Public Speaking Study Guide: Basic Objectives of a Speech The Three Kinds of Supporting Materials Speaking Outline

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1. The __________ is the key to finding information in the library.
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b. catalogue
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2. The library’s catalogue allows you to search for books by
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author. title. keyword. d. all of the above.
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3. The library catalogue
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lists all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library. allows a researcher to look for books by author, title, or subject. e. a and c only.
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4. Encyclopedias, yearbooks, biographical aids, and quotation books are all examples of
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b. reference works
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5. Who’s Who Among Asian Americans is an example of a(n)
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d. biographical aid
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6. As part of the research for his informative speech, Malik needs brief life and career facts about United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon. The best kind of library reference source for him to consult would be a(n)
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d. biographical aid.
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7. If you needed a quotation to use in your speech conclusion, which of the following would be the best reference source to consult?
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e. Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations
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8. Newspaper and periodical databases
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catalog articles from a large number of newspapers, journals, and magazines. often provide abstracts and full texts of articles. e. a and c only.
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9. A(n) __________ is a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of scholarly journals.
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d. academic database
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10. Academic databases are the best place to look for
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b. articles in scholarly journals.
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11. As part of the research for her informative speech on the Chinese workplace, Dana needs to find recent articles published in scholarly journals. The best resource for her is a(n)
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a. academic database such as JSTOR or Google Scholar.
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12. Colin wants to find scholarly research on eating disorders. The best place for him to look is in
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c. academic databases.
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13. A(n) __________ is a summary of a magazine or research article, written by someone other than the original author.
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b. abstract
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14. According to your textbook, when is it appropriate to cite an abstract of a magazine or journal article in your speech rather than locating and reading the full article?
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a. never
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15. According to your textbook, you can make a Google search more precise by
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developing a search strategy. . putting phrases in quotation marks. . joining search terms with plus signs. d. all of the above.
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16. Which of the following does your textbook recommend for narrowing a Google search to make it more effective?
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Develop a strategy to search for specific terms you want to find. . Put phrases in quotation marks and connect them with plus signs. Explore specialized Google resources such as news, books, and scholar. d. all of the above
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17. Using __________ is the best way to pull listeners into your speeches.
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c. extended examples
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18. The more __________ your examples, the greater impact they are likely to have.
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e. vivid
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19. Accomplished speakers consider __________ “the very life of the speech.”
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d. examples
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20. Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a way to enhance the effectiveness of your examples?
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. Practice delivery to enhance your extended examples. Make your examples vivid and richly textured e. a and c only
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21. Examples are especially helpful as supporting materials because they
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a. personalize your ideas.
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22. As your textbook explains, examples help a speaker
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reinforce ideas. . personalize ideas. . clarify ideas. d. all of the above
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23. As your textbook explains, you should use examples in your speeches in order to
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e. b and c only.
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24. Your textbook presents each of the following as a tip for using examples in a speech except
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d. combine examples with causal reasoning.
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25. Research indicates that the impact of examples is greatly enhanced when they are combined with __________ that show(s) the examples to be typical.
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e. statistics
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26. Alisha began the introduction of her speech by saying: Have you ever been knocked down so hard by life that you didn’t feel you’d ever get back up? This has happened to me many times, the first being when I tried to ride a bicycle when I was very young. Today I want to discuss with you some basic strategies for coping with life’s challenges. What kind of supporting material did Alisha use in her introduction?
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b. brief example
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27. According to your textbook, what kind of supporting materials are used in the following speech excerpt: Not all Hollywood marriages are doomed to quick failure. Tom Hanks and Rita Wilson have been together for 23 years, as have Kevin Bacon and Kyra Sedgwick. Denzel and Pauletta Washington have been married for 28 years, Billy and Janice Crystal for 41 years, and Bill and Camille Cosby for 47 years
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a. brief examples
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28. According to your textbook, a(n) __________ is an imaginary story that makes a general point
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d. hypothetical example
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29. According to your textbook, an imaginary story that makes a general point is called a(n)
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d. hypothetical example.
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30. According to your textbook, what kind of supporting material is used in the following speech excerpt: Imagine yourself driving down the freeway on your way to work. You see lights flashing in your rear-view mirror. You turn to see the police officer pulling you over. Were you speeding? No, says the officer, but he needs to search your vehicle as part of a new program to stop drug trafficking. Does he have a warrant? He says he doesn’t need one. You protest, but the officer carries out his search anyway. The officer finds nothing, but by the time he is done, you are very late for work.
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b. hypothetical example
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31. Jeff began his speech by saying: Imagine that you are on a deserted island—palm trees sway in the breeze, the warm sun is on your face, and the smell of tropical flowers is in the air. Suddenly, the sound of distant drums breaks your euphoria. What do you do—panic? What would you do if you found yourself in such a situation? What kind of supporting material did Jeff use in his introduction?
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e. hypothetical example
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32. According to your textbook, what kind of supporting materials is used in the following speech excerpt: Imagine this: You have spent most of the night studying for an exam. But when you get up the next morning ready to take the test, you go to your front door and it won’t open. So you head to the back door, and it won’t open either. You are stuck in the house. It would be pretty frustrating, wouldn’t it? This is exactly the kind of frustration wheelchair-bound students feel when they can’t get to class because of the snow.
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e. hypothetical example
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33. According to your textbook, how well a speech is organized likely will influence
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. how clearly the audience understands the speech. how the audience views the competence of the speaker. how confident the speaker feels about his or her delivery. d. all of the above.
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34. The __________ is the longest and most important part of the speech
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a. body
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35. According to your textbook, what is the most important reason for limiting the number of main points in a speech?
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e. It is hard for the audience to keep track of too many main points.
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36. The most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and
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a. audience.
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37. When the main points of a speech follow a time pattern, they are organized in
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e. chronological order.
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38. When main ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in
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c. spatial order.
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39. Which of the following organizational patterns is used more than any other method of speech organization because of its applicability to almost any subject?
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d. topical
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40. Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing __________ speeches.
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b. persuasive
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41. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the process of drying and storing garden herbs. I. The first step is to rinse the herbs. II. The second step is to dry the herbs. III. The third step is to strip the dried leaves. IV. The fourth step is to store the herbs properly. These main points are arranged in __________ order.
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b. chronological
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42. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the history of chocolate: I. Chocolate was originally used in Mexico as a drink by the Aztecs. II. Chocolate was introduced to Europe after the Spanish conquered the Aztecs. III. Chocolate was first made into candy during the 1800s. IV. Chocolate’s popularity and uses continue to expand today. These main points are arranged in __________ order.
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d. chronological
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43. Here are the main points for a speech about the history of golf. I. The game we know as golf originated in Scotland during the 15th century. II. Most of golf’s rules and traditions developed during the 19th century. III. Professional golf tours for men and women emerged during the 20th century. IV. Today golf continues to evolve in response to changes in equipment. According to your textbook, these main points are arranged in __________ order.
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a. chronological
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44. Here are the main points for an informative speech about the civil rights movement. I. The 1954, the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education helped spark the modern civil rights movement. II. In 1963, nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama, dramatically increased support for the civil rights movement. III. In 1965, the Voting Rights Act was passed, marking the major legislative achievement of the civil rights movement. These main points are arranged in __________ order.
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d. chronological
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45. Jackson had been a rodeo fan since childhood. In his informative speech, he gave a presentation with the following main points. Jackson’s points were arranged in __________ order. I. Rodeos began in the Old West as contests of skill among cowboys during cattle roundups. II. By 1920, rodeos had become a popular spectator sport for the general public. III. Today, rodeos combine traditional western events with a circuslike atmosphere and the marketing techniques of big business.
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c. chronological
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46. Sheila had been making pottery for several years. In her informative speech, she gave a presentation with the following main points. I. The first step in making pottery is preparing the clay. II. The second step in making pottery is shaping the clay. III. The third step in making pottery is decorating and glazing the clay. IV. The fourth step in making pottery is firing the finished product. Sheila’s points were arranged in __________ order.
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c. chronological
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47. Which organizational pattern would be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience about the major steps in setting up a home aquarium”?
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a. chronological
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48. Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose “To inform my audience of the steps involved in starting an online business”?
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e. chronological
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49. According to your textbook, when you are in a formal speaking situation the most effective way of gaining the initial attention of your audience after you walk to the lectern is
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d. looking directly at the audience without saying a word.
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50. Which of the following is a basic objective of a speech introduction?
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Preview the main points. Gain the attention of the audience e. b and c only
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51. Which of the following is a major objective of a speech introduction?
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a. Reveal the topic.
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52. All of the following are basic objectives of a speech introduction except
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b. Support your main points.
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53. Which of the following would you expect to find in a well-constructed speech introduction?
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a statement establishing the speaker’s credibility a statement gaining the audience’s attention . a statement previewing the main points of the speech d. all of the above
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54. Which of the following would you be most likely to find in a well-constructed speech introduction?
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b. a preview statement
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55. Which of the following would you most likely find in a well-constructed speech introduction
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d. a startling statement
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56. Which of the following would you most likely find in a speech introduction?
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a. a credibility statement
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57. Which of the following would you least likely find in a speech introduction?
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e. an internal summary
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58. Even when you use other interest-arousing lures in a speech introduction, you should always
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c. relate the topic to the audience
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59. When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually
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preview the main points to be discussed in the body. gain the attention and interest of your audience. . establish your credibility on the speech topic. d. all of the above.
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60. When preparing a speech introduction, you should usually
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e. a and c only.
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61. __________ is the audience’s perception of whether the speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
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e. Credibility
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62. According to your textbook, __________ is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind.
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a. goodwill
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63. When you advocate a highly unpopular position, it is particularly important to __________ in the introduction of your speech.
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e. establish goodwill toward the audience
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64. According to your textbook, a speaker who attempts to establish goodwill in the introduction of a speech is aiming to convince the audience that she or he
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b. has the best interests of the audience in mind
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65. Outlining is an important part of public speaking because
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b. an outline helps ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another.
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66. Outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps a speaker
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judge whether each part of the speech is fully developed. . ensure that ideas flow clearly from one to another. . solidify the structure of a speech. d. all of the above.
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67. According to your textbook, outlining is important to public speaking because an outline helps you judge whether
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e. a and c only.
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68. Two types of speech outlines discussed in your textbook are the
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c. preparation outline and the speaking outline.
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69. Both a preparation outline and a speaking outline should
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c. use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation.
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70. Which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
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. the bibliography a specific purpose statement transitions, internal previews, and internal summaries the central idea e. all of the above
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71. According to your textbook, Raul should include which of the following in his preparation outline?
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transitions the central idea a bibliography d. all of the above
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72. According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
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e. a and b only
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73. According to your textbook, which of the following should be included in a preparation outline?
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e. b and c only
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74. All of the following are necessary in a preparation outline except
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b. directions for delivering the speech.
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75. According to your textbook, as Bekah prepares her preparation outline for her speech on spiders, she should remember to include all of the following except
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d. directions for delivering the speech.
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76. Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for a preparation outline?
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a. Label the introduction, body, and conclusion.
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77. According to your textbook, when making a preparation outline, you should
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e. a and c only
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78. Ryo is working on the preparation outline for his informative speech. According to your textbook, her outline should
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e. b and c only.
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79. According to your textbook, the specific purpose statement in a preparation outline should be written
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e. before the text of the outline itself.
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80. According to your textbook, transitions, internal summaries, and other connectives should be
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e. a and b only.
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81. In a preparation outline, main points should be
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a. positioned farthest to the left.
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82. According to your textbook, language is important because it
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b. gives meaning to events.
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83. Language helps to shape our sense of reality by
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b. giving meaning to events.
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84. The denotative meaning of a word is
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e. its literal or dictionary meaning.
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85. The connotative meaning of a word is
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d. what the word suggests or implies.
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86. Zhu wants to create concern among her listeners about the infringements on civil liberties she fears are resulting from the war on terrorism. She has decided to use words with strong connotative meanings because she knows they will help her
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b. arouse an emotional response.
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87. As your textbook explains, connotative meaning gives words their __________ power.
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c. emotional
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88. As your textbook explains, __________ meaning gives words their emotional power.
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c. connotative
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89. As a speaker, you would probably use more connotative words if you wanted to
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a. arouse an emotional response.
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90. Jerome wants his audience to appreciate the harsh reality of life for migrant workers in the United States. In addition to using strong supporting materials, he decides to use words with connotative meanings because he knows they will help him
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c. arouse an emotional response.
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91. Each of the following is discussed in your textbook as a basic criterion for the effective use of language in public speaking except
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d. Use language technically.
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92. Which of the following is discussed in your textbook as a basic criterion for the effective use of language in public speaking?
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Use language clearly. Use language accurately. Use language vividly. d. all of the above
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93. Which of the following is discussed in your textbook as a basic criterion for the effective use of language in public speaking
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e. a and c only
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94. Which of the following is discussed in your textbook as a basic criterion for the effective use of language in public speaking?
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e. b and c only
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95. Which of the following is discussed in your textbook as a way to use language clearly?
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Use familiar words. . Choose concrete words. Eliminate clutter. d. all of the above
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96. Which of the following words is the most general and abstract?
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a. writing
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97. According to your textbook, __________ words refer to ideas or concepts rather than to tangible objects.
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d. abstract
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98. Which of the following words is the most general and abstract?
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e. food
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99. Which of the following words is the most concrete and specific?
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c. J. K. Rowling
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100. Which of the following words is the most concrete and specific?
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a. Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony
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Using your own knowledge and experience in a speech can help bring the speech to life.
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True
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Most library catalogues allow a researcher to look for books by author, title, subject, or keyword.
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True
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Reference works include such items as encyclopedias, yearbooks, quotation books, and biographical aids.
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True
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The best known collection of quotations is Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations.
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True
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Yearbooks are reference works whose primary purpose is to help you find information about people.
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False
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Newspaper and periodical databases help you locate magazine, journal, and newspaper articles
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True
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As your textbook explains, academic databases are particularly useful for finding articles in scholarly journals.
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True
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InfoTrac Onefile is an example of an academic database.
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False
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According to your textbook, in the absence of a full magazine or journal article, you should cite the abstract of the article instead
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False
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As your textbook explains, when you locate an abstract of a magazine article, you should feel free to cite the article in your speech on the basis of the abstract alone.
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False
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Newspaper and periodical databases are good places to find articles in scholarly journals.
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False
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Experts advise that you use Internet research to supplement, not to replace, library research.
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True
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You can find a great deal of information on the Internet, but you cannot always find the same depth of research materials as in a good library.
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True
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You can find a great deal of information on the Internet, but you cannot always find the same depth of research materials as in a good library.
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False
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A virtual library is a search engine that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.
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True
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One advantage of using virtual libraries for speech research is that they contain only material that has been screened for quality and reliability.
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True
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The selection and use of supporting materials for a speech involves critical thinking skills.
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True
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The two basic types of supporting materials discussed in your textbook are facts and opinions.
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False
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The three basic types of supporting materials discussed in your textbook are examples, statistics, and testimony.
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True
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Research has shown that examples have little effect on listeners’ beliefs and actions.
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False
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Although examples work very well to clarify ideas in an informative speech, they are less effective in a persuasive speech.
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False
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Examples are particularly effective as supporting materials because they help get the audience involved in a speech.
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True
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Brief examples can be used either one at a time to illustrate a point or piled one upon another to create an impression.
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True
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Because they tell a story vividly and dramatically, extended examples are a good way to pull listeners into a speech.
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True
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A hypothetical example describes an imaginary or fictitious situation.
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True
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Hypothetical examples can be especially powerful as supporting materials when they create scenarios that involve the audience.
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True
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Whenever you use a hypothetical example in a speech, it is usually a good idea to follow it with statistics or testimony to show that the example is realistic.
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True
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Because of their high credibility, you should use only factual examples in your speeches.
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False
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As a speaker, you should usually avoid examples when explaining complex or unfamiliar ideas.
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False
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One of the main reasons to use examples in a speech is that they put abstract ideas into concrete terms that listeners can easily understand.
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True
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Examples are an excellent way to personalize a speech because they put abstract facts and figures into vivid, human terms.
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True
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As your textbook makes clear, a vivid, richly textured extended example is usually effective regardless of how well it is delivered
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False
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Clear organization is usually less important in speaking than in writing
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False
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Audiences find well-organized speakers to be more credible than poorly organized speakers.
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True
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How well a speech is organized affects how listeners view the speaker’s competence and trustworthiness.
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True
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Research suggests that using a clear, specific method of speech organization can enhance your ability to deliver a speech fluently.
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True
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The introduction of a speech usually should be prepared before the body.
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False
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According to your textbook, it is usually best to prepare the body of the speech before the introduction.
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True
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Once you know the main points of your speech, you should then formulate your specific purpose
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False
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Most speeches should contain from two to five main points.
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True
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According to your textbook, most speeches should contain from five to eight main points.
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False
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If a speech is 45 minutes long, an audience can be expected to keep track of as many as a dozen main points.
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False
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Strategic organization means putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience.
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True
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The most effective order for the main points of a speech depends upon the topic, the specific purpose, and the audience.
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True
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Speeches arranged in chronological order follow a time pattern
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True
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Speeches arranged in chronological order follow a time pattern
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True
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Speeches arranged in spatial order follow a time sequence.
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False
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Spatial organization is used primarily for informative speeches.
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True
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Regardless of what other methods you use to gain attention, you should always relate the topic to your audience in the introduction of a speech.
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True
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It is seldom a good idea to discuss the importance of your topic in the introduction of a speech.
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False
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The first thing you should do in the introduction of a speech is to reveal the topic
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False
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A startling introduction is effective only if it is firmly related to the speech topic.
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True
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A rhetorical question is a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud.
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True
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When you use a rhetorical question to gain attention in a speech introduction, you should state the question, pause a moment, and then give the answer.
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False
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Opening your speech with a lengthy quotation is an excellent way to gain the attention of your audience.
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False
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A story is an effective way to get the interest and attention of the audience, regardless of how well the story is delivered.
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False
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Using visual aids is an acceptable method of gaining attention in the introduction of a speech.
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True
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The best way to gain the audience’s attention and interest in a speech introduction usually depends on the topic, the audience, and the occasion.
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True
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If your topic is clear in the body of the speech, there is no need to state it in the introduction.
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False
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It is usually a good idea to restate your topic at some point in the introduction, even if the listeners already know it.
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True
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Credibility is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
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True
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Establishing credibility is an important function of a speech introduction
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True
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One way to establish your credibility in a speech introduction is to let the audience know the source of your expertise.
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True
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Goodwill is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
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False
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The visual framework of a preparation outline shows the relationships among the speaker’s ideas.
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True
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The preparation outline should be drawn up before a speaker begins research for a speech.
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False
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You should include your specific purpose statement with your preparation outline.
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True
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Including the specific purpose with your preparation outline makes it easier to assess how well you have constructed the speech to accomplish your purpose.
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True
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In a preparation outline, the specific purpose is usually stated before the introduction.
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True
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In a preparation outline, the specific purpose is usually stated as part of the introduction.
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False
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In a preparation outline, the specific purpose and central idea are identified by Roman numerals.
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False
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According to your textbook, the introduction, body, and conclusion should all be labeled in a speech preparation outline.
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True
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When making a preparation outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences to ensure that you develop your ideas fully.
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True
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When making an outline, you should place the main points farthest to the left and less important ideas progressively farther to the right.
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True
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In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by Roman numerals and subpoints by capital letters
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True
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In the most common system of outlining, main points are identified by capital letters.
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False
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Stating main points in a word or two is usually sufficient for a preparation outline.
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False
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A preparation outline should include transitions and internal summaries.
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True
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According to your textbook, transitions and other connectives should be identified with Roman numerals on a speech preparation outline.
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False
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the other parts of the speech preparation outline.
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False
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A preparation outline should include your bibliography
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True
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The words we use to label an event determine to a great extent how we respond to that event.
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True
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If the meaning of a word is clear to you, you can assume that it is also clear to your audience
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False
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The denotative meaning of a word includes all the feelings, associations, and emotions that the word touches off in different people.
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False
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The connotative meaning of a word is more variable, figurative, and subjective than its denotative meaning.
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True
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The connotative meaning of a word includes all the feelings, associations, and emotions that the word touches off in different people
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True
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Connotative meaning is precise, literal, and objective.
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False
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One way to think of a word’s denotative meaning is as its dictionary definition.
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True
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Denotative meaning gives words their emotional power.
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False
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The more abstract a word, the more ambiguous it will be.
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True
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A public speaker needs to use big words to impress the audience.
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False
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It is often possible to use words accurately without using them clearly
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False
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You can usually assume that if the words you use are clear to you, they are also clear to your audience.
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False
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A speaker should avoid using familiar words because they make a speech sound trite.
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False
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As your textbook explains, if you want to sound eloquent, you should use words that are unfamiliar to the audience.
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False
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In dealing with technical topics, a speaker has little choice but to use technical language.
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False
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Abstract words are usually clearer to listeners than are concrete words.
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False
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A speech dominated by abstract words will almost always be clearer than one dominated by concrete words.
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False
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Abstract words are easier to misinterpret than are concrete words.
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True
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Concrete words add to the imagery of language use by creating sensory impressions.
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True
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1. A(n) _______________ is a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author
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abstract
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2. A _______________ is a search engine that combines Internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.
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virtual library
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3. The _______________ is the group that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the Internet.
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sponsoring organization
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4. When doing research, you should prepare a _______________ that includes all the books or articles you find that look as if they might be useful in your speech
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preliminary bibliography
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5. When doing research, you should prepare a _______________ that includes all the books or articles you find that look as if they might be useful in your speech
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preliminary bibliography
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6. According to your textbook, the three basic kinds of supporting materials are _______________ , _______________ , and _______________ .
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examples statistics testimony
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7. According to your textbook, an imaginary story that makes a general point is called a(n) _______________ example.
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hypothetical
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8. The _______________ , popularly called the average, is determined by adding up all the items in a group and dividing by the number of items.
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mean
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9. The _______________ is the middle figure in a group once the numbers are put in order from highest to lowest.
answer

median
question

10. The number that occurs the most in a group of numbers is the ______________ .
answer

Mode
question

11. If you quoted Charles McCreery, director of the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center, on the new systems in place for early detection of possible tsunamis, you would be using _______________ testimony.
answer

expert
question

12. If you quoted the head of the United States Centers for Disease Control on chronic fatigue syndrome, you would be using _______________ testimony.
answer

expert
question

13. If you quoted Nobel Prize-winning novelist Toni Morrison on recent developments in popular literature, you would be using _______________ testimony.
answer

expert
question

14. If you quoted your brother who plays football in high school about steroid use among high school athletes, you would be using _______________ testimony.
answer

peer
question

15. If you quoted your roommate in a speech about the stress of being a college student, you would be using _______________ testimony.
answer

peer
question

16. If you quoted your younger cousin in a speech about her experience playing youth soccer, you would be using _______________ testimony.
answer

peer
question

17. When you give the gist of someone else’s statement in your own words, rather than quoting that person verbatim, you are _______________ .
answer

Paraphrasing
question

18. A speech narrating a series of historical events will usually be arranged in _______________ order.
answer

chronological
question

19. Speeches arranged in _______________ order follow a directional pattern from top to bottom, east to west, or some other route.
answer

spatial
question

20. Because it is adaptable to such a wide variety of topics and purposes, _______________ order is used more than any other pattern of speech organization.
answer

topical
question

21. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order. I. The rise of the American film industry started with the age of silent movies from 1910 to 1930. II. The American film industry was at its peak during the Golden Age of Hollywood from 1930 to 1950. III. Since 1950 the American film industry has withstood the rise of television and the development of home video systems.
answer

chronological
question

22. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order. I. The innermost layer of the sun’s surface, the photosphere, is 500 kilometers thick. II. The middle layer of the sun’s surface, the chromosphere, is 2,000 kilometers thick. III. The outermost layer of the sun’s surface, the corona, is millions of kilometers thick.
answer

spatial
question

23. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order. I. The major causes of airborne pollution are industrial and automobile contaminants. II. The effects of airborne pollution are felt in cities and villages around the world.
answer

causal
question

24. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order. I. Gambling addiction is an increasingly serious problem throughout the United States. II. The problem of gambling addiction can best be solved by a combination of education and rehabilitation.
answer

problem-solution
question

25. The following main points are arranged in _______________ order. I. The cause of rabies in humans is the bite or scratch of an infected animal. II. The symptoms of rabies include drooling, changes in temperament, sudden changes in voice, and abnormal positioning of the limbs. III. The treatment for possible exposure to rabies is a prompt series of injections.
answer

topical
question

26. _______________ are words or phrases that join one thought to another and indicate the relationship between them.
answer

Connectives
question

27. Technically, _______________ state both the idea the speaker is leaving and the one she or he is coming to.
answer

transitions
question

28. A(n) _______________ works just like the preview statement in the introduction, except that it comes in the body of the speech.
answer

internal preview
question

29. “The final point I’d like to present . . . ” is an example of a(n) _______________ .
answer

Signpost
question

30. When you use a _______________ question in the introduction of a speech, you expect the audience to answer mentally rather than out loud.
answer

rhetorical
question

31. According to your textbook, no matter what other methods of gaining attention you use in a speech introduction, you should always _______________ .
answer

relate the topic to the audience
question

32. Establishing _______________ in a speech introduction is a matter of getting your audience to perceive you as qualified to speak on the topic.
answer

credibility
question

33. The _______________ provides a lead-in from the introduction to the body of the speech.
answer

preview statement
question

34. A statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body is called a _______________ statement.
answer

preview
question

35. The two major functions of a speech conclusion are to _______________ and to _______________ .
answer

signal the end of the speech reinforce the central idea
question

36. One way to let an audience know that you are coming to the end of a speech is by saying something like “In conclusion.” Another way is by your manner of ______________ .
answer

delivery
question

37. When you use a(n) _______________ ending, the speech builds in force until it reaches a zenith of power and intensity in the conclusion.
answer

Crescendo
question

38. A detailed outline for the planning stage of a speech is called a _______________ outline.
answer

preparation
question

39. When making a _______________ outline, you should state your main points and subpoints in full sentences to ensure that you develop your ideas fully.
answer

preparation
question

40. A bibliography is often included as part of the _______________ outline.
answer

preparation
question

41. A _______________ outline should include cues for delivering the speech.
answer

speaking
question

41. A _______________ outline should include cues for delivering the speech.
answer

speaking
question

43. In a speech outline, main points are identified by _______________ , while subpoints are identified by _______________ .
answer

Roman numerals; capital letters
question

44. The _______________ meaning of a word is its literal or dictionary meaning.
answer

denotative
question

45. The _______________ meaning of a word includes all of the associations and feelings the word touches off in different people, while the _______________ meaning of a word is best thought of as its dictionary definition.
answer

connotative; denotative
question

46. As your textbook explains, language should be appropriate to the topic, the audience, the occasion, and the _______________ .
answer

speaker
question

47. Using _______________ words is the key to creating effective verbal imagery.
answer

concrete
question

48. A(n) _______________ is a figurative comparison that always contains the word “like” or “as.”
answer

simile
question

49. The similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words is a language device called _______________ .
answer

parallelism
question

50. When you repeat the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words, you are using the language device known as _______________ .
answer

alliteration

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