be evaluated using the same process analysis tools that have been applied in the industrial sector for decades. An important aspect of this recognition is the need to concede that all work in health care is based on processes, all of which are subject to the tools of process analysis applied daily in industries throughout the world.
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True
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Counted medical errors are almost always in outpatient settings, leaving the hospital setting, where the bulk of care in the United States is provided, largely unmonitored.
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False
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A bar graph that uses data to determine priorities in problem solving is called a ____?____. This type of bar graph plots the causes of a problem and its frequency showing results in descending order from left to right with the largest category on the left.
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Pareto chart
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The PDCA cycle method provides an overall framework for CQI. This CQI method was developed by Walter Shewhart in the 1920s, a very early pioneer in statistical quality control. However, it is sometimes called the Deming Cycle because W. Edwards Deming popularized its use in Japan. PDCA consists of these steps: plan, do, check, and act. These statements are:
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True
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a scatter diagram
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shows a possible relationship between two variables
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CQI/Performance improvement goals should be focused on:
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Meeting customers’ needs
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Also known as the “group passing technique,” this CQI tool is an approach that stimulates a group of reticent individuals within the team to contribute to the brainstorming process. It can is used when the facilitator is having trouble gaining input from all participants because it requires people to participate (i.e., each person in a circle writes down one idea and the piece of paper is passed to the next person who adds some thoughts until everyone gets his or her original piece back).
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Brainwriting
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A lean six sigma project often relies on the “theory of constraints.” When a process has a resource constraint, which of the following rules should be followed?
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Identify the system’s constraint(s) (e.g., bottlenecks) and Decide how to exploit the system’s constraint(s) (e.g., reduce setup time, eliminate waste and rework, optimize run time)
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CQI tool that identifies the driving and restraining forces of a problem.
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force-field analysis
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A simple tool used to determine how often an event occurs (i.e., tally sheet) is called a:
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check sheet
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Implementing a QI program in the patient registration department will:
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Identify ways to better satisfy the customers (both internal and external) of the department
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The brainstorming process is designed to help each team member feel empowered to contribute to the group effort. The basic framework of the procedures includes all the following EXCEPT:
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generate constructive criticism
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The situations in which teams may be effective include all the following EXCEPT:
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projects that must be completed in a very short time
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A widely accepted definition of quality, as given by ______________, is “the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge.”
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The Institute of Medicine (IOM)
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Displays “before and after data.” Shows how the strengths and weaknesses of certain variables change over time.
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Radar chart
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What is an effective QI program?
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a continuous cycle of improvement activities
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The United States has one of the highest rates of diabetes among developed countries. One factor that relates to the increase in diabetes prevalence is the higher rate of obesity in the U.S. population.
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True
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As a traditional approach to project selection, this principle states that 80% of the problems in a process are caused by 20% of the possible sources (i.e., by addressing 20% of the causes, you can remove 80% of the problems). Therefore, using this analysis tool, you can set priorities as it clearly indicates what upstream processes are the most likely “culprits for intervention.”
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Pareto analysis (or principle) and 80-20 rule
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If you wish to generate a number of new ideas on a particular subject or ways to solve a problem, which CQI tool would you use?
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Brainstorming
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How does Nominal Group Technique (NGT) differ from brainstorming?
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It determines the importance of responses through a rating system
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The prestigious Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) honors organizations that demonstrate superior performance in seven categories of performance. Which of the following is not one of the seven categories?
answer

focus on low cost products
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True or false: In the NEJM article “What is Value in Health Care,” the author recommends aligning provider reimbursement with value, which rewards providers for efficiency in achieving good outcomes, by providing bundled payments covering the full care cycle or, for chronic conditions, covering periods of a year or more (i.e., tracking outcomes and costs longitudinally).
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True
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According to Deming, which of the following encourages employees to follow QI?
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Break down barriers between staff areas
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This tool is usually applied when a significant change is implemented and the extent of of the “buy-in” is unclear, or when the change is encountering resistance from individuals or groups within the organization.
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Benefits and barriers exercise (BBE)
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Forming
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dialog centers around the goals for the team and what data needs to be collected; “ground rules” are established
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Storming
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people are comfortable enough to start disagreeing with one another; strengthens the team to deal with
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Norming
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begin to discuss constructive approaches to complete the groups work; subgroups based on mutual trust
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Performing
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highly productive, problem solving unit that can come to consensus over useful solutions; highly cohesive and
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CMS has developed programs like pay for reporting that remit financial rewards for practitioners who submit data for certain metrics considered important for patient care quality and safety. Use of the data for determining reimbursement rates was not implemented until 2008, but CMS has begun to tighten rules for paying providers for complications that shouldn’t occur like pressure ulcers and catheter-related bloodstream infections. CMS refers to these complications of care as:
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“never events”
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What are purchasers looking for to optimize value (i.e., the value proposition)?
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higher quality/lowest cost
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Which of the following would NOT be considered a benefit of flowcharting?
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diminished respect and teamwork
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The payment system that is characterized by the providers being paid an incentive amount based on their performance on certain quality metrics is called?
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pay-for-performance (P4P)
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Generally, the vertical y-axis of a histogram measures ____?____; and the horizontal x-axis measures ____?____.
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Frequency of the occurences; chart time intervals
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A ____?____ is a graphic representation of data elements that are part of a whole. The total seqments must add up to 100%.
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Pie chart
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A team size of with greater than seven or eight members usually require additional facilitation and often require subgroups to allow the team to operate efficiently; and, larger teams of more than eight members often have an “executive group” or core leadership subgroup to oversee the overall project and subgroups.
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True
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patient-centered
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compassion, empathy, and responsiveness to the needs, values, and expressed preferences of the individual patient
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efficient
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requires maximizing quality and minimizing waste
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safe
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Ensures correct diagnoses, avoidance of unnecessary risks, and ensuring patients give informed consent for
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Equitable
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provides care that does not vary because of personal characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, geographic location
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Timely
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prevents customers from experiencing harmful delays in receiving needed diagnostic or therapeutic interventions
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Effective
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Emphasizes the importance of using evidence-based guidelines to provide high-quality care
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PERT
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developed primarily to organizing planning and scheduling of complex projects; identifies “critical path”
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Deployment flowchart
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consist of a sequence of activity steps arranged in a way that allows assignment to specific individuals or groups
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L-shaped matrix
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produce tables of information that relate two variables to each other; can be use din almost all types of decisions
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decision tree
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uses a graphic representation to model a set of criteria leading to a decision or the consequences of a specific
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decision matrix
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helps support decisions where several complex alternatives exist; includes rows for weights so that several options
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four-quadrent matrices
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intended to describe product or service lines in an organization in a visually appealing and easily understandable
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Statistical process control (SPC) is a mature statistical tool for examining healthcare processes and identifying opportunities for improvement, and control charts are important at several stages of of the improvement process. Perhaps the most common error that leads to inappropriate use of SPC is the selection of the wrong chart. These statements are:
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True
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An approach to assigning actual costs to process steps is called:
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ABC
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Walter A. Shewhart defined the state of statistical control of a process as one in which all data points fell within plus or minus 2 sigma limits, which defines common cause variation, or variation that is 99.73% likely to be due to chance variation in the process.
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False
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In the NEJM article “Medical Malpractice,” the authors describe that conventional tort reforms can be divided roughly into three families. Which of the following IS NOT part of the three?
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combining group practice liability insurance
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Performance measures are used for quality improvement, accountability, and research. Examples of situations in which metrics are used for accountability include all the following EXCEPT:
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layoffs of employees
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Compliance measures are important to ensure that an organization has performed all the necessary process steps to comply with the multitude of regulations for healthcare organizations (e.g., local and state health departments, OSHA, CMS).
answer

True
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Many enterprise systems evolve using “best in class” software for each application, and the interoperability, or communication and ability to exchange information, becomes a major undertaking. Data-sharing standards have been established for some applications, like the _____?_____ standard for data interchange in electronic health record (EHR) systems.
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HL7
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A subpoena duces tecum differs from a subpoena in that it:
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requires the production of documents (e.g., medical records, business records)
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The area of highest risk is in the non-clinical areas:
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False
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Examples of CMS measures from the Physicians Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI) include all the following EXCEPT:
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Screening for anorexia nervosa
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Although medical insurance claims data provide the most widely used sources of information for analyzing utilization and quality of care, the most robust source of data is the _____?_____.
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Medical Record
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Bigger systems (macrosystems) are made of smaller systems; smaller systems (microsystems) produce quality, safety, and cost outcomes at the front line of care; and, ultimately, the outcomes from macrosystems can be no better than the microsystems of which they are formed – this suggests that it is necessary to intervene within each microsystem in the organization if the organization as a whole wants to improve. This statement is:
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True
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All improvement requires change, but not all change results in improvement. The only way to determine if changes have been beneficial is through measurement, which consists of three steps. Which of the following IS NOT one of those steps?
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acknowledging the process will always be complicated
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According to Lighter, having the proper infrastructure in place (structure indicators) is a guarantee that quality care will follow.
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False
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According to the Lighter book, there are three major categories of quality measures. Which measure would be applied to this statement — “The percentage of elderly patients in a practice diagnosed and treated for influenza”?
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Outcome measure
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Collection and analysis of data about patient incidents that occur in a hospital is a job responsibility of the:
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Risk manager
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One of the fundamental axioms of quality and performance improvement is stated: “You can’t manage what you don’t measure.” The ability to make improvements in processes requires answering all the following questions EXCEPT:
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Who is to blame for the inefficient process
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According to Lighter, physicians have been quick to adopt EHRs; thus, the penetration of EHR systems into medical practice has been extremely high.
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False
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Customer satisfaction measures are of increasing importance to many healthcare organizations, and most of these metrics are collected after a healthcare service is delivered (e.g., after patient discharge). Which of the following organizations developed a new approach called the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Performance Survey (CAHPS) that divides health care quality into the two major components of clinical aspects and consumers’ experiences:
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AHRQ
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The standard of care is established by:
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Introduction of expert testimony
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Statistical thinking implies that application of statistical data provides the best possibility of reducing variation and improving processes. Understanding the difference between common cause variation and special cause variation helps to identify opportunities for improvement. Common cause variation generally occurs within a process because of its _____?_____ and is predictable; whereas, special cause variation is _____?_____ and entirely unpredictable.
answer

design; unanticipated
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In order for a plaintiff to establish a cause of action alleging negligence, he or she must:
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prove four elements (i.e., duty, breach of duty, proximate harm, damages/injuries)
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Statistical analysis packages (e.g., SPSS, QI Macros) can help by applying techniques like predictive modeling and data mining. Predictive modeling identifies _____?_____; whereas, data mining identifies _____?_____.
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high-risk (high-cost) patients from historical utilization data for earlier preventive care; trends within data that may surpass traditional statistical analysis to target opportunities for improvement
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The most common theory in a malpractice case is:
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negligence
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The best protection against injuries and ensuing financial liability is prevention. Ideally, the Risk Management (RM) program, when integrated with the facility’s Quality Improvement (QI) program, focuses on prevention by identifying and monitoring high-risk and problem-prone processes.
answer

True
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What is defined as a relatively new healthcare discipline that deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of data in health and biomedicine.
answer

Medical Informatics
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In the NEJM article “Medical Malpractice,” the authors state: “There are three social goals of malpractice litigation…” What one of the following IS NOT one of the three social goals mentioned in the article?
answer

to encourage additional testing during routine health exams
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Hospitals were historically immune from professional liability litigation through the doctrine of charitable immunity until landmark cases (e.g., 1957 Bing v. Thunig; Darling v. Charleston Community Hospitals, 1965 and 1966). This statement is:
answer

True
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The science of medical informatics has been evolving since the 1950s, when physicians and computer scientists at the Massachusetts General Hospital developed a computing language for medical applications called:
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MUMPS
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W. Edwards Deming proposed the Theory of Profound Knowledge, which serves as the basis for the concept of statistical thinking. Which of the following IS NOT one of the four parts of Deming’s Theory of Profound Knowledge?
answer

Company slogans
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Which compelled hospitals to establish a more stringent physician credentialing process:
answer

corporate liability
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The assessment of quality was identified with what approach(es) according to Dr. Avedis Donabedian?
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Structure (inputs), Process (steps in organizational activities and tasks), and Outcome (outputs or results)
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The Joint Commission (TJC)
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this organization provides accreditation to healthcare organizations around the world, require quality improvement
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National Committee for quality assurance (NCQA)
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this organization was an early adopter of performance metrics for healthcare payers through HEDIS.
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MDS
answer

A standardized, primary health status screening tool used to assess physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors for all residents in a Medicare and/or Medicaid-certified long-term care facility. This data set contains extensive health status information for this patient population.
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MEDPAR
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claims data for service provided to beneficiaries admitted to medicare certified inpatient hospital and SNF
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AHRQ
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this government agency maintains the principle clinical practice guideline repository in the U.S.
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RBRVS
answer

A standardized physician payment schedule in which the cost for each service is divided into three componenets: physician work, expected practice expense (e.g., overhead), and professional liability insurance (e.g., malpractice insurance)
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AHA
answer

one of the best sources for U.S. hospital information that conducts a yearly survey of hospitals that serves as the
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P-chart
answer

Relies on binomial distribution; used when dealing with ratios, proportions, or percentages of conforming or
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U-chart
answer

Monitors process information due to fluctuations in defects per item or group of items and is useful to determine
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Stratification and ANOM
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Two strategies that may be useful when larger samples “hide” underlying variation because of the statistical
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DOE
answer

Developed as a strategy for planning research to conduct valid experiment is the presence of naturally fluctuating
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ANOVA
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Used to test hypotheses about differences between two or more means; tests which group means are significantly
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Regression Analysis
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Used to try to quantify the direction, strength, and magnitude of relationships between variables.
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Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
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the commonly used statistical tool that connotes the strength of a linear association between two variable.
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NP-chart
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Relies on the binomial distribution but the sample size must be constant; use of control charts for diagnosis
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Answer
answer

The defendants legal complaint to the allegations of negligence.
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Interrogatories
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Part of discovery process in which there is an exchange of questions between the defendant and plaintiff parties
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Depositions
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Given under oath, recorded word for word, can be used in all or in part during trial proceedings
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Subpoena
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Means by which courts request and required attendance of witnesses
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Summons and Complaint
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notice to the defendant from the court that a legal civil action has been commenced and a judgment will be taken if
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Res ipsa liquitor
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“the thing speaks for itself” typical cases involves foreign body left in patient and burns
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Respondent superior
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Employer is vicariously liable for an employee (i.e., let the employer answer for the actions of the employee).
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corporate liability
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Holds organizations responsible for monitoring the activities of the people who function within their facilities, whether employees or independent contractors such as physicians
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Ostensible agency
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Purports to hold the hospital legally liable for negligence, if it can be substantiated that the hospital represented, ot “held out” to the claimant that the independently contracted professional waas an employee of the hospital (e.g., commercial that states “visit our friendly physicians”).
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Hold harmless clause
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Facility wants other party to accept financial and legal responsibility for its own actions and agree to indemnify the
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Reliability
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the measure is reproducible and consistent
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Validity
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the metric measures what it is intended to measure
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Feasibility
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measurement data are easy to collect and identify
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Precision
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the measure correctly differentiates between different levels of performance or responses
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Responsiveness
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the measure is sensitive to changes that are important to patients/customers
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Risk analysis
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Evaluation of current and past experiences to determine the effect risk will have on the hospital, and which risk are
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Risk identification
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Identifying areas of potential or existing loss
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Risk Control
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An organizations response to areas assessed as having significant risk as well as its response to limit the liability
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Risk Financing
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Funding your organization for real or potential losses
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The techniques used for elimination of mura include:
answer

production leveling, pull production, heijunka
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, elimination or reducing inadvertent errors requires that work tasks be designed with which of the following rules in mind?
answer

It should be easier to do the task right than do it wrong and Errors should be immediately obvious
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An important aspect of Six Sigma is the recognition of the effects of measurement error on performance metrics; therefore, Six Sigma professionals include the evaluation of measurement error in statistical analysis. Applying the ANOVA, the evaluation of measurement variation is termed:
answer

gauge repeatability and reproducibility (gauge R & R)
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, the quote “…avoid common modes of failure and single points of failure”, means to avoid the situation in which one catastrophe can knock out two of the systems or machines at once.
answer

True
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The approaches to choosing projects (i.e., clinical processes) that could be considered for lean process management include Goldratt’s Theory of Constraints and the Pareto Principle, but in clinical setting the _____?_____may also be used as criteria.
answer

“three highs” (i.e., high cost, high risk, high volume processes)
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In terms of process efficiency, a sigma level of 2 indicates:
answer

69.2% efficiency
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Over the long term, processes usually do not perform as reliably as in the short term. To account for this real-life increase in process variation over time, an empirically based _____?_____ was introduced into the Six Sigma calculation.
answer

1.5 sigma shift
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, people that are qualified to train Six Sigma Black Belts are called Master Gold Belts.
answer

False
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Sample selection and size is an important part of Six Sigma project design because samples that are too large may waste resources, whereas samples that are too small may not yield results that are statistically significant; therefore, we need to utilize a formula to determine the appropriate sample size. In this formula, the difference between the sample and the population means can be thought of as a(n) _____?_____.
answer

error (E) and margin of error between the observed sample mean and the true value of the population mean
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, Poka Yoke means prevention of advertent error.
answer

False
question

Why is it important to establish a complaint tracking system?
answer

Its existence will make it easier for employees and customers to discuss their complaints, It provides a mechanism for a department to generate useful ideas to improve processes and identify opportunities for change, and It proves to customers that the department is committed to CQI
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All of the following are sources of input for developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) EXCEPT:
answer

Physicians on the hospital medical staff only
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, Six Sigma is a management method for achieving very high goals for correct outcomes.
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True
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The DMAIC approach is the foundation of Six Sigma today used to improve existing processes. This approach consists of all of the following stages EXCEPT:
answer

Capitalize – on your investments as your team moves forward
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This agency/organization published a report in 2000 titled “To Err is Human” that estimated that there were 98,000 deaths a year from medical errors, to which physicians and consumers were “appalled, angered, and skeptical.”
answer

IOM
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Many organizations are aligning incentives with physicians who follow CPG recommendations. In addition, payers like the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are beginning to penalize providers for not following recommendations and ending up with “never events.” All of the following are “never events” EXCEPT:
answer

informed consent given prior to surgical procedure
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Established by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to serve as a primary source of clinical practice guidelines from many organizations in the United States and throughout the world.
answer

National guideline clearinghouse
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The tools that can be used for elimination of muda include:
answer

value stream mapping, five S (known in health care as Six S), kanban, poka yoke
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When looking at a pie chart of the hospital’s budget, Nan learned that all of the following are tied to the number of employees within each department, except:
answer

equipment
question

One of the two pillars of the Toyota Production System (TPS) is Jidoka. Which of the following denote the meaning of Jidoka?
answer

any employee can stop the production line if a defect is identified anywhere along the line (e.g., can be applied in healthcare in the surgical suite) and focuses on the need for machines to notify humans when they need to be adjusted or repaired (e.g., optimizes safety and effectiveness of the machine/human interface)
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Given the idea initially from Sanjar, in order to reduce errors in communication, Nan suggests the hospital try a pilot program following the Navy’s way of repeating orders.
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True
question

Nan suggested some ideas to Maggie for reducing inadvertent errors within the nurse department such as _________.
answer

implementing individual retraining and hiring a clinic receptionist
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, in order to evaluate her own performance as a manager, Maggie explained that she sets separate goals for herself beyond the management-by-objective forms regularly used by hospitals.
answer

True
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A higher sigma count means a lower expectation of favorable outcomes.
answer

False
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One way to make bar coding work, as explained by Nan’s sister, is to ____
answer

redesign the workspace so it is possible to use them, make it possible to check the screen to see what is being scanned in:, and simplify the correction process
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In Nan’s words, Six Sigma is a system that was developed as a better way of getting manufacturing to get average yields.
answer

False
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, a questionnaire was sent out after the Lunchtime Theater to get feedback on whether verbal orders are a matter of concern and if other solutions were known.
answer

True
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Nan suggested that the nurses be retrained on routine tasks such as CPR, following the airline model of putting pilots through simulation every year.
answer

False
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Six Sigma was created by GE and was soon adopted by Motorola, IBM, and other first class manufacturing companies.
answer

False
question

While the DMAIC approach is the foundation of Six Sigma used to improve existing processes, what is the mnemonic that describes the Six Sigma approach used proactively to ensure that a particular process is created for high performance (i.e., design for Six Sigma – DFSS)?
answer

DMADV
question

From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, Six Sigma is about incremental change and starts with a numerical goal, working backward to insist that each stage of the operation get into conformance.
answer

False
question

Six sigma limits are often termed:
answer

3 DPMO
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The seven types of waste include:
answer

overproduction, waiting, conveyance, overprocessing, inventory, motion, product defects
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In many cases, staff members can be enticed by the lean approach through assurances that “lean” does not equate with “fewer employees” but rather realignment of work and elimination of non-value added work, what we in health care sometimes call “_____?_____.”
answer

scut work
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The sigma level is simply a determination of opportunities for improvement regardless of the type of process that is being reviewed, with lower sigma levels connoting worse performance and greater areas for improvement.
answer

True
question

From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, the Six Sigma management attitude encourages management to do all of the following, except:
answer

forget it
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From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, “If one team makes a design error, it’s pretty likely that the other teams will make the same goof”; this is called common mode failure.
answer

True
question

Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have assumed increasing importance in health care as the industry tries to reach the STEEEP aims set by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Which of the following is NOT one of the STEEEP aims?
answer

Physician-centered
question

From the Nan: A Six Sigma Mystery book, the Japanese follow the belief that if a mistake is made, it is the fault of the ________.
answer

system
question

Is a crucial element of lean process management that ensures that required process items and resources are available at the right place and at the right time.
answer

JIT
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Master black belts
answer

act as in-house couches for six sigma teams; in an ideal setting, these experts devote all their time to six sigma
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six sigma black belts
answer

may operate independently to manage multiple six sigma projects, devote 100% of their time to six sigma initiatives
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six sigma green belts
answer

comprise the backbone of six sigma improvement program; serving the role of project management.
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six sigma champions
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Ensure that resources are available for six sigma initiatives; set the vision for the company’s performance
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six sigma yellow belts
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not an official six sigma designation; provided basic training in performance improvement with emphasis on six sigma.
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muda
answer

connotes a set of “tools” or approaches to efficient and effective management that focus on identifying and
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mura
answer

connotes a set of techniques or approaches to eliminate unevenness or lack of uniform to flow in the work system
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autonomation
answer

automation with a human touch to approve patient safety and efficiency
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kaizen event
answer

the Japanese term for improvement; an organized frame work for implementing lean principles by focusing on
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Value stream mapping (VSM)
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a lean technique that involves flowcharting the steps, activities, material flows, communications, and other process.
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kanban
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a simple part-movement system that should only deliver components to the production line when they are needed
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takt time
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time required for a specific output (specific services)
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Voice of Business (VOB)
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draws from financial information and data to identify market weaknesses
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Voice of employee
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most often measured through surveys
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Voice of process
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most often measured on control charts

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