PYSC 405 Quiz Practice Quiz Flash Cards (Exam 1)

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The position on the mind-body question claiming that both mental events and bodily responses occur simultaneously even though the two events are independent of each other is called:
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psychophysical parallelism
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According to Popper, the theories of Freud and Adler cannot be considered scientific because they:
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make postdictions rather than predictions
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If any conceivable observation supports a theory, Popper would conclude that the theory is:
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weak
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The claim that God arranges for mental and bodily events to be perfectly coordinated is called:
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preestablished harmony
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For Popper, a nonscientific theory:
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can still be useful
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According to Khun, what happens during the paradigmatic stage of science?
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Puzzle-solving activity occurs
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According to Popper, the highest status that a scientific theory can attain is:
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not yet confirmed
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The position on the mind-body question claiming that mental and bodily events are coordinated through God’s intervention is called:
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occasionalism
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Nativist is to ____ as empiricist to ____.
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inheritance; experience
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According to Popper, scientific activity begins:
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with a problem
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The early Greeks referred to a substance from which everything else is derived as a(n)
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physis
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Viewing all of nature as though it were alive is called:
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animism
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The early physician, Alcmaeon, proposed:
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that health resulted from a balance of qualities in the body
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The purpose for which an object exists is its ____ cause:
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Final
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According to Aristotle, ____ is a spontaneous recollection of something that had been previously experienced and ____ involves an actual mental search for a past experience.
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Remembering;recall
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According to Aristotle, we perceive environmental objects because:
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their movement influences a medium, which in turn stimulates one or more of the five senses
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The Hippocratics believed that physical illness was caused by:
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an imbalance of the four bodily humors
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An area in cognitive development that concerns how we come to know the beliefs, feelings, plans, and behavioral intentions of other people is referred to as:
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theory of mind
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Plato’s analogy of the divided line illustrates:
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a hierarchy of understanding
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According to Aristotle, the unmoved mover:
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sets nature in motion and does little else.
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Which of the following was true of Aquinas’ theology?
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It demonstrated that church dogma was debatable.
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Which statement is most consistent with a Cynic’s point of view?
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Anything natural is good
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To remove inconsistencies in church dogma, Abelard used:
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the dialectic method
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In analyzing human thinking, Avicenna started with five external senses then postulated:
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seven internal senses
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The belief that extraneous assumptions should be eliminated from explanations is called:
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Occam’s razor
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What concerns were held by both St. Augustine and St. Jerome?
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The influence that pagan philosophies held over Christians
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For St. Augustine, the primary goal of human existence is to:
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enter into a personal, emotional union with God
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Aristotle’s philosophy was highly influential in ____ during the so-called Dark Ages.
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The Arab World
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Abelard’s proposed compromise between nominalism (concepts summarize individual experience) and realism (once concepts are formed, they exist apart from individual experience), is called:
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Conceptualism
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The major assumption made in the ontological argument for the existence of God is that:
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if one can think of something, it must exist
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According to Bacon, science should utilize:
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only the direct observation of nature
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According to Bacon, accepting a scientific theory:
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is likely to bias one’s observations
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According to Descartes, when a sense receptor is stimulated, “delicate threads” are pulled and cavities in the brain are opened, thereby releasing ____ into the nerves.
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animal spirits
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Newton believed that the universe:
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operates according to principles that humans could discover
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A fundamental difference between the views of Erasmus and the views of Luther concerned the:
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role of free will in religion
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Luther’s new religious movement that denied the authority of the pope was called:
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Protestantism
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Both Bacon and Descartes sought to develop a system of thought that:
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was impervious to the doubts of the Skeptics
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Who were among the first to accept Copernicus’s heliocentric theory?
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The mathematicians who embraced Pythagorean-Platonic philosophy.
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According to Bacon, the personal biases that result from one’s own experiences and education constitutes the:
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idols of the cave
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The church responded to Galileo’s scientific achievements by:
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making him recant his scientific conclusions
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Law of contiguity
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Associate things that occurred close in time and/or in same situations
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Law of similarity
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Similar things are associated
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Law of contrast
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Opposite things are associated
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Law of frequency
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More often events occur together – stronger the association
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Associationism
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Belief that one or more laws of association can be used to explain the origins of ideas, memory, or how complex ideas are formed from simple ones
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Philosophy
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Love of knowledge and wisdom
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Cosmology
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The explanation of origin, structure, and processes governing the universe; universe is explainable
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Objective Reality
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Exist independent of one’s own perception
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The ____ assumes that everything that occurs is a function of a finite number of causes.
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The determinist
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The belief that human behavior is determined but the causes of behavior cannot be accurately measured is called:
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uncertainty principle
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Before Thomas Kuhn, scientific activity was guided by the:
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correspondence theory of truth
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Who is most likely to support the statement, “Our genetic predisposition determines our behavior?”
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biological determinist
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____ promotes that life can never be completely explained in terms of material things and mechanical laws.
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Vitalism
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____ stresses the emotional or unconscious determinants of human behavior.
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Irrationalism
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A psychologist who believes that human behavior is indeed determined but the causes can never be accurately known would be a(n):
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indeterminist
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You are a monist with regard to the mind-body question. Which of the following does your position most likely represent?
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Materialism
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The approach to writing a history of psychology that takes the best from a variety of viewpoints is referred to as
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The eclectic approach
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The ____ stresses a person’s beliefs, emotions, perceptions, values, and goals as determinants of behavior.
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psychical determinist
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According to Kuhn, the set of beliefs, values, assumptions, and a particular way of doing research which are accepted by a group of scientists is called:
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Paradigm
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The view that cognitive events that emerge from brain activity can cause behavior is representative of:
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interactionism
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During the preparadigmatic stage of the development of a science:
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rival camps compete with each other for dominion of the discipline
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What is the approach to studying the history of psychology that involves showing how various individuals or events contributed to changes in an idea throughout the years?
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historical development approach
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According to the author of your text, contemporary psychology is:
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a multiparadigmatic science
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Which of the following represents a dualistic position on the mind-body question?
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epiphenomenalism
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Popper saw the scientific method as involving three stages:
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problem, theories, and criticism
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According to Khun, what happens during the revolutionary stage of science?
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existing paradigms are displaced
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Of the following, who would be most likely to take the position that humans are responsible for their actions?
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nondeterminist and soft determinist
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Popper disagreed with the traditional view that scientific activity starts with:
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empirical observation
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The early physician, Alcmaeon, proposed
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that health resulted from a balance of qualities in the body
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Plato’s theory of forms is best represented by the statement: The cats that we see are:
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inferior copies of an abstract pure idea of “catness”
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No matter how complex something is, Democritus believed that it can be explained in terms of atoms and their activity. This view is referred to as:
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elementism
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The force that transforms matter into a particular form is its ____ cause.
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efficient
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The particular form or pattern of an object is its ____ cause.
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formal
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According to Anaximander, the physis was something that:
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had the capability of becoming anything
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Because Gorgias believed that there is no objective way of establishing truth, he was a:
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nihilist
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Plato believed that the ideal society would be governed by:
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philosopher-kings
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What aspect of Aristotle’s philosophy became the cornerstone of most modern theories of learning
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The laws of association
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The “cures” proposed by the Hippocratics included:
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rest, proper diet, exercise, fresh air, massage, and bath
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According to Plato, whether one is a philosopher-king, a soldier, or a slave, is largely determined by:
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biological inheritance
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According to Plato, the components of the soul are
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often in conflict with one another
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For Socrates, essences were
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verbal definitions
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The law of ____ states that if we think of something, we will also tend to recall the things we experienced along with it.
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contiguity
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Xenophanes believed that:
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if animals could convey their impression of gods, those gods would have animal characteristics
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According to Aristotle, the ____kept an object moving or developing in its prescribed direction until its full potential was reached.
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entelechy
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According to the Hippocratics, physicians assign supernatural causes to a disease in order to
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mask their ignorance concerning the nature of the disease
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According to the Sophists, what is it that determines if an idea is accepted as the truth?
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How effectively the idea is communicated
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Why were the Greek nobility more likely to follow the Olympian religion rather than the Dionysiac-Orphic religion?
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The personification of orderliness, rationality, and intelligence in the Olympian gods
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Empedocles assumed that perception results when:
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eidola enters the pores of the body and mixes with elements found in the blood
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What important epistemological question was raised by Heraclitus’ philosophy?
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How can something be known if it is constantly changing?
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Which statement would Peter Lombard most likely agree with?
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One can learn about God by studying the empirical world.
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____ sought to reconcile Judaism and Aristotelian philosophy.
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Maimonides
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Which of the following did St. Paul add to the Judaic tradition?
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God sacrificed his son to atone for our shared transgression, otherwise known as original sin, which allows humans to reunite with God.
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Who denounced the search for abstract truths that existed beyond the world of appearance?
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William of Occam
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Once Aristotle’s ideas were assimilated into church dogma, they were:
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no longer challengeable
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Hedonism, according to Epicurus, is:
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pleasure in having one’s basic needs satisfied and avoiding pain
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According to St. Augustine, humans can have conceptions of the past and future because:
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of the remnants of sensory experiences
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The fact that St. Paul valued ____ would have been abhorrent to most Greek philosophers
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faith above reason
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For the Stoics, the basic moral choice a person makes is:
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to act or not to act in accordance with nature’s plan
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What did the Skeptics use as their guide(s) for living?
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sensations, feelings, and convention
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Events following the death of Aristotle created a situation in which people sought:
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answers to questions concerning problems of everyday living
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Jesus can be best thought of as a(n):
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simple man with focused goals
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Largely due to this man’s efforts, Christianity was defined by a single set of beliefs and documents.
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Constantine
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According to St. Augustine, not acting in accordance with one’s internal sense causes:
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guilt
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Which part of the human body did Descartes identify as the house for the mind?
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pineal gland
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According to Erasmus, who is least likely to speak the truth?
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Philosophers
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Descartes concluded that we can trust sensory information because:
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God will not deceive us
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According to Bacon, science should utilize
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only the direct observation of nature
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Among the Renaissance humanists, Skepticism was most clearly demonstrated by:
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Montaigne
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Copernicus argued that:
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the earth revolves around the sun (heliocentric theory)
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Which of the following was true of the Ptolemaic system?
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It was congenial to Christian theology because it gave humans a central place in the universe
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After a painful search, Descartes concluded that the only thing of which he could be certain was:
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the fact that he doubted
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Pico argued that
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God had granted humans a unique position in the universe.
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What factor most influenced Kepler’s acceptance of Copernicus’s heliocentric theory?
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Kepler was a Platonist seeking mathematical simplicity and harmony.
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What did Galileo believe?
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Copernicus’ heliocentric theory
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What Bacon ultimately proposed was a position intermediate between:
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empiricism and rationalism
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Pico argued that:
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God had granted humans a unique position in the universe.
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Petrarch believed in which of the following?
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The human spirit should be freed from medieval traditions
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Descartes explained all animal behavior and much human behavior in terms of ____ principles.
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mechanical
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The Renaissance humanists wanted religion to be more:
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personal
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Galileo was among the first to suggest that
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a science of psychology (conscious experience) was impossible
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In his explanation of physical events, Galileo emphasized:
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forces external to physical events
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What would Copernicus say is the only justification for accepting his heliocentric theory?
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It explains known astrological facts in a simpler, more harmonious, mathematical order
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Galileo used experiments to do which of the following?
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Show the uselessness of metaphysics in science
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For Luther, what is the major reason for the downfall of Catholicism?
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Catholicism assimilated Aristotelian philosophy
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The belief that abstract universals (essences) exist and that empirical events are only manifestations of those universals is called
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realism
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Occam’s views were widely taught and can be viewed as the beginning of
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empirical philosophy
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Neoplatonism is a philosophy that emphasized the most ____ aspects of Plato’s philosophy.
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mystical

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