Public Speaking Semester Final

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Audio or video clips used during a speech should utilize at least 10 percent of your speaking time.
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False
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It is important that everyone in the audience can see your visual aid.
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True
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Visual aids do not help the audience to remember the information.
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False
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According to the textbook, using yourself as a visual aid is not an option.
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False
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Using presentational aids in a speech helps the audience retain information because they are able to both hear and see the information.
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True
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If the object you want to use as a visual aid is too large, which visual aid type should you use instead?
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Model
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You should avoid passing objects around the audience because _____.
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the audience is likely to stop listening to you; they will be preoccupied
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When choosing an effective presentational aid, you should do which of the following? 1) make interesting information that the audience may find boring 2) aim for about one good aid per minute of speaking time 3)help the audience remember the main point 4) all of these options
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4) all of these options
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Using bright colors such as red ___________.
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helps to heighten information
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When using a visual aid, the speaker should always focus his or her attention on the _____.
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audience
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Ideally, a pie chart should have two to five “slices” or wedges. If your chart has more than eight wedges, you should _____. 1) consolidate several of the less important wedges into the category “other” 2) break it up into more than one pie chart 3) make the pie chart bigger 4) make each wedge color very distinctive
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1) consolidate several of the less important wedges into the category “other”
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All of the following reasons make inanimate objects good visual aids except _____.
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They are easy to find
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Showing your class your high school basketball trophy and explaining how it represents your past is using which kind of visual aid?
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actual object
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Which of the following emotions should be combined with relief to motivate audience members to be involved with your arguments?
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fear
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When the support statements you use are events or instances of the claim you are making, you are arguing from
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example
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You can convey competence and credibility by _____________.
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using nonverbal elements of delivery, establishing common ground, and using evidence from respected sources.
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The use of strategies employed throughout the speech that signal a speaker’s expertise can help the speaker achieve ___________ credibility.
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derived
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A claim is ____.
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a proposition or conclusion to be proven.
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The general warrant for reasoning from sign can be stated that _______.
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when phenomena that usually accompany a specific instance occur, then we can expect that specific situation to occur
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A speaker should use the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to develop persuasive speeches because it can be used ____________.
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to understand how people process persuasive messages
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The Elaboration Likelihood Model suggests that people process information using the _____ when the issue is more important to them.
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central route
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The means of persuasion in which you construct logical arguments that support your point of view is called _________.
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logos
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Aristotle suggested that one way to persuade an audience is through _____, or emotional appeals.
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Pathos
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Arguing from example includes citing events that have occurred that result in the claim.
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false
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Ad hominem arguments attack or praise the person making the argument rather than addressing the argument itself.
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true
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The fallacy of reasoning that occurs when a speaker weakens the opposing position by misrepresenting it and then attacks that weaker position is the false cause fallacy.
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False
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Audiences do not assess your physical appearance in developing its initial judgment about your credibility.
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False
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Good examples and anecdotes transcend cultural boundaries.
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True
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The most most up-to-date information will come from print resources, particularly articles in periodicals.
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False
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Failure to cite sources is unethical.
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True
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One means of conducting research for a speech is to view an artifact at a local museum that is relevant to your speech.
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Oral Footnotes
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For a speech on participation of college age students in elections for President, a speaker is in need of information such as voting age population, resident population voting age, percent reporting registered, and percent reporting voted. What is the best source for obtaining this information?
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Statistical Sources
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Asking an interviewee “Any attempt to improve community recycling efforts is a waste of time, isn’t it?” is an example of a(n) _________ question.
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Leading
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During Mia’s interview of the mayor on his thoughts about the upcoming city council election, she used ____________________ such as “and then?” and “what else?” to probe for more answers.
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Secondary Questions
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The key to using both stories and quotations in a speech is to make sure __________.
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They directly reinforce the point of the speech.
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Telling a joke during your introduction has no risk associated with it.
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False
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The two standard methods for organizing a source list are alphabetically and chronologically.
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False
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The audience’s physical presence guarantees that its members will listen to the speech.
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False
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All personal references told during the introduction should be actual, not hypothetical.
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False
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A speech’s introductory remarks need to establish ethos to be successful.
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True
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An introduction is generally about _______ percent of the length of the entire speech.
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10
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Speakers ask rhetorical questions in order to ______________.
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Produce a mental response in audience members
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To complete the formal outline of your speech, which of the following is NOT necessary?
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Create a Title
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A good title will do all of the following EXCEPT _______________. 1) attract the audience 2) build interest 3) preview the content 4) introduce the main points
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4) Introduce the main points
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Travis decided to use a shocking statistic during his introduction in order to grab his listeners’ attention. He was using the __________ technique for getting his audience’s attention.
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Startling Statement
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Identify the type of argument used in the following example. Seth received an XBox 360 video game system for his birthday in February. Before he received the system, he was receiving a B+ in Public Speaking; however, as the semester proceeded, his grade proceeded to drop. During that same time, he also began and continued to enjoy his birthday present. His parents argue that the D+ he received in Public Speaking at the end of the semester was brought about by his XBox.
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Cause
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Identify the type of argumentation being used in the following example. Each year, industry pumps millions of carbon dioxide particles into the atmosphere. Polar ice cores as well as a rise in recent annual temperatures indicate that higher carbon dioxide emissions are associated with global warming. The United States government must reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
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Sign
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Identify the type of argument used in the following example. Televisions first began to be commonly owned by most American families in the 1950s. Since the early 1950s, violent crime, suicide, and teenage pregnancy have all markedly increased. Television has caused the increase in these social problems.
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cause
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Identify the type of argument used in the following example. Rock and roll is a music form that glorifies evil and violent, deviant behavior by young people. The most recent Slayer and Megadeth albums include devil worshiping, women degrading, and sexually explicit, violent lyrics.
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example
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Identify which type of argument is used in the following example. The American Sociological Review of 1959 reported “One of all woman’s most natural attributes is the care of children. Since the ill and infirm resemble children in being physically weak and helpless as well as psychologically dependent and repressed, women are especially qualified to care for the sick.
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analogy
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Identify the type of argumentation being used in the following example: When purchasing a vehicle, people want to get the best buy for their money. Because the Ford Mustang is a highly economical car, as evidenced by low depreciation value and high gas mileage, this is a good car to purchase for almost anyone.
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sign
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A proposition of policy is a statement designed to convince your audience that they should take a specific course of action.
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True
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If a neutral audience is uninformed about your topic, you need to provide basic information before you try to persuade them.
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True
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The problem-solution organizational pattern usually has three main points.
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True
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A criteria satisfaction framework helps to organize main points by challenging opposing arguments.
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False
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A proposition of fact is a statement designed to convince your audience that something is good, bad, desirable, undesirable, sound, beneficial, important, or unimportant.
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False
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Which of the following is a statement designed to convince your audience that something did or did not exist or occur, is or is not true, or will or will not occur?
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Proposition of fact
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A proposition of policy is framed primarily using the words _________________.
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should/should not
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The statement “I want to convince the audience that a manned flight to Mars is possible” is an example of a ____.
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proposition of fact
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If your target audience is neutral because they do not know enough about the topic to have formed an opinion, they are ____.
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uninformed
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If your speech goal is to convince the audience that they should register to vote, your position will be indicated by a _______________.
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proposition of policy
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When facing an audience that is opposed to your perspective, you should seek ____, or movement of small degrees in your direction.
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incremental change
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The organizational framework that shows that one of two or more alternatives is best is the ____ framework.
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comparative advantages
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The organizational framework that combines problem-solution with explicit appeals to motivate the audience is called ____ framework.
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motivated sequence
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The ____ persuasive organizational pattern is particularly useful when the audience may be unaware of a problem or how they personally can work toward a solution.
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problem-solution pattern
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As you begin to develop your speech goal, you will want to understand the audience’s ____ toward your topic.
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attitude
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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self-actualization self-esteem love/belonging safety physiological
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Monroe Motivated Steps
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attention need satisfaction visualization action
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target audience
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The group of people you most want to persuade.
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Incremental change
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Attempting to move your audience only a small degree in your direction
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in favor-in support
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reinforce and strengthen beliefs
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no opinion-neutral
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provide basic points with substance, convincing
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opposed
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incremental change
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uninformed
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not knowledgeable
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impartial
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doesn’t understand why your stance is superior
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apathetic
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indifferent
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Begging the question
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an argument’s premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.
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Appeal to Authority
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You said that because an authority thinks something, it must therefore be true.
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Burden of proof
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You said that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.
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Personal Incredulity
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Because you found something difficult to understand, or are unaware of how it works, you made out like it’s probably not true.
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Ad hominem
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You attacked your opponent’s character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument.
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slippery slope
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You said that if we allow A to happen, then Z will eventually happen too, therefore A should not happen.
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false cause
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You presumed that a real or perceived relationship between things means that one is the cause of the other.
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strawman
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You misrepresented someone’s argument to make it easier to attack.
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Either Or
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You presented two alternative states as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist.
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Hasty Generalization
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reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence

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